the sodomites

Literally just all the sexual things Alexander Hamilton sent to John Laurens


“I love you.”

This one is pretty self explanatory. Men were much more intimate back in the 1700′s, forming bonds that seem very ~gay~ in today’s light. Homosexuality wasn’t a very understood thing back then because rigid moral codes and censured education prevented people from learning more about sexuality.

 But Alexander Hamilton knew.

 He grew up on an island where ‘Sodomites’ (gay people) were dumped and  allowed to mingle with the island population. Alex knew that there was a certain zone of interactions between men that went from being merely friendly to sexual. He clearly steps into the bounds of sexual while fully realizing it.

“In drawing my picture, you will no doubt be civil to your friend; mind you do justice to the length of my nose and don’t forget, that I [- - - - - -].”

Ahhhhhhhhh my son Alex, could you be more explicit? Alex here is obviously referring to his something else (you know) with the knowledge that John Lauren’s knows the size. This sentence right here is basically just one long ;).

 “Your friend” seems to be written teasingly, as if they both know how far from friends they are.

And we can only guess how dirty Alex got in those last six  CUT OUT words.

“Dear Boy” [sent by John Laurens]

John laurens calls his wife his ‘dear girl’, and here he calls Alex his ‘dear boy’.  Moreover, Laurens did not call any other man he ever wrote to as his ‘dear boy’. Laurens seems to see Alex as on the same level, if not higher, as his own wife.

“Did I mean to show my wit? If I did, I am sure I have missed my aim. Did I only intend to [frisk]? In this I have succeeded, but I have done more. I have gratified my feelings, by lengthening out the only kind of intercourse now in my power with my friend.”

This phrase right here I unfortunately do not see a lot when people talk about Alex and John’s letters. This, to me, is one of the most explicit. “Wit” also mean one’s you know what (here I give a nod to the Ravenclaw moto), so Hamilton’s saying he was pretty much just messing around with John the last letter he sent. This is the only sort of “intercourse” he is able to have with John, as they are both so far apart. He is incapable of ‘sexual’ intercourse because of their distance, so he feels he must, in the 18th century way, sext.

“I would invite you after the fall to Albany to be witness to the final consummation.”

As you might have already guessed, Alex is inviting John to a threesome on his wedding night. The idea that Alex feels so at ease inviting John to a threesome with his wife suggests they have already had something going for a long time now. 

“But like a jealous lover, when I thought you slighted my caresses, my affection was alarmed and my vanity piqued. I had almost resolved to lavish no more of them upon you and to reject you as an inconstant and an ungrateful –”

Here Alex compares himself to John’s lover, and a jealous one at that. John seems to be shying away from Alex’s bawdiness, as if realizing how strange their relationships is in retrospect. Alex is scrambling to hang on to him, even though he knows well what are and what happens to Sodomites. He would do anything for John while knowing the consequences. And John is too afraid to join him. And who the hell knows what the last word was.

“And believe me, I am lover in earnest,”

*cough cough* looks like John knows exactly what happens when Alex’s feeling frisky.

“She [Eliza] loves you a l'americaine not a la francoise.”

The French were renowned for their relaxed stance on extramarital love affairs, while Americans were more Puritan-minding and thought love affairs only should happen in church-sanctioned marriages. Thus Eliza has an a l’americaine love of John Laurens, rather than an a la francoise.

“You will be pleased to recollect in your negotiations that I have no invincible antipathy to the maidenly beauties & that I am willing to take the trouble of them upon myself.”

*cough* this sentence is a bit confusing, and could be taken a few ways. What I infer from this is that Alexander Hamilton is willing, and John knows this, to assume an air of femininity because he finds no fault with it. It was commonly noted by people who wrote of Hamilton that he was very feminine in comparison with other men of his day. Alex’s femininity seems to please John, the topic even having been discussed between the two in ‘negotiations’.

“My ravings are for your own bosom” Alex desperately misses Laurens’ intimate contact in a way that, in my opinion, could never be mistaken as simply friendship. Alex literally wants to be held by John. How fucking heartbreaking is that.

“Yrs for ever”

Ok, this one isn’t sexual, but I had to add it because it is so heartbreaking. This was Alex’s last farewell note to John. That is, if he even received it. He died shortly after Alex sent the letter; whether he read the farewell or not is all lost to history. Alex loved John so much, despite the fact that both already had a wife. He would have always loved him, even if they had grown apart…

That’s it folks: time for me to cry.

the historicity of queerness in black sails, pt. 1

Hello, Tumblr! Let’s talk about pirates, queer stuff, and historical accuracy

There’s been renewed talk in certain spaces this week about queer narratives in historical drama. This has been spurred almost entirely by the series finale of Black Sails, which made the (distressingly) controversial decision to end its four-year run by giving its queer protagonists a largely happy ending.

If any show currently airing was going to take such a leap, it was always going to be Black Sails, which from the outset possessed a keen interest in exploring queer narratives. This was seen–correctly–as being something almost unheard of among historical dramas: a genre whose queer characters, if any, are relegated to the status of minor character or tragic subplot. But why is this, and why did Black Sails provoke some ire for heading in the opposite direction? There is an easy answer; an assumption lurking in the undertow of many an irate Facebook or Reddit comment: queer people in the 18th century didn’t get happy endings, did they?

This is part of a bigger question: There were no gay people then, right? In other words, characters can’t be openly gay in the show, because they killed men for that, didn’t they, and isn’t this supposed to be a ‘historical’ drama? So: how accurate is the queerness in Black Sails? Let’s take a look at some history.

Trigger warning for discussions of period-typical homophobia and a brief mention of rape. 

Keep reading

anonymous asked:

Hello love! So, I have two gay characters in the mid 1800s living in the English countryside. How realistic would it be for them to live a life together? I'm imagining a farm in the middle of nowhere, only a few friends, keeping to themselves...

Hi there, Nonny! While it’s sweet of you to begin your ask with “love”, maybe at least buy me coffee first! Joking aside, as nice as it is with terms of endearment I do aim to keep a certain level of professionalism. You wouldn’t begin an email to your professor with “love”, I hope? Anyway, let’s not dwell on this, onto you excellent question!

In short, it could be very realistic for your characters to do this. It’s complicated, however, and I shall try to explain.

The time period you’ve chosen for your story is an interesting period in time when it comes to same gender relationships. In the early 1700s, it became more common for men to live alone or share apartments while finding work in the growing cities. These expanding cities offered anonymity and the possibility for men to live as bachelors either alone or together with another man rather than acquiring a farm or business and marrying a woman. In the mid 1700s, a subculture of men who had sexual relations with other men began to form in northern Europe. Unfortunately, the more visible these men became, the more they were prosecuted. [1]

Does this mean your characters would live together in the city, more realistically? Possibly, yes, but fear not! We’re not done yet!

The early 1800s still saw a lot of prosecutions towards the so called “sodomites”, but this was a much less public affair and the law enforcement tried to handle it as quietly and discreetly as possible. It was also difficult to actually prove sodomy. [2] Someone would have to be caught in the act, so to speak.

Unlike earlier in European history, however, it had become an identity rather than an act. In England men who had sex with other men were referred to as “womanhaters” (and someone accused of sodomy would defend themselves saying they loved their wife or fiance very much). [3] This means that your characters would likely be careful of what kind of relationship they have. It would make sense for them to actually have a relationship, though, since homosexuality had become more of a identity. The Victorian Era also saw a rise in marrying for love and it also was not at all uncommon, especially for middle or upper class, to have very emotionally intense relationships with close same gender friends. A lot of passionate letters were written during this time.

