I can’t stop thinking about how Tim was the only hero among his closest friends in the Teen Titans who wore a cape. So sometimes the core four would be super impressed with how Tim was able to keep up with them without superpowers, but then sometimes Cassie is calling Kon and Bart to wait up because Tim got his cape caught again or the villain literally just pulled Tim back by his cape.
As an artist, I think we should challenge ourselves and put ourselves in uncomfortable situations as often as possible. Well, this is my uncomfortable situation. I drew everything I h8 in a style I don’t normally use.
I’m primarily a lineless artist, but I wanted to do something way different. I hope you all appreciate this little doodle, and I’ll have a speeddraw posted soon to show my process.
30 Day Art Challenge: Day 2–> Your favorite outfit –> favorite style
I really love the mori girl style a lot and i sorta headcanon Yumikuri fitting the style really well?? Ymir is old as f and probably has traveled all across the lands and Historia was raised on a farm so i feel like it works?? I imagine that they would take hiking and/or camping trips together where they would just spend hours in the outdoors showing each other stuff (´ ▽｀).。ｏ♡
Experiments Show Titan Lakes May Fizz with Nitrogen
A recent NASA-funded study has shown how the hydrocarbon lakes and seas of Saturn’s moon Titan might occasionally erupt with dramatic patches of bubbles.
For the study, researchers at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, simulated the frigid surface conditions on Titan, finding that significant amounts of nitrogen can be dissolved in the extremely cold liquid methane that rains from the skies and collects in rivers, lakes and seas. They demonstrated that slight changes in temperature, air pressure or composition can cause the nitrogen to rapidly separate out of solution, like the fizz that results when opening a bottle of carbonated soda.
NASA’s Cassini spacecraft has found that the composition of Titan’s lakes and seas varies from place to place, with some reservoirs being richer in ethane than methane. “Our experiments showed that when methane-rich liquids mix with ethane-rich ones – for example from a heavy rain, or when runoff from a methane river mixes into an ethane-rich lake – the nitrogen is less able to stay in solution,” said Michael Malaska of JPL, who led the study.
The result is bubbles. Lots of bubbles.
The release of nitrogen, known as exsolution, can also occur when methane seas warm slightly during the changing seasons on Titan. A fizzy liquid could also cause problems, potentially, for a future robotic probe sent to float on or swim through Titan’s seas. Excess heat emanating from a probe might cause bubbles to form around its structures – for example, propellers used for propulsion – making it difficult to steer or keep the probe stable.
Magic Island Mechanism?
The notion of nitrogen bubbles creating fizzy patches on Titan’s lakes and seas is relevant to one of the more enchanting unsolved mysteries Cassini has investigated during its time exploring Titan: the so-called “magic islands.” During several flybys, Cassini’s radar has revealed small areas on the seas that appeared and disappeared, and then (in at least one case) reappeared. Researchers proposed several potential explanations for what could be creating these seemingly island-like features, including the idea of fields of bubbles. The new study provides details about the mechanism that could be forming such bubbles, if they are indeed the culprit.
“Thanks to this work on nitrogen’s solubility, we’re now confident that bubbles could indeed form in the seas, and in fact may be more abundant than we’d expected,” said Jason Hofgartner of JPL, who serves as a co-investigator on Cassini’s radar team and was a co-author of the study.
Freezing Fizz and Breathing Lakes
In characterizing how nitrogen moves between Titan’s liquid reservoirs and its atmosphere, the researchers also coaxed nitrogen out of a simulated ethane-rich solution as the ethane froze to the bottom of their tiny, simulated Titan lake. Unlike water, which is less dense in its solid form than its liquid form, ethane ice would form on the bottom of Titan’s frigid pools. As the ethane crystalizes into ice, there’s no room for the dissolved nitrogen gas, and it comes fizzing out.
While the thought of hydrocarbon lakes bubbling with nitrogen on an alien moon is dramatic, Malaska points out that the movement of nitrogen on Titan doesn’t just move in one direction. Clearly, it has to get into the methane and ethane before it can get out.
