the particle at the end of the universe

List of Free Science Books

Here’s an alphabetical list of all available free books. Note that many of the links will bring you to an external page, usually with more info about the book and the download links. Also, the links are updated as frequently as possible, however some of them might be broken. Broken links are constantly being fixed. In case you want to report a broken link, or a link that violates copyrights, use the contact form

A

  • A Beginner’s Guide to Mathematica
  • A Brief Introduction to Particle Physics
  • A First Course in General Relativity
  • A New Astronomy
  • A No-Nonsense Introduction to General Relativity
  • A Popular History of Astronomy During the Nineteenth Century, Fourth Edition
  • A Review of General Chemistry
  • A Simple Guide to Backyard Astronomy
  • A Text Book for High School Students Studying Physics
  • A Tour of Triangle Geometry
  • About Life: Concepts in Modern Biology
  • Acoustic Emission
  • Adaptive Control
  • Advanced Calculus
  • Advanced Learning
  • Advanced Mathematics for Engineers
  • Advanced Microwave Circuits and Systems
  • Advanced Technologies
  • Advances in Computer Science and IT
  • Advances in Evolutionary Algorithms
  • Advances in Geoscience and Remote Sensing
  • Advances in Haptics
  • Advances in Human Computer Interaction
  • Age of Einstein
  • Aging by Design
  • AMPL:  A Modeling Language for Mathematical Programming
  • An Introduction to Elementary Particles
  • An Introduction to Higher Mathematics
  • An Introduction to Many Worlds in Quantum Computation
  • An Introduction to Mathematical Reasoning
  • An Introduction to Mathematics
  • An Introduction to Proofs and the Mathematical Vernacular
  • An Introduction to Relativistic Quantum Mechanics
  • Analysis 1 (Tao T)
  • Analysis 2 (Tao T)
  • Analytic Functions
  • Astronomical Discovery
  • Astronomy for Amateurs
  • Astronomy Today
  • Astronomy with an Opera-Glass
  • Automation and Robotics

B

  • Basic Algebra, Topology and Differential Calculus
  • Basic Concepts of Mathematics
  • Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics
  • Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics Chapter 1
  • Basic Ideas in Chemistry
  • Basic Math: Quick Reference eBook
  • Basic Mathematics for Astronomy
  • Basic Physics
  • Basic Positional Astronomy
  • Basic Principles of Classical and Statistical Thermodynamics
  • Basic Principles of Physics
  • Basics of Physics
  • Beginner’s Botany
  • Biochemistry
  • Biochemistry (practice book)
  • Biology
  • Board Notes for Particle Physics
  • Book of Proof

C

  • Calculus
  • Calculus Based Physics
  • Celestial Navigation, Elementary Astronomy, Piloting
  • Circuit QED — Lecture Notes
  • Classical Dynamics
  • Classical Geometry
  • Classical Mechanics
  • Climate Models
  • Collaborative Statistics
  • College Algebra
  • Complex Analysis
  • Computational Geometry
  • Computational Introduction to Number Theory and Algebra
  • Computational Physics with Python
  • Conceptual Physics
  • Consistent Quantum Theory
  • Cook-Book Of Mathematics
  • College Physics
  • Crude Oil Emulsions- Composition Stability and Characterization
  • Curiosities of the Sky

D

  • Decoherence: Basic Concepts and Their Interpretation
  • Do We Really Understand Quantum Mechanics?
  • Differential Equations
  • Diophantine Analysis
  • Discover Physics
  • Dr. Donald Luttermoser’s Physics Notes
  • Dynamics and Relativity

E

  • Earthquake Research and Analysis
  • Earthquake-Resistant Structures – Design, Assessment and Rehabilitation
  • Einstein for Everyone
  • Electromagnetic Field Theory
  • Elementary Mathematical Astronomy
  • Elementary Linear Algebra
  • Elementary Particle Physics in a Nutshell
  • Elementary Particles in Physics
  • Elements of Astrophysics
  • Embedded Systems – Theory and Design Methodology
  • Encyclopaedia of Mathematics
  • Encyclopedia of Astrophysics
  • Engineering Mathematics 1
  • Engineering Mathematics with Tables
  • Essential Engineering Mathematics
  • Essential Physics
  • Exoplanet Observing for Amateurs
  • Experimental Particle Physics

F

  • Fields
  • Foundations of Nonstandard Analysis
  • Frequently Asked Questions about Calendars
  • Fundamental Concepts of Mathematics
  • Fundamentals of Analysis (Chen W.W.L)
  • Further Mathematical Methods
  • Fusion Physics