So, your character could be very close and it wouldn’t really be questioned.

Homosexual men also built communities at this time. Though the lines between gender expression and expressing sexual preference are difficult to draw, it seems it was not uncommon for men who had sex with men to wear dresses or otherwise display what was seen as “effeminate behaviour”.

By the mid nineteenth century, Manchester men had formed a network that regularly put on fancy dress balls. [4]

This means that there was a subculture for homosexual men and it wouldn’t be unlikely for your characters to be part of such a community and meet.

Onto the mid nineteenth century and late nineteenth century! By this time there were two sides to the discourse on sex. One on side there were the social purity advocates who argued for restraint, even within marriage. On the other side were those who believed in Darwinism and that humans were a kind of animal and thus sexual urges were natural though they should still be controlled. [5] You question, though, Nonny, was about homosexual men and this part of the discourse on sex was much more bleak. As the 1800s continued, punishments became more and more severe for homosexual men. At the same time, however, these men spoke out more and more boldly about their desires as natural and healthy. [6] Therefore, your characters live in a time where on one hand they risked prosecution for sodomy but on the other hand they wouldn’t necessarily hide their homosexuality behind a marriage to a woman. Unless the story takes place later than 1885 when homosexuality rather than the act of sodomy became punishable.

Finally, let’s remember philosopher, poet and homosexual rights activist Edward Carpenter who “celebrated ‘homogenic’ love as part of his wider socialist vision; he retreated to the countryside with his working-class male lover, wore sandals, and ate vegetarian food.”[7] Your characters, then, may very well live together in the countryside! Keep in mind, though, that while they may have friends, they might be ostracised by the nearest village or town especially by working-class men who showed a lot of hatred towards homosexual men.[8] So give your characters a nice place to live and a few like-minded friends and then decide if they get a happy ever after or if they wind up prosecuted.

And there we are; at the end of this little journey! 

To summarise:

  • “Sodomy” was punishable by law throughout the 1800s.
  • In the early 1800s, unmarried men living together became more and more common but this was mostly true for larger cities and not small towns or the countryside.
  • By the mid and late 1800s more and more people began to speak up about the right to live a homosexual life. Sodomy was still illegal, though. 
  • In the later 1800s, it wasn’t impossible for two men to live together, be it in a city, town or out on the countryside. They still risked prosecution and were likely to be ostracised by society. 
  • 1837–1901 was he Victorian era and the view on sex and sexuality was most ambivalent. Purity was advocated but not by all as the other side of the argument was for a more liberated view on sex. Close and very romantic like friendships were nothing unusual for middle and especially upper class but sexual encounters were strictly regulated both by norm and law.

Some important details on sodomy, homosexuality and British Law:

Sorry I took so long to get back to you. I hope this was helpful! Good luck with your writing!

Signed, Captain.


[1] Anna Clark, Desire: A History of European Sexuality. (New York: Routledge, 2008) ,134 & 136. 

[2] ibid.136.

[3] ibid.

[4] 137.

[5] 149-150.

[6] 152.

[7] 153.

[8] 138-139.

My English teacher just spent 25 minutes explaining that Achilles and Patroclus aren’t gay and that the sodomites in Dante’s Inferno aren’t gay either. It was literally the most complicated and pretentious ‘no homo’ I’ve ever heard from a grown ass man. Did he read the Iliad with his eyes closed??? He literally said that the men in hell for being gay aren’t actually gay. I just….

Ellstra’s Kylux fic rec Vol. 2

I decided to make another fic rec in the moments when I’m too drained of energy to do anything that requires brain activity. I couldn’t tag some people (again, tumblr is fucked) which breaks my heart. The fics are in no particular order, only organised in groups from filth to innocent T rated fics (which I honestly didn’t expect to see. Bless you guys.) Enjoy!

Rated E

Grease Lightning by @slutstiels 4k, Modern Au “I’ll fix it for free–” Hux gasps, hardly able to believe his ears. The man holds up a finger to Hux’s lips and Hux frowns, flinching back instinctively. The offending finger is pulled away and Hux reflexively licks his lips, tasting salt and copper; the man’s eyes flow the movement of his tongue before those eyes focus on his own again. “–if you let me fuck you.” “Excuse me?” Kylo is a car mechanic and Hux is a very rich man with a very expensive car that needs to be fixed immediately. Yes, this sounds like a porn intro, and it is. And a great one.

Into the Garbage Chute by @longstoryshortikilledhim 15.5k, Techienician, Modern AU Techie and Matt are Star Wars fans who meet at a convention. This is such a sweet fic, you’ll love yourself for reading it. Techie and Matt are huge adorable dorky nerds and I love them.

it’s not fashionable to love me by @thesunandoceanblue 10.5k, Modern AU Stop staring at his jeans. He knows they’re too tight on him. That’s the whole point; so people will stare at his—don’t stare at his junk.
Hux is persistently bothered by an odd but attractive man during his shifts. Hux is a horrible person who cheats on his boyfriend, Phasma is the best, Kylo is hot and straight-forward. It’s set in a tea shop which is something I never considered as a setting for a fic but it works really well.

In the Flesh by @srawratskcuf 3k, High school AU Kylo is that one kid in school who gives piercings in the bathroom. Prep!Hux comes in for one on a dare and keeps coming back for more (a good mix of ‘dam these are hot’ and ‘damn hes hot’) Seriously, it’s disgusting and Hux is so pretentious you’ll want to spill blueberry juice on his expensive shirt and it’s the most hilarious thing ever.

Bohemian Rhapsody by @longstoryshortikilledhim 18k, Modern AU Kylo is a street musician in Prague. Hux is touring with the prestigious First Order Orchestra. They collide. Hard. In the unlikely case you haven’t read this fic yet, drop everything you’re doing and do yourself the favour. It’s everything you might want from this AU and more, the style is gorgeous and it’s set in my country so bonus points for the advertisement.  

More below the cut! 

Keep reading

The Fortune of War

So I’m reading The Fortune of War (Aubrey-Maturin #6) for the very first time ever (I know. I’m taking hellishly long with this series), and I regret not having picked it up sooner, because the first chapter is hilarious.

The opening scene with the admiral alone had me in stitches.

Here’s Jack failing (as usual) to get his idioms straight as he reacts to hearing that his men are to be put into a different ship:

“Oh, come sir,” cried Jack. “My lieutenants - and Babbington has followed me since my first command - my midshipmen, and all my bargemen in one fell sloop? Is this justice, sir?”

“What sloop, Aubrey?”

“Why, as to that, sir, I do not mean any specific vessel: it was an allusion to the Bible. But what I mean is, that it is the immemorial custom of the service…”

The “immemorial custom” quickly becomes a running theme:

Jack and the Admiral had known one another off and on for twenty years; they had spent many evenings together, some of them drunken; their collision therefore had none of the cold venom of a purely official encounter. It was none the less eager for that, however, and presently their voices rose until the maidens in the courtyard could clearly make out the words, even the warm personal reflections, direkt on the Admiral’s part, slightly veiled on Jack’s, and again and again they heard the cry “the immemorial custom of the service”.

Culminating in this, almost Austen-like exchange:

“And I know very well that you have always taken good care of your youngsters. The immemorial custom of the service…”

Oh, f– the immemorial custom of the service,” cried the Admiral: and then appalled at his own words, he fell silent for a while.

Eventually the admiral gives in, because:

“You remind me of that old sodomite.”

“Sodomite, sir?” cried Jack.