“In effect, it’s as though the lakes of Titan breathe nitrogen,” Malaska said. “As they cool, they can absorb more of the gas, ‘inhaling.’ And as they warm, the liquid’s capacity is reduced, so they 'exhale.’”
A similar phenomenon occurs on Earth with carbon dioxide absorption by our planet’s oceans.
Results of the study were published online in February by the journal Icarus.
Final Titan Flyby Nears
Cassini will make its final close flyby of Titan – its 127th targeted encounter – on April 22. During the flyby, Cassini will sweep its radar beam over Titan’s northern seas one final time. The radar team designed the upcoming observation so that, if magic island features are present this time, their brightness may be useful for distinguishing between bubbles, waves and floating or suspended solids.
The flyby also will bend the spacecraft’s course to begin its final series of 22 plunges through the gap between Saturn and its innermost rings, known as Cassini’s Grand Finale. The 20-year mission will conclude with a dive into Saturn’s atmosphere on Sept. 15.
The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, ESA (European Space Agency) and the Italian Space Agency. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of Caltech in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington. JPL designed, developed and assembled the Cassini orbiter.
TOP IMAGE…These images from the Radar instrument aboard NASA’s Cassini spacecraft show the evolution of a transient feature in the large hydrocarbon sea named Ligeia Mare on Saturn’s moon Titan.
Analysis by Cassini scientists indicates that the bright features, informally known as the “magic island,” are a phenomenon that changes over time. They conclude that the brightening is due to either waves, solids at or beneath the surface or bubbles, with waves thought to be the most likely explanation. They think tides, sea level and seafloor changes are unlikely to be responsible for the brightening.
The images in the column at left show the same region of Ligeia Mare as seen by Cassini’s radar during flybys in (from top to bottom) 2007, 2013, 2014 and 2015.
The bottom image was acquired by Cassini on Jan. 11, 2015, and adds another snapshot in time as Cassini continues to monitor the ephemeral feature (previously highlighted in PIA18430). The feature is apparent in the images from 2013 and 2014, but it is not present in other images of the region.
Cassini has observed similar transient features elsewhere in Ligeia Mare, and also in Kraken Mare (see PIA19047). These features are the first instances of active processes in Titan’s lakes and seas to be confirmed by multiple detections. Their changing nature demonstrates that Titan’s seas are not stagnant, but rather, dynamic environments.
The Cassini radar team plans to re-observe this particular region of Ligeia Mare one more time during Cassini’s final close flyby of Titan in April 2017. The results may further illuminate the phenomenon responsible for the appearance of the transient features.
The large image panel shows Ligeia Mare in its entirety. Ligeia is Titan’s second-largest liquid hydrocarbon sea, and has a total area of about 50,000 square miles (130,000 square kilometers), making it 50 percent larger than Lake Superior on Earth. This panel is a mosaic of five synthetic aperture radar images acquired by Cassini between 2007 and 2014. It shows a region approximately 330 by 305 miles (530 by 490 kilometers) in area.
An earlier version of the mosaic was released as PIA17031; the new version includes new data to fill in some gaps in coverage and to improve the quality of coverage in some of the previously imaged areas.
The images have been colorized and processed for aesthetic appeal. Labeled and monochrome versions of this image are also available.
The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena,
manages the mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington, DC.
The Cassini orbiter was designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The radar instrument was built by JPL and the Italian Space Agency, working with team members from the United States and several European countries.
LOWER IMAGE…As it sped away from a relatively distant encounter with Titan on Feb. 17, 2017, NASA’s Cassini spacecraft captured this mosaic view of the moon’s northern lakes and seas.
Cassini’s viewing angle over Kraken Mare and Ligeia Mare was better during this flyby than previous encounters, providing increased contrast for viewing these seas. Because the spacecraft is peering through less of Titan’s haze toward Kraken and Ligeia, more details on their shorelines are visible, compared to earlier maps (see PIA19657).
This was one of several “non-targeted” Cassini Titan flybys in 2017 that allow the mission to image the moon’s north polar region and track clouds there. (“Non-targeted” means Cassini did not have to use any rocket-thruster firings to steer itself toward the flyby.)