G

  • General Chemistry
  • General Relativity
  • General Relativity
  • Geometric Asymptotics
  • Geometry and Group Theory
  • Geometry and Topology
  • Geometry Formulas and Facts
  • Geometry Study Guide
  • Geometry, Topology and Physics
  • Geometry, Topology, Localization and Galois Symmetry
  • Great Astronomers

H

  • Handbook of Formulae and Physical Constants
  • High School Mathematics Extensions
  • Higher Mathematics for Engineers and Physicists
  • History of Astronomy
  • Homeomorphisms in Analysis
  • How to Use Experimental Data to Compute the Probability of Your Theory

I

  • Intelligent Systems
  • Intrinsic Geometry of Surfaces
  • Introduction to Astronomy and Cosmology
  • Introduction to Cancer Biology
  • Introduction to Chemistry
  • Introduction to Cosmology
  • Introduction to Elementary Particles
  • Introduction to General Relativity
  • Introduction To Finite Mathematics
  • Introduction to Particle Physics Notes
  • Introduction to PID Controllers
  • Introduction to Quantum Mechanics with Applications to Chemistry
  • Introduction to Quantum Noise, Measurement and Amplification
  • Introduction to Social Network Methods
  • Introduction to String Field Theory
  • Introduction to the Time Evolution of Open Quantum Systems
  • Introduction to Quantum Mechanics
  • Introductory Computational Physics
  • Introductory Physics 1
  • Introductory Physics 2

K

  • Kinetic Theory

L

  • Laboratory Manual for Introductory Physics
  • Laws of Physics
  • Learn Physics Today
  • Lecture Notes in Discrete Mathematics
  • Lecture Notes in Quantum Mechanics
  • Lecture Notes in Nuclear and Particle Physics
  • Lecture Notes in Particle Physics
  • Lecture Notes on General Relativity
  • Lectures on Astronomy, Astrophysics, and Cosmology
  • Lectures on Particle Physics
  • Lectures on Riemann Zeta-Function
  • Light and Matter

M

  • Mag 7 Star Atlas Project
  • Many Particle Physics
  • Math Alive
  • Mathematical Analysis I(Zakon E)
  • Mathematical Biology
  • Mathematical Methods
  • Mathematical Methods 1
  • Mathematical Methods for Physical Sciences
  • Mathematical Methods of Engineering Analysis
  • Mathematics, Basic Math and Algebra
  • Mathematics for Computer Science
  • Mathematics for Computer Science
  • Mathematics for Computer Scientists
  • Mathematics For Engineering Students
  • Mathematics Formulary
  • Motion Mountain
  • Music: A Mathematical Offering
  • Mysteries of the Sun

N

  • Natural Disasters
  • New Frontiers in Graph Theory
  • Noise Control, Reduction and Cancellation Solutions in Engineering
  • Nondestructive Testing Methods and New Applications
  • Nonlinear Optics
  • Notes on Coarse Geometry
  • Notes on Elementary Particle Physics
  • Notes on Quantum Mechanics

O

  • Observing the Sky from 30S
  • On Particle Physics
  • Operating Systems: Three Easy Pieces

P

  • Particle Physics Course Univ. Cape Town
  • Particle Physics Lecture Notes
  • People’s Physics Book
  • Perspectives in Quantum Physics: Epistemological, Ontological and Pedagogical
  • Photons, Schmotons
  • Physics Lectures
  • Physics Tutorials
  • Physics Study Guides
  • Pioneers of Science
  • Practical Astronomy
  • Practical Astronomy for Engineers
  • Preparing for College Physics
  • Primer Of Celestial Navigation
  • Principal Component Analysis – Multidisciplinary Applications
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Volume 1

Q

  • Quantum Dissipative Systems
  • Quantum Field Theory
  • Quantum Fluctuations
  • Quantum Information Theory
  • Quantum Magnetism
  • Quantum Mechanics
  • Quantum Mechanics
  • Quantum Mechanics: A Graduate Course
  • Quantum Mechanics: An Intermediate Level Course
  • Quantum Notes
  • Quantum Physics Notes
  • Quantum Theory of Many-Particle Systems
  • Quantum Transients

R

  • Recreations in Astronomy
  • Relativistic Quantum Dynamics
  • Relativity: The Special and General Theory
  • Review of Basic Mathematics
  • Riemann Surfaces, Dynamics and Geometry Course Notes

S

  • Short History of Astronomy
  • Sintering of Ceramics – New Emerging Techniques
  • Solitons
  • Some Basic Principles from Astronomy
  • Special Relativity
  • Spherical Astronomy
  • Star-Gazer’s Hand-Book
  • Statistical Physics
  • Street-Fighting Mathematics
  • String Theory
  • Structures of Life
  • Supernova Remnants: The X-ray Perspective
  • Superspace: One Thousand and One Lessons in Supersymmetry
  • System of Systems