“Yes. You who ware so fond of quoting the BIble, yuo must know who I mean. The man who wrangled with the Lord about Sodom and Gomorrah. Abraham, that’s the name!”

Speaking of the service… the Captain of La Fleche, a musician, regrets that his piano is out of tune, by casually commenting that

but it is a sad jingling little box, after all. How I wish I could press a piano-tuner.

No one bats an eye at that, because that’s how they do it in the navy. Just kidnap the people you need.


And that’s after the bit where one of Stephen’s wombats is revealed to be eating Jack’s hat:

“Killick, Killick there: what’s amiss?”

“Which it’s your scraper, sir, your number one scraper. The wombat’s got at it.”

“Then take it away from him for God’s sake.”

“I duresn’t, sir, said Killick. “For fear of tearing the lace.”

“Now, sir,” cried the Captain, striding into the great cabin, a tall, imposing figure. “Now, sir” - addressing the wombat, one of the numerous body of marsupials brought into the ship by her surgeon, a natural philosopher - “give it up directly, d’ye hear me, there?”

 The wombat stared him straight in the eye, drew a length of gold lace from its mouth, and then deliberately sucked it in again.

And then, of course, we eventually switch POV to Stephen and are greeted with this line:

“Wallis,” said Maturin, “I am happy to find you here. How is your penis?”

Men. ¯\_(ツ)_/¯ 

Mr Wallis’s delighted smile changed to gravity; a look of sincere self-commiseration came over his face, and he said that it had come along pretty well, but he feared it would never be quite the member it was.


I also can’t believe I forgot how married Stephen and Jack are? Such as when Jack asks Stephen to “be civil” when they meet the Captain of the ship taking them home (and then he’s so proud when Stephen proves himself to be the perfect gentleman).

And then there’s this bit from Jack’s POV:

Dr Maturin came aboard in his usual elegant manner, kicking the port-lids, cursing the kind hands that propelled him up the side, and arriving breathless on deck, as though he had climbed the Monument at a run.


And that’s only the first chapter. And I didn’t even mention “the lesser of two weevils.”

anonymous asked:

Here's the thing: it wasn't Maggie's brown family that threw her out. Maggie's dad is corn-fed Nebraska white, not that that matters because of the one-drop rule and because f*ck her if she's going to own a damn thing about him anyway as far as she's concerned. Maggie's mom and her aunt are sisters and they came to the US on a restricted work visa to work housekeeping at a Motel 6 in Blue Springs, but it's a lousy job with no guaranteed hours (so no guaranteed income) so they pick up some

off-the-books work where they can find it. Maggie’s mother picks up some seasonal work at a corn farm and meets the sweet, dashing son of the farmer and, over time, they fall in unlikely love, so when she gets pregnant, it’s not hard for them to decide to get married. He doesn’t like ‘illegals’–says so all the time, that he hates that he has to hire them to keep his prices competitive–but he handles cognitive dissonance well, so they get married, and she gets her green card through him, and they are actually pretty happy for a long time. Maggie’s aunt keeps working at the Motel 6 but her parents pay her to work the farm, too. But Maggie can tell, looking back, that her mother always felt vulnerable in that relationship, even after she had her green card and then her citizenship, because her husband’s love for her was his exception and not his rule, and she had broken the law for several years. When Maggie’s dad got that phone call from Eliza’s dad, he lost every ounce of his Nebraska cool and began hurling things: slurs at Maggie and at her mother, a backhand across Maggie’s jaw, an announcement that Maggie had fifteen minutes to pack what she could carry and get her sodomite self out of his house. And Maggie’s mother was terrified, because if he fought back he could turn her in in his rage, and even if her citizenship keeps her safe, he could turn her *sister* in to punish her, and her sister would definitely be at risk with the INS. So she helps Maggie pack and whispers to her, “Go to your Tia, mi corazon. Tell her what happened.” And Maggie does: she takes her backpack and walks five miles from the farm into the closest thing Blue Springs has to a downtown, to the one-bedroom where her Tia lives. She doesn’t talk and Tia doesn’t ask her to: she serves a quick dinner of spaghetti-os that they eat quietly together. Tia promises enchiladas the next day when she’s less tired from work and that’s when Maggie breaks and tells her everything. Tia holds  her and rocks her and tells her she loves her and thinks she should have expected this from a man who doesn’t know what it feels like to take risks, to make yourself vulnerable, to try to be happy, and she wants only the greatest happiness for her niece. She is poor so Maggie works to pay bills while she finishes school. Maggie’s mama sends money when she can. And when she starts her job the first thing Maggie does is research how to sponsor her aunt for immigration.   And that’s why Maggie is so sensitive to the plight of alien refugees: because f*ck if having paperwork to say you’re allowed to be somewhere, and looking like you belong there, have a damn thing to do with whether you’re worth a damn thing. (End)            

^^ This is canon and you are perfect and you should write the damn show and I love you so much.

Thank you so much for putting the effort in to share this beautiful backstory with us. You are incredible, and I am sending you so, so, so much gratitude and love, darling <3 <3 <3 <3                                                      

1 Corinthians 6:9-11 (NKJV)
Do you not know that the unrighteous will not inherit the kingdom of God? Do not be deceived. Neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor homosexuals, nor sodomites, nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor extortioners will inherit the kingdom of God. And such were some of you. But you were washed, but you were sanctified, but you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus and by the Spirit of our God.

anonymous asked:

Hey, I am a gay girl born into a Muslim family. The only time I was ever "religious" was as a kid when I was first learning about Islam. Growing up, I went through a lot and started losing faith. Now I feel like I cannot go back to the religion even if I wanted to because of my sexuality. I will never be accepted. I also feel like Islam prioritizes men and as a feminist that goes against what I believe in. Is there still room for me in this religion or should I start searching for another faith?

Hey so I crowdsourced a lot of this answer: [updating as I get more suggestions and resources]

Personally, I couldn’t be a Muslim and follow Islam if I didn’t find it feminist, full of social justice and intersectional. Unfortunately patriarchy and self interest tries to pass itself off as moralistic and religious —this is universal. Also it’s helpful to keep in mind that if any authority tries to tell you to hate and discriminate know that it isn’t from God or any moral compass—but fear. 

O you who have attained to faith! Be ever steadfast in upholding equity, bearing witness to the truth for the sake of God, even though it be against your own selves or your parents and kinsfolk. Whether the person concerned be rich or poor, God’s claim takes precedence over [the claims of] either of them. Do not, then, follow your own desires, lest you swerve from justice: for if you distort [the truth], behold, God is indeed aware of all that you do!

- The Holy Qur’an [4:135]

I believe the Prophet Muhammad [saw] was a radical-feminist-environmental anti-racist community organizer, activist and freedom fighter that believed in freeing people from the status quo and freeing them from oppression through Islam and Allah [swt]. And I believe in following that tradition.

“Truly, God does not change the condition of a people until they change what is in themselves.” (Quran 13:11)

———————————————————————————

About Lot/Lut:

Omar Pitras Waqar is working on a mechanical translation of the Qur’an without the diacriticals/vowels [which were added years after Muhammad’s death and during Uthman’s reign] says:

“…possibilities of this being reference to djinn/human interbreeding… or that it may have had to do with getting DNA, from angles/extraterrestrials which is still vile in a non consensual sense. Quran says the “sin” was something no creature had done before in all of the worlds (plural) so that rules out homosexual and gender variance which can be easily observed on earth in plants and animals let alone any number of beings from other planets or dimensions.”