Several prominent cloud streaks are visible at mid-latitudes between 45 and 55 degrees north latitude, on the right side of the image. Smaller bright clouds are seen just above the sea called Punga Mare (roughly at center). Scientists are seeing increasing cloud activity in Titan’s north polar region as the seasons continue to change from spring to summer there, though not as much as predicted by models of Titan’s atmosphere.
The images in this mosaic were taken with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera using a spectral filter sensitive to wavelengths of near-infrared light centered at 938 nanometers.
The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 150,700 miles (242,500 kilometers) from Titan. Image scale is about 1.6 miles (2.6 kilometers) per pixel. The view is an orthographic projection centered on 68 degrees north latitude, 225 degrees west longitude. An orthographic view is most like the view seen by a distant observer looking through a telescope.
NOW I WANT TO WRITE THIS TOO! AH. but really for once levi smiling at eren, proud of him, not worried that he’s exerting himself too much… that’s theres too much on his shoulders… just peace… ahh ;__;
i wILL cry i love the moments where levi is so caring and gentle and amazin g to ereri !! when he looks after his health and if he’s doing okay and imagine him constantly saying “you’re doing good, eren. you’ve done great and i’m glad.” to eren after every titan experiment omggggggggggg
As Titan approaches its northern summer solstice, NASA’s Cassini spacecraft has revealed dramatic seasonal changes in the atmospheric temperature and composition of Saturn’s largest moon. Winter is taking a grip on the southern hemisphere and a strong vortex, enriched in trace gases, has developed in the upper atmosphere over the south pole. These observations show a polar reversal in Titan’s atmosphere since Cassini arrived at Saturn in 2004, when similar features were seen in the northern hemisphere.
“Cassini’s long mission and frequent visits to Titan have allowed us to observe the pattern of seasonal changes on Titan, in exquisite detail, for the first time,” says Dr. Athena Coustenis of the Observatoire de Paris, who is presenting results at the joint 48th meeting of the American Astronomical Society’s Division for Planetary Sciences and 11th European Planetary Science Congress. “We arrived at the northern mid-winter and have now had the opportunity to monitor Titan’s atmospheric response through two full seasons. Since the equinox, where both hemispheres received equal heating from the Sun, we have seen rapid changes.”
Heat is circulated through Titan’s atmosphere via a pole-to-pole cycle of warm gases upwelling at the summer pole and cold gases subsiding at the winter pole. Cassini’s observations have shown a large-scale reversal of this system immediately after the equinox in 2009.
Titan’s hemispheres have responded in different ways to these seasonal changes. The wintery effects have led to a temperature drop of 40 degrees Celsius in the southern polar stratosphere over the last four years. This contrasts with a much more gradual warming in the northern hemisphere, where temperatures remained stable during the early spring and have shown a 6-degree increase only since 2014.
Within months following the equinox, the vortex in the stratosphere over the south pole had become prominent, as had an atmospheric ‘hot spot’ at high altitudes. The corresponding features in the northern hemisphere had almost disappeared by 2011.
Inside the polar vortex over the increasingly shadowed south pole, there has been a rapid build-up of trace gases that accumulate in the absence of ultraviolet sunlight. These include complex hydrocarbons and nitriles such as methylacetylene and benzene, previously seen only at high northern latitudes.
Coustenis says, “We’ve had the chance to witness the onset of winter from the beginning and are approaching the peak time for these gas-production processes in the southern hemisphere. We are now looking for new molecules in the atmosphere above Titan’s south polar region that have been predicted by our computer models. Making these detections will help us understand the photochemistry going on.”
In the northern hemisphere, the trace gases have persisted well into summer. These are predicted to undergo a slow photochemical destruction, with species disappearing at different rates depending on their chemical lifetimes. However, since early 2016, a zone of depleted molecular gas and aerosols has developed across the entire northern hemisphere between an altitude of 400 and 500 kilometres, suggesting a complex dynamical effect starting at high altitudes in the atmosphere.
“As we count down to the end of the Cassini mission in September 2017, a consistent picture of Titan’s middle and upper atmospheres is emerging,” says Coustenis. “The 13-year total mission duration will in the end provide us with coverage of almost half a Titan year and provide an even deeper understanding of Titan’s seasonal variability.”