T

  • The Astrobiology Primer: An Outline of General Knowledge
  • The Astronomy and the Bible
  • The Astronomy of the Bible: An Elementary Commentary on the Astronomical References of Holy Scripture
  • The Basic Paradoxes of Statistical Classical Physics and Quantum Mechanics
  • The Beginning and the End
  • The Beginning and the End of the Universe
  • The Complete Idiot’s Guide to the Sun
  • The Convenient Setting of Global Analysis
  • The Eightfold Way: The Beauty of Klein’s Quartic Curve
  • The General Theory of Relativity
  • The Geology of Terrestrial Planets
  • The Geometry of the Sphere
  • The Handbook of Essential Mathematics
  • The Moon: A Full Description and Map of its Principal Physical Features
  • The Open Agenda
  • The Origin of Mass in Particle Physics
  • The Particle Detector Brief Book
  • The Physics Hypertextbook
  • The Physics of Quantum Mechanics
  • The Planet Mars
  • The Small n Problem in High Energy Physics
  • The Story of Eclipses
  • The Story of the Heavens
  • The Structure of Life
  • The Wonder Book of Knowledge
  • The World According to the Hubble Space Telescope
  • The Zij as-Sanjari of Gregory Chioniades (June 27, 2009)
  • Three Dimensional Geometry

U

  • Understanding Physics
  • Unfolding the Labyrinth
  • Utility of Quaternions in Physics
  • Uses of Astronomy

Language Mistakes | Etiquette Mistakes

Hey guys, first off Happy New Year! I can’t believe it’s already 2017. I had a pretty great year last year, but I’m much more excited for what this year will hold for me! Graduating from university, moving to Japan, etc.! It’s all very exciting.

My first post for 2017 is going to be on common mistakes that foreigners make when speaking Japanese and when they’re in Japan!

Language Mistakes:

  1. Particles - I think a lot of Japanese learners struggle with particles and more often than not, end up using the wrong particle in their sentence. は and が are often misused by non-native speakers. When は is used the meaning depends on the context that it was used in (it usually has multiple possible meanings and you just have to figure out what the meaning is depending on the type of situation it was used). For example: 私は魚です can mean “I’ll have fish” when speaking to a waiter or “I am a fish” in response to a question about yourself. As for が, it can be used to exclude other possibilities and to lock in your answer so 私が魚です means “I am a fish”. Another example is the overuse of と which means “and” but it can only be used to connect two nouns together. If you wanted to connect multiple nouns together you would have to conjugate and use て form not と.

  2. Using the word ‘あなた’ for “you” - in Japanese they don’t use pronouns such as 'you’ when addressing each other, this concept is a little hard for some Japanese learners to grasp and they use あなた in Japanese, just like you would use “you” in English, but actually it’s kind of rude to refer to someone as あなた in Japanese so please try to refrain from using it.

  3. Intonation and Nuances - intonation and nuances are important in Japanese, for example there are some words that have different meanings but are pronounced the same. 箸「し」means chopsticks and 橋「は」means bridge. If you want to say chopsticks you should place more emphasis on “は”, and if you want to say bridge you should place more emphasis on “し”. Another example is “ええ”, depending on what kind of intonation you use it in, it can mean “yes”, “what?!”, or “must I?”. Some Japanese learners speak in a monotone voice but it’s important to use intonation to properly convey your message across.

Etiquette Mistakes:

  1. Taking a phone call on a train or bus - making or answering a phone call and having a conversation is a common mistake that foreigners make in Japan. Being loud in public transport is rude in most countries but Japan takes this especially seriously, so don’t get caught out committing this social faux pas!

  2. Blowing your nose in public - this might seem strange to us foreigners who are quite used to openly blowing our noses in public and hearing others do it (all throughout my schooling life I’ve had class mates blow their noses in the class room so I’m quite used to this), but in Japan you won’t see this happening. So try to avoid this as much as possible.