More to support this: "Indeed, homosexuality was outside the mainstream of early rabbinic thought. It wasn’t until the New Testament and Palestinian reinterpretation of Genesis 19 that it became a significant theme. Some scholars explain this shift by citing intervening events. One was the apocryphal Book of Jubilees. In this book, it was alleged that the Sodomites had created a race of giants by having sexual relations with a group of gods, the “Watchers,” who lusted after mortal women. For this, the Sodomites were punished. The notion of “crime against nature” is a vestigial remnant of this legend, but also has scriptural roots.“ [from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/georgette-bennett-phd/sodom-and-gomorrah-revisited_b_2624684.html] Our Ethiopian Christian family has been maintaining this and other apocryphal texts many of which are repeated in the Quran like the story of Jesus turning clay birds into real living birds.

I am going to give an example of how much diacriticals/vowels make a difference.

1. From Quran.com
Surat Ash-Shu'ara [verse 165 - “Do you approach males among the worlds.“

2. Notice: “Worlds” possibly referring that’s some unseen/alien/jinn

3. Also the arabic word used for “males” could also be translated into “mates” or “rods”

4. “Do you approach mates among the worlds.” or “Do you approach rods among the worlds.” are possible translations

———————————————————————————-

I believe it was Aisha [ra] that had a close friend that was a hijra and didn’t wear a hijab, or covering around them. There was plenty of queer people in and around the Prophet Muhammad’s [s] life time.

I could name-drop Sufi saints [ahem, Rumi loved a man Shams] and poets from various times and places who violated norms of gender and sexuality on one level or another. Ali ibn Hamzah al-Asadi, more widely known as al-Kisa’i al-Kufi (d.804). As the transmitter of one of the Qur’an’s seven harfs (“readings”) in Sunni tradition, he’s an immeasurably important figure in the history of the Qur’an as a text. As such, his knowledge and character were both under close examination. In one assessment, al-Marzubani, speaking on the authority Ibn al-Arabi (the jurist, not the mystic), described al-Kisa’i as “one of the most learned persons” while adding that al-Kisa’i openly confessed to engaging in acts that included same-sex relations. “Yet,” he adds, al-Kisa’i remained “an accurate reader, knowledgeable in the Arabic language, and honest.” 

This does not answer all questions, but it offers something. In Sunni Islam, there are seven canonical ways of reading the Qur’an. Al-Kisa’i al-Kufi is the man who gave us one of them. He devoted his life to knowing and teaching the Qur’an. It should go without saying that al-Kisa’i al-Kufi memorized the entire scripture by heart and recited it every day of his life. Along the way, he apparently fucked dudes. The lips that he used to recite divine scripture also touched men.

““O people, we created you all from a male and female
And made you into different communities and different tribes
So that you should come to know one another
Acknowledging that the most noble among you 
Is the one most aware of God
Qur’an 49:13


The most noble is the one most aware of God. This is not just incitement for all Muslims to increase their awareness of God – it is also a warning to pursue a policy of social tolerance. The implication of this verse is that no Muslim is better than another because of any of the social categories that we use to classify ourselves, such as race, ethnicity, economic class, or gender. Or even sexual orientation. A gay or lesbian Muslim is no less than a heterosexual Muslim, except by the intangible criterion of pious awareness of God (taqwa). A transgender

Muslim is no less than other Muslims who have not struggled with their own gender identity and faced the stigma of changing gender classification, except by awareness of God. 

Most Muslims cherish reciting this verse to oppose the evils of racial superiority, ethnic chauvinism, and class arrogance. Yet some see this verse as a call to justice that rings far beyond its terse words.”
— Scott Siraj al-Haqq Kugle, HOMOSEXUALITY IN ISLAM

El-Farouk Khaki, the founder of Salaam [a queer Muslim organization in Canada] says:  you can connect her w me, or with Daayiee Abdullah. my email is elfin925@rogers.com she can also join https://www.facebook.com/groups/99769188589/  el-Tawhid Juma Circle: Toronto Unity Mosque & learn that there is no singular, monolith Islam, and that for some, Islam is liberationary.

EFK and the rest of the leaders at el-Tawhid Juma Circle: Toronto Unity Mosque page make a point of emphasising the spiritual aspects of Islam and reducing focus on external elements. el-Tawhid Juma Circle: Toronto Unity Mosque group - wholly affirming and inclusive, with a focus on the spiritual and not so much the ritual.

Imam Daayiee Abdullah contact [the gay Imam in DC] (daayiee@aol.com). 

There’s also an Imam in Canada, TO who I know is pro-feminist, cool with gay Muslims and he asked me to give you his number if you would like it.

Some points

1) If you believe that God created you the way are, you can’t possible believe that God would reject you 2) The community you grew up in does not necessarily represent Islam 3) The beauty of Islam is that there is no intercession between you and God. You has every right and ability to pick up the Quran and find out what it means to you.  4) If you find things you can’t reconcile, you should speak to others who have found themselves in a similar situation. 5) 

thefatalfeminist.com

is a great starting point and introduction to feminism, Islam and social justice. 6) Islam does not prioritize men over women, the patriarchal actualization of Islam as seen through socially constructed norms prioritizes men over women, but that is a product of kyriarchy more than anything. If you want your faith to prioritize women, then do it.  7) Hit up Scott Kugle at Emory who could give you some nice readings and independent studies for Lesbianism or Queer identities and Islam. 

 From strawberreli [amazing Queer Muslim] !! http://strawberreli.tumblr.com/post/30642167690/queer-muslim-masterpost

queer muslim masterpost

This post pretty much came about because I was asked if I had resources for Muslims who were discovering or newly coming to terms with their sexuality. I didn’t, and the poor advice I had to offer was … poor. So, I pulled up a few of the blogs I followed that are targeted towards queer Muslims, and put together this little post for you!
Last updated: 06.14.16 (outdated info italicised)

Queer Muslim Blogs:

  • QueerMuslims
  • IamNotHaraam
  • Ace-Muslim
  • Trans Muslims
  • Ahwaa: An open space to debate LGBTQ-related issues in the Middle East
  • AllahMademeQueer
  • ComingOutMuslim
  • YouKnow-You'reaQueermuslim-When
  • InQueeries channel with Yusef Woof (contact inqueeriesshow@gmail.com)
  • Salaam Canada
  • TheBisexualBangladeshi
  • Muslims Against Homophobia and LGBT Hate facebook group
  • Queer Palestinian Empowerment Network (QPEN) facebook page
  • Queer Muslims of Boston facebook page
  • Totally Radical Muslim Zine

Queer Muslim 101:

  • A quick gender/sexuality 101 (An in-depth gender/sexuality/identity 201)
  • But what does a queer Muslim even look like? (hint: they look like people)
  • Defining homonationalism and pinkwashing. [A little bit more on pinkwashing.]
  • PDF:Homosexuality In Islam, by Scott Siraj al-Haqq Kugle (Intro + 1st Chap) Buy your own copy!
  • A good read-along-with the above book, Desiring Arabs by Joseph Massad and an online article here.
  • PDF:Muslim LGBT Inclusion Project, by Intersections International
  • More reading (a list w.some repeats): [x]
  • Why Safe Spaces are Important [looking for a replacement link]
  • “I’m confused about my sexuality.”
  • “I need proof from Qur'an and Sunnah that I’m not Haraam.”
  • “What about the Qur'an and Hadith that chastise LGBTQ Muslims?”
  • “You cherry pick your hadith!/You cherry pick from your religion!”
  • Some hadiths can be read in different ways, so it’s best to look at the outcome.
  • “Islam and LGBT are not mutually exclusive.”
  • “But I was taught Islam was the most heterosexist religion.“  [tw: continuously moving background at the link]
  • ”But all Muslims are homophobic!“ (spoiler alert: you’re wrong.)
  • ”But Muslims hate sex - it’s ~dirty~ to them!“ (I would recommend this class for basic 101 on marriage and love [sex] in Islam. Take it with Basyouni.) (See also: x and x)
  • ”Love the sinner, hate the sin, and why that’s bullshit.“
  • ”Should I come out?“ (spoiler alert: that’s up to you!)
  • ”Is there a place for LGBTQ Muslims?“ (Or ”There’s no place for LGBTQ Muslims/no organisations/no hope.“)
  • ”Will LGBTQ Muslims go to hell?“ (spoiler alert: I’m not God, how would I know?)
  • ”But it’s unnatural!“ (lolk)
  • ”There aren’t any gay Imams or Sheikhs, so you’re just making things up!“ (Also here.) (And here.)
  • “But scholars don’t condone it!”
  • ”But no fatwa was made!“ (It’s Wahabi.)
  • Egyptian fatwa
  • Indonesian fatwa [link broken, seeking replacement]
  • A post about other Sheikhs’ opinions.
  • ”But there are no inclusive mosques for LGBT Muslims!“ (Just stop. x)
  • There is no place for homophobia in Islam.
  • Let’s repeat that: There is no place for homophobia in Islam.
  • Ayahs that talk about Prophet Lut.
  • A closer reading of ayahs re: homosexuality (prev here).
  • See also: You decide how you interpret your religion.
  • Homosexuality in Sharia
  • Homosexuality in Predominately Muslim Countries (and some more on homosexuality inPakistan)
  • Pride Parade in Bangladesh (Please remember “hijra” is a slur depending on where in South Asia a person is from – please ask before using it as a catchall!)
  • Predominately Muslim Countries who are taking steps toward equality. [x] [x, x] [x] [x] [x]
  • Same-sex marriage
  • MASGD Statement on SCOTUS Marriage Equality Ruling
  • Queer Muslim Cinema: Azizah, Illuminations, Coming Out Muslim, A Jihad For Love, I Exist, Al-Nisa [BONUS: Show Al-Nisa and Red Summer (the producer) some love!], Circumstance, Naz + Maalik, Gay Muslims (a documentary produced by Channel 4 in the U.K), City of Borders, The Bubble, Out in the Dark (Palestinian and Israeli fall in love. facebook page), Facing Mirrors (2011; ft. an FtM Iranian), I Accept Me! (2011), Hir Poem, My Child. Sexualities and Queer Imaginaries. Oriented. [Article about Oriented, A Gay Girl in Damascus, and A Sinner in Mecca] [Muslim Drag Queens][Color of Water is trying to get funded]
  • Queer Muslim Music: Tum Hi Ho (by a drag artist in Lahore).
  • Queer Muslim Literature: [x] [x] [Four Gay Arabs Break the Silence] [Embracing Ramadhan in the LGBT Muslim Community] [Gaylaxy magazine] [Queer Beirut] [Sex and Desperate Hearts] [Bareed Mista3jil] [Totally Radical Muslims Zine] [5 Queer Magazines] [Not Your Tragic Queer Muslim Story/How to De-Queer Your Apartment] [Brown and Queer in America] [Queer South Asians and the Politics of Family] [A Thing of the West] [Coming Out in the Muslim Community] [Queer and Muslim At the Same Time] [9 articles on being LGBTQ in MENA] [Queering the Middle East] [Seeking Home: The Lives of Gay and Transgender Asylum Seekers of the Middle East] [Trans Muslim Honours His Faith] [Under the Gay Skin of Tehran] [Syrian and Iraqi Members of the LGBT Community Find Safe Haven in Istanbul] [Queer and Muslim] [On Community Spaces and Being A Trans Muslim] [‘Yousef and Farhad’ has been crafted by Algerian-American political cartoonist, Khalil Bendib, and Iranian-American author, Amir Soltani.] [Artist Mohammed Fayaz Draws Queer Muslims of Colour] [Xukia]
  • Desi LGBTQ Hotline
  • Queer Pakistan LGBTQ Voice and Support Group [and here is a news article]
  • Resources

A good thing to remember is to avoid the self-hatred phase, if you can. Focus on loving yourself, and realising that Allah made you just the way you are, and that you are loved, and that none of this is permanent. If this phase is unavoidable, here are some helpful sites:

  • Help! I’m losing my Islam
  • Counseling and Prevention Resources
  • Feeling suicidal?
  • Suicide prevention
  • Supporting someone who self-harms
  • Suicide and Crisis Hotlines
  • Online Crisis Network (for those with anxiety which prevents them from talking on the phone)
  • Online Chat (Arabic) for Queer Arabs

If you are a student and would like to get Faisal Alam to speak at your uni, or to see if he is coming to your uni soon, click here.

If you would like to attend Faisal Alam’s Retreat for Queer Muslims and their partners, here is more info.

If you would like to book Irshad Manji for an event click here.

If you are a PoC LGBTQ identified Muslim, QWOC is looking for submissions.

If you are from Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, or India and want to share your experiences (anonymously), please click here.

If you are South Asian and queer, consider submitting to Dayaar-e-Yaar! And if you are South Asian, queer, and between 18-25, consider attending this SoCal retreat (deadline for 2015 registration is Dec. 8th, 2014).

If you are a young activist, an independent researcher, a graduate student, or a fresh graduate, consider submitting a paper to the second issue of Kohl,  a journal for body and gender in the MENA region that wishes to explore the ways in which the erotic has been used as a means of economic and political exploitation in the MENA, within the region and outside it. Deadline to submit is Aug 2, 2015.

If you can spare some funds, help navigatethestream, a queer Muslim, become an Imam to help the Muslim LGBT community!

Lastly, here is a link if you are NOT a queer Muslim, but want to be a good ALLY! (And here is another on how NOT to be a saviour!) (And here is another on how to support a queer Muslim you happen to be dating!)

Muslim-Queer-Friendly Blogs:

(

If you’d like to be added to or taken off this list, please

send me an ask

.

)

  • occupidemuslim
  • hijabandboijeans
  • khalvatdaranjuman
  • navigatethestream
  • life-via-fo-eyes
  • living-in-technicolor
  • misandryad
  • mizjtoz
  • thalamtnafsee
  • alscientist
  • shootmethenleave
  • dyemelikeasunset
  • faineemae
  • seppin
  • gschwarzkopf
  • sllw
  • linzthenerd
  • vaginashavefeelingstoo
  • anartinsorcery
  • treatquestion
  • themadmanwithapen
  • ancientrune
  • sura93
  • insecurity-killed-the-cat
  • thehakawati
  • qalbesaleem
  • the-best-medicine
  • thesoundofthelifeofthemind
  • findingmotherland
  • shegufta
  • agileduck
  • zahhaked
  • megavelraptor
  • eibmorb
  • maesio
  • pyar-kiya-to-darna-kiya
  • postmodernveil
  • kuroenigma
  • safawi
  • casketofpearls
  • theyhelitsian
  • nofasciststate
  • chirikli
  • cokehabitsdiehard
  • decimaldot
  • madeast
  • lesbehalaaal
  • 4th-world
  • themindislimitless
  • brassmanticore
  • humjinsiyat
  • Freedom2Be
  • i-dare-to-dream
  • babyairnymph
  • twelvewhispersandbooks
  • whatamievensaying
  • whimslcott
  • haramdaddy
  • hiraethghost
  • larriefthalsey
  • t-pizzazz-a
  • young-flowerchild
  • zhangyixings
  • hairyjamespottery

——————————————————————————-

More papers/books not previously mentioned: 

BEYOND BINARY BARZAKHS: USING THE THEME OF LIMINALITY IN ISLAMIC THOUGHT TO QUESTION THE GENDER BINARY by Sara Haq Hussaini

The Quilt & Other Stories [translated from Urdu]

American Muslim Women, Religious Authority, and Activism: More Than a Prayer (Louann Atkins Temple Women & Culture Series)

Muslim Girl Article Did Homosexuality Exist Among Islamic Scholars? http://muslimgirl.com/25788/homosexuality-islam-academic-analysis/

FB Page: Muslims Against Homophobia and LGBT Hate

“Mukhannathun – and singular mukhannath – has been translated as “gay,” “queer,” even “third gender,” and none of these are wrong, per se. However, there’s a history behind the word that’s much richer. It all starts with hadith.“  

from” A Muslim RuPaul At The Dawn Of Islam: Tuwais and the Mukhannathun”: http://www.autostraddle.com/a-muslim-rupaul-at-the-dawn-of-islam-tuwais-and-the-mukhannathun-198612/

The Roots of Homophobia and Anti-Gay Sentiment in the Muslim World (by Ali Olomi)

Sublime Quran [a feminist translation] pdf by Laleh Bakhtiar

QURAN A Reformist Translation pdf Translated and Annotated by Edip Yuksel Layth Saleh al-Shaiban Martha Schulte-Nafeh 

Extensive, long but great read: Islamic Law, Homosexuality and the ‘Pulse’ Massacre by Shaykh Atabek

Aljazeera Article on Indonesia’s Trans Imams: http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2015/5/12/indonesias-transgender-priests-face-uncertain-future.html

Same-Sex Relationships & the Fluidity of Marriage in Islamic History (by Ali A. Olomi)

anonymous asked:

Since its valentines, I was looking up "the bible on same sex marriages." I found a verse that I hadn't seen before, 1 Corinthians 6:9-10. And nowwwww in shook and scared and panicking bc I just, my confidence in my faith and sexuality is so fragile and I just need help understanding this.

Hey there! Rest easy, anon. It’s okay to feel shaken by something you hadn’t seen before in Scripture – it’s also okay to wrestle with it. God invites us into conversation with the Bible – so let’s gather some facts that will allow us to converse. 

(Here are the two verses from 1 Cor 6, for those who want to see them: “Do you not know that wrongdoers will not inherit the kingdom of God? Do not be deceived! Fornicators, idolaters, adulterers, male prostitutes, sodomites, thieves, the greedy, drunkards, revilers, robbers—none of these will inherit the kingdom of God.”)

For this particular passage, the issue of translation actually comes into play, along with issues of cultural context. See this post for an overview of all the “clobber claim” passages used against LGBT folks; and especially see page 11 of my research paper from a few years ago, where I go in depth about the translation issues. …Actually, I’ll go ahead and paste my paper’s whole conversation on 1 Corinthians 6:9-10 (as well as 1 Timothy 1:10) right here for easy access: 

~ 1 Corinthians 6:9 and 1 Timothy 1:10. Two other verses in the New Testament letters are frequently interpreted as condemnations of homosexuality because of the standard ways that two ambiguous Greek words, malakoi and arsenokoitai, are translated.

The first of these words, malakoi, is used in 1 Corinthians 6:9. While modern translators usually render it “men who practice homosexuality” or “homosexuals,” it more literally means “soft,” and “it appears elsewhere in the New Testament to describe fine clothing (see Matthew 11:8). In a moral context, the term was used to describe a lack of self-control, weakness, laziness, or cowardice. …The word was an all-purpose insult for anything considered to be feminine” (Vines, 2014, p. 119). Vines goes on to note that in Greco-Roman culture this term more often referred to men who “succumbed to the charms of women,” since doting excessively on a woman—fixating too much on the romantic aspects of a relationship or allowing a female lover to influence one’s decisions—was considered unmanly (p. 120). Thus, he explains, malakoi is generally translated in older versions of the Bible as “effeminate” rather than “homosexual” (p. 122). With all of this in mind, perhaps a more fitting translation would be something like “those who demonstrate weakness” or, to keep the meaning as broad as the original term, “those demonstrating soft qualities.”

Arsenokoitai, used in both 1 Corinthians 6:9 and 1 Timothy 1:10, is even more difficult to translate accurately, as it appears very infrequently in Greek writings (Vines, 2014, p.122). The word may, in fact, have been coined by Paul, and is a compound word combining arsen, “male,” and koites, the term for “bed” most often used when a sexual connotation is intended. Thus, the usual interpretation of this word is “men who sleep with other men” (p. 123). However, Vines relates, the few examples of this word that can be found in later Greek texts “indicate it most often referred to economic exploitation, not same-sex behavior” (p. 124). Vines provides evidence from three texts on pages 124 and 125 of his book, which are worth reviewing in full.

It is interesting to note some of the most common translations of arsenokoitai: along with “homosexuals” and “perverts,” the word “sodomites” is often used. Drawing back to the earlier discussion of Sodom, the choice to use this term here for a word that in its original form clearly shares no root with the word “Sodom” unfairly influences a reader’s perspective of the sin of Sodom. If a Bible uses the word “Sodomite” to mean a male practitioner of same-sex acts, the reader is influenced to interpret Sodom’s annihilation-worthy crime as being homosexuality, before they have the chance to consider for themselves whether that is necessarily the case. On that note, this paper will turn to its final discussion, that of linguistic methods employed by some Christians to influence biblical interpretations. ~

End of paper passage.

Now, even if there is a solid argument to translating these terms as “homosexual” etc., cultural context can and should be taken into account by any responsible and reverent reader of the Bible. After all, we read other areas of the NT letters that appear to condone slavery in light of their ancient context. See this post (linked above as well) for some discussions on interpreting Scripture while keeping context in mind.

I also recommend Austen Hartke’s short video “Are you taking the Bible seriously?” Wander through our interpretation tag (particularly this post) for even more information. Peace <3

Beau, soyez libre

LeFou whimpers as Gaston stomps away from the small boy. He called LeFou childish and went off to play with the older children. All LeFou has said, is that he would love to play hide-and-seek. Is that not a normal game to play for a nine-year-old boy? According to Gaston it’s not, but LeFou doesn’t want to go after the older boy to apologise for being childish, even though, maybe he should.

“What’s wrong?” LeFou looks up from where he’s sitting on the ground, to see a child, maybe two years younger than himself, standing in front of him. LeFou shuffles his feet, looking back down and not daring to look the girl in the eye. “What do you want?” He mumbles, frustrated. Surely, she’ll mock him too. “My maman said I should try and make friends with people who seem nice. You seem nice.” She flops down onto the grass next to LeFou. “I don’t play with girls.” LeFou mumbles, remembering how Gaston had laughed at him for playing chase with a girl the week prior. “I’m not a girl!” The small boy(?) said indignant. LeFou flinches. “Sorry! I didn’t mean – Why are you wearing a dress?” The boy shuffles his feet nervously. “Because it makes me feel pretty.” The boy starts looking more and more miserable every question LeFou asks him. 

“I – I should go.” The boy gets up and LeFou scrambles on his feet as well. “Wait! Don’t go, I’m sorry.” LeFou sounds desperate. “I never – I never talk to kids my own age.” LeFou explains. “I don’t know how.” The other boy nods in understanding. “There are no kids for me to play with where I live, either.” LeFou steps forward. “I really do like your dress. It does make you look really pretty.” The boy brightens immediately, twirling in a circle. “You really think so? My maman made it for me!” The boy looks at LeFou, so honest and vulnerable and open and LeFou etches the sight in his memory, hoping that one day, someone will look at him like this again. It makes LeFou feel important, like he matters and he finally knows the right things to say, something that rarely happens.

“Pink suits you really well.” The boy stops twirling. “Pink? This is peach!” “I-I’m sorry!” LeFou stammers. He really is a fool. The boy’s face softens. “I couldn’t tell many of the colours apart at first either.” He assures LeFou. “Until maman teached me. Do you want to play hide-and-seek with me?” LeFou perks up. “I’d love to!”

*

“Stanleeeeeeyy.” LeFou singsongs as he enters their cottage, expecting an answer but receiving none. When he walks to their dining table he sees a small piece of parchment with a quick sketch of a castle on it. Due to LeFou’s illiteracy, Stanley and LeFou figured out a way to tell where they can be found without using letters, simply by drawing a little sketch of the place they would be at.

LeFou picks up his satchel from the floor, before mounting Pote and taking off towards the castle.

Ever since the curse has been broken, Stanley has spent a lot of time at the castle, trying to spend as much time with his lost family as he possibly can. Madame de Garderobe and maestro Cadenza were thrilled when their Stanley ended up on their doorstep, but they were a lot less thrilled he showed up as a part of an angry mob to kill their master.

“Bonjour Monsieur LeFou.” Lumière greets as LeFou enters the castle. He is seated at the fireplace with Plumette, for it’s a rather chilly day in December. “Good afternoon, Lumière, Plumette.” “He is in Madame’s room.” LeFou nods, walking up the stairs and down the hall in the east wing. He can hear excited chatter. Maestro Cadenza walked out of the chamber, a happy smile on his face. “Ah, LeFou, salut!” “Bonjour Maestro.” LeFou smiles, the maestro talks so loud, he’s surprised the whole castle can’t hear him speaking. “Let’s go ask Mrs. Potts for a cup of tea, shall we? Stanley will surely join us in a moment.”

*

LeFou laughs loudly at Mrs. Potts’ detailed story of how Stanley used to play pranks on all of the staff within the castle. Her face softens. “He used to be such a lonely child. He was a child of us all and we wanted him to make friends so badly, but the master never allowed the boy to leave the grounds.” She seems sad now, and Cadenza sighs. “He ran away one day. He was 17, if I’m not mistaken.” LeFou turns to Cadenza, not used to the maestro looking so serious. “It was the day the curse was cast upon the castle. The master had yelled at him for being a- for being different.” He couldn’t get the word over his lips, but LeFou heard it anyways. Sodomite.

Adam had judged Stanley for his interest in males.

“Stanley ran away from the grounds and forgot about it the same day. Forgot about us.” There are tears in Cadenza’s eyes. LeFou is speechless. He never knew why Stanley was in the village during the day the castle was cursed, Stanley refuses to talk about it. It all makes sense now.

The door the kitchen opens, revealing Madame de Garderobe, Stanley trailing behind her. LeFou’s eyes widen as he stands up from his chair, not taking his eyes off Stanley. Stanley shuffles his feet nervously, not daring to look LeFou in the eyes. “I-” His fingers pluck at the fabric of the dress he’s wearing.

LeFou slowly steps closer, taking in the sight in front of him. Stanley’s body was wrapped in delicate fabrics and his eyes were underlined with coal, his lips made a darker shade of pink.

“Stanley, you-” Madame de Garderobe steps forward slightly, looking protective over her boy.

LeFou places his hand on Stanley’s cheek, forcing the man to look at him. “You look gorgeous, mon amour.” Stanley perks up at that, not dropping his guard completely, not yet. “You really think so?” He asks carefully. “Yes!” “They make me feel pretty.” Stanley bites his lip, still looking unconvinced. “You look beautiful, Stanley. They do make you look pretty.” Stanley looks up, looking so honest and vulnerable and open and memories come rushing back at LeFou.

The boy he met when he was young, he recognises him now, in an older version, perhaps, but he never changed his love for dresses. “The pink – Peach, suits you.” Stanley looks at him with unbelieving eyes. “You remember that?” LeFou steps forward. “How could I forget that look of pure joy?” Stanley leans down, capturing LeFou’s lips with his own, before freezing and backing up, nervously looking over his shoulder to his maman.

She looks fondly at the pair. Love, that’s all she’s ever wanted for her boy and she knows that LeFou will take good care of him. Beautiful, be free.

Traitors and deserters are hanged on trees; cowards, shirkers, and sodomites are pressed down under a wicker hurdle into the slimy mud of a bog. This distinction in the punishments is based on the idea that offenders against the state should be made a public example of, whereas deeds of shame should be buried out of men’s sight.
—  Germania, Tacitus

The Fascist Dream

The following is an excerpt from Maurice Bardéche’s essay “What Is Fascism,” 1961, translated from the original French.

I include it here on this particular day, May 1st or sometimes called May Day, because it is on this day in recent years that a tradition of chaotic rioting and insufferable degeneracy erupts in our streets with great harm to all aspects of the health of our nation, often under the banners of “Antifascism” and “Anarchy.” All manners of tolerance and silence from an inept leadership have culminated in this parade of social sickness; a new form of leadership must be administered to relieve us of this affliction.

The purpose of the fascist state is to shape men according to a particular model. Unlike democratic states, fascist states do not hesitate to teach morals. Fascists think that the will and energy available to the nation are its most precious capital. They make it their highest priority to encourage the collective qualities that shape and preserve the national energy. They seek to develop such national qualities as discipline, a taste for order, love of work, the sense of duty and honor. In the practice of everyday tasks, these national moral principles are expressed in a sense of responsibility, a sense of solidarity, awareness of duties of command, the feeling of being at home in an accepted order and in an important task.

These feelings are not taught in schools with phrases written on blackboards. If education is to arouse them in a child, it is the regime itself that must develop them in men, with justice in the distribution of the national income, by the example it sets, by the tasks that it sets forth.

Discipline does not arise in action with the stroke of a magic wand or in response to a grandiloquent appeal: it is a mark of esteem that a people gives to those who lead them, and a regime must earn this every day by the seriousness of its actions and the sincerity of its love of country. The discipline of a nation is a weapon that is forged like the discipline of an army. It is understood to be a treasure that must be guarded. But it is above all the reward of men who give themselves entirely to their work and are themselves exemplars of courage, selflessness, and honesty.

This cohesion of the national will is, moreover, possible only in a clean country. No regime should be more concerned with honor, honesty, and moral health than an authoritarian regime, and it must first of all be implacable in this regard with its own officials. This has not always been seen in the past. But there are many other things that we have not always seen in the past. Such self-discipline is the only thing that legitimates the discipline one demands of others.

But the policy of cleanliness is more than just that. It is also about the systematic elimination of all that discourages, sullies, and disgusts.  I am not talking about pornographic magazines whose suppression the churchgoers and moralists believe will save the nation. Mostly, I am speaking of: fortunes amassed without work, unjustified success, triumphant crooks and scoundrels; the spectacle of which is infinitely more demoralizing and harmful to a nation than the buttocks of cover-girls. I do not want the reign of Virtue, much less of the moral order. But I regard it as obvious that one cannot ask a people to love their work and to do it with seriousness and precision without removing from social circulation those who insult our work and our conscience by their manner of getting rich.

Fascism does not merely propose another image of the nation but of man. Fascism prizes some human qualities above all others because the very same qualities appear to give strength and duration to the state as well as meaning to individual lives. These are the qualities that have been required in all times of men who participate in difficult and dangerous enterprises: courage, discipline, the spirit of sacrifice, energy—virtues required of soldiers in combat, pioneers, sailors in peril. These are peculiarly military and, so to speak, animalistic qualities: they remind us that the first task of man is to protect and subdue, a calling that gregarious and pacified city life leads us to forget, but that is awakened by danger and every difficult achievement where man finds his natural adversaries again: storms, catastrophes, deserts.

The animal qualities of man have engendered others which are inseparable from them, because they belong to a code of honor that was established in danger: they are loyalty, fidelity, solidarity, selflessness. These qualities are the foundations of relations between men at all times, even in hours of uncertainty and abandonment. They constitute a system of mutual commitments upon which all groups of men can live. The rest of morality is nothing but a series of applications, which always vary with time and place.

These qualities that are functional, so to speak, and that the fascist dream takes as essential, in turn give rise to others which are their refinements, which always with time and place, and which become essential in their turn, to the extent that the human animal is more aware of who he is and what he is worth. These qualities are luxuries that military societies gave themselves as they took shape and constituted their hierarchy. They include pride, scrupulousness in vows, generosity, respect for a courageous adversary, protection of the weak and weaponless, contempt for liars and respect for those who fight fair.

These civic qualities still stir obscure palpitations when our decadent cities honor those who, in the past, made it their business to fight and to be fully men. They were found in both military and religious Orders, among the Saracen princes and samurai. They constitute, at bottom, the sole code that military societies have recognized according their vocation; they are essential to the honor of the soldier. We are told that later the warrior monks became thugs and sodomites, robber barons, and cutthroat princes. When have wealth and above all power not degraded? It is the idea that matters. This beautiful human beast, this healthy human beast dreamed fascism.

It is certainly sad that the mud of war has rendered him almost unrecognizable, that the fury of war has effaced him like a statue in the desert, scoured by the winds of vengeance and hate. I do not say “this is what was.” I say: “this is what might have been and sometimes was.” This is the fascist dream, which was the dream in the hearts of a few.

The defeat of fascism should not make us forget that the image exists, that it still remains grand, and that others may find it again under new names. The very term fascism will no doubt disappear, because it is too freighted with calumnies, because it is lost in a sea of shadows under a malignant mist. But what does the word matter? We all know that Spartan order, Spartan man, is the sole shield that will remain when the shadow of death rises before the West.

Lenin prophesized that fascism would be the last form taken for survival by the societies that do not surrender without a fight to Communist dictatorship. If the West no longer has strength, if it disappears like an old man drowns, we can do nothing for it. But if it rises to defend itself, old Lenin’s prophecy will come true. Under a different name, a different face, and no doubt without any projections of the past, in the form of a child we do not recognize, or the head of a young Medusa, the Spartan order will be reborn: and paradoxically, no doubt, it will be the last defense of freedom and the good life.

anonymous asked:

Hi! Im writing some historical fiction about the 1832 June Rebellion (Paris Uprising of 1832) and I was wondering how gender was viewed in 1832 France? Also how age and sexuality was viewed. I have 3 female characters who are all interested in fighting and I would like to know whether or not they would have to wear male clothing. I also have 2 male characters pining after each other, and I was wondering how 1832 france would view this. Theres also an 11 year old fighter. Thanks ~

Hello anon! I apologise for taking so very long to answer your question! It’s within my field and a really interesting question but it took some research and thus some time.

Since war and going to war was long, and in a lot of societies, considered to be the “ultimate test of both individual and collective manhood.”, a woman that wanted to be a soldier would have to disguise herself.[1] There are records of this; a famous instance would be Hua Mulan. Granted, not every culture and every era demanded that women did not fight in any kind of battle; there are several examples of women defending their castle, their home, themselves in times of war and during sieges and attacks. [2]

Let´s focus on the uprising, though. After the French Revolution in 1789, women did get more political influence but this was taken away in 1804 with the Napoleon’s Civil Code of 1804; which made women completely subordinate to their husbands once married. (Women did dress themselves as soldier, still, though.)[3] This political reality meant that in 1832 France, women were not invited into the military fraternities from which the rebellion formed. They were, however, taking part in building barricades, sabotaging, springing prisoners and helping with supplies. One certain Catharine Delacroix both constructed a barricade and led rebels through the streets, shouting “Qui vivé!” as she wielded a pick-axe.[4] Women would join their husbands and try to acquire ammunition and weapons and women would store weapons in their homes.[5]

The reason we know these things is that the criminal records state the names of several women and what their crimes were. For instance; in april 1834 a group of rebels, including six women, tried to help a political prisoner escape. They were all later arrested (which is how we know they were involved). [6] So, my advice for your story would be to make three different female characters. One could be like Catharine, one could be a wife helping her husband and one could already be military and join the groups of men planing the uprising. Or a wife joining the rebellion in spite of her husband´s wishes, an unmarried woman or a widow picking up a weapon and shouting from the barricades and a trans man already within the military helping plan the rebellion. (Why a trans man, though? Well, representation. There is historical truth to women simply being disguised to be able to be in the military but history has largely, almost completely, overlooked the fact that the women dressed as soldiers may not be women at all, but trans men. Of course, our understanding of gender and sexuality in the contemporary so-called western world can not be directly transferred to historical people, but to assume that women who joined the army (some of who continued to live their entire lives “disguised” as men) were exclusively cisgendered women would be rather ignorant of us historians. (Not calling you or any writer ignorant! Women in military and/or political settings are sorely underrepresented as well. Your idea to write about three women, anon, is a good idea!))

When it comes to sexuality I have written about this before, though I have written about England. It´s a rather different story when it comes to France, as a matter of fact! In 1791, a new penal code was adopted that decriminalised sodomy. Thus France was the first West European country to make sodomy legal (between consenting adults). In april of 1832, the age of consent (for both men and women) was set to 11. This means that it is legal for your male characters to be in a sexual relationship.[7] However, this does not mean they could openly be together. Policemen continued to punish “sodomites” under laws such as “public indecency” and it was still considered a grave moral sin. The gay men would defend each other from being arrested, though, whenever they were gathered together (at Cafés or the like).[8] To summarise the police would harass them and people around would condemn them but they did have communities and their relationships were not illegal.

When it comes to your eleven-year-old fighter, I will have to say that I don’t know. There is fairly little on children until much later in history but I assume a child of that age could help build barricades and could try and defend said barricades.

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[1] Merry Wiesner-Hanks, Gender in History: Global Perspectives, (UK: Blackwell Publishing, 2d ed. 2014), s.147.

[2] ibid., 148-149.

[3] Ibid., 154-155.

[4] D Barry Women and Political Insurgency: France in the Mid-Nineteenth Century, (Springer, 1996), 29.

[5] Ibid. 29-30.

[6] Ibid. 30.

[7] “Where is it illegal to be gay?” BBC News. Mars 24th 2017. & Scott Eric Gunther The Elastic Closet, A History of Homosexuality in France 1942-present, (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009)

[8] Anne Clark, Desire: A History of European Sexuality, (2008) 137.

constantly being bombarded with propaganda at university I will admit it shook my faith at one point. However, seeing the contamination that the sodomite lobby among other  modern evils like feminism etc. has shown me that in all cases we must be opposed to the modernist, materialistic, atheistic/satanic ideology of our age.