  3. Not removing your shoes - I think a lot of people know about this by now, but when you enter someones home you have to remove your shoes. They’ll usually have quest slippers for you to use so you don’t have to walk around barefoot. Some Japanese restaurants might ask you to remove your shoes too, so make sure you’re always wearing matching socks ;)

anonymous asked:

*slides over a briefcase of money* I'll love you so ducking much if you do a part 2 of Lotor with the Lotor headcanon where Lotor goes to gets his pet back from the paladins. Thank you very much. Please

*slips on my Gucci shades* consider the job done 

part 1 right here

  • Lotor spends a day max in locating your signal. he has half of the quadrants under his command on high alert for the Paladins
    • he’s snappish with his generals and even Axca doesn’t know how to talk to him (and she cares for him the most). tbh, none of the generals foresaw how much he would be suffering with you gone
    • he won’t eat, he won’t brush his hair and he’s been sitting on his throne since you went missing, brooding as he imagines smashing the Paladins one by one for taking away his pet
  • While in the Castle of Lions, the team attempts to interrogate you on Lotor’s exact location but you’re so scared, out of depth and missing your Prince
    • “I just wanna go home,” you whimper. “I want my Prince. Who are you?”
    • “We’re the Paladins of Voltron,” Shiro says in his best calming tone, “and we’re not going to hurt you.”
    • “Where is Lotor?” Allura immediately jumps the gun and Shiro’s efforts are for naught as your guard is up and you wouldn’t speak anymore
    • in the end, Shiro sighs, “Let’s just leave her. She’s obviously in shock. Maybe we’ll try again tomorrow.” Pidge even tries to convince you but it’s Keith who pushes the hardest
    • he reminds you that in not giving up Lotor’s position, you’re essentially betraying the Alliance and the whole universe. but you dig your heels in, you will not give up Lotor, even if the Paladins offer you freedom
      • what is freedom if it means you’ll be separated from him for the rest of your life?
    • Allura agrees with Shiro, and activates the particle barrier, ready to close the castle for tonight when a loud blare fills the space. “Quiznak!” the Princess yells, fear in her eyes, “Lotor is here!” 
  • you scramble up and the castle jarrs, as if something slammed into it. The doors suddenly slip open, and Zethrid barges in, with Narti at her side. Ezor slips in, Coran standing in front of her, his bright purple eyes diminishing as Narti drops her palm from his back
    • “Hello, Paladins!” Ezor greets, much to their shell shock dispositions. “We’re just here to retrieve someone that belongs to our Prince. See, he doesn’t like it when people take away his love, and you all are going to pay~~”
    • Axca bursts in like the badass she is and engages with both Shiro and Keith who has already unfroze from the shock and are reaching for their weapons. It’s Ezor who picks you up and you both run from the room as the Paladins give chase
  • she throws you into a pod and shoots you into the Galra cruiser. You’re scared, but when the doors open and you see Lotor, he rushes towards you, pulling you into a tight hug.
    • “Oh, (Y/N), I was so worried,” he breathes, as he lifts you into his arms. “Did they hurt you? I will personally kill them if they scarred you.”
    • “N-No, Lotor,” you reassure, “they didn’t touch me.” he exhales in relief. he thought…oh good stars, he thought that you would’ve left him and it gave him new perspective on your relationship
    • the generals appear, slightly roughed, but triumphant as Ezor throws her arms around you. “Oh, we missed you so much (Y/N)! The ship has been so quiet without your laughter!” 
      • Lotor clears his throat and she immediately lets you go, and remains chastised. he spares his generals a nod of gratefulness as he steers you into the bathroom
  • he’s much gentler here, and he even washes your hair, taking care to soap your whole body. it’s a nice feeling and when you lean back into his arms, moaning lightly, he takes it as an open invitation. 
    • has you bent over the luxurious bathtub as he takes from behind, all the while he’s praising you. it would’ve given you emotional whiplash if you didn’t feel the same way as him
  • he would keep you in his room, insisting that you need rest as he brings you food and books to keep you occupied. 
    • he’s less guarded, and where he once used to stop you from asking questions, he now encourages your curiosity
    • you’ve never heard him laugh this much before, especially when you share your culture with him. “Humans eat what now??” 
    • it’s a pretty laugh and you’re f u c k e d in a different sense of the word
  • you expect him to be rougher with you, but he’s still gentle, and when he takes you that night, his hands are entwined in yours, and his lips are on your ear, whispering how much he missed you
    • it’s a nice change, and you ask him about it
    • “well, if I want you to be the mother of my children, I have to make sure you’re safe and able to conceive, am I right?” you’re in shock. I mean, he’s basically popped you the Galran version of a marriage proposal
      • “you…you want to have a child…with me?” 
      • “I can take care of you,” he says in earnest, gripping your hands in his. “You’ll never be for want and our child will be loved. I will try my best and I know he will be a great ruler when I take over the universe.” 
        • you smile, and say, “What if our child’s a she?” 
        • Lotor grins, “then I hope she will be a most fearful Queen.”
  • Something must be wrong with you bc you agree, and sex is a given almost every night when he has a spare moment.
    • he arches your back, saying that, “the seed will take better” and he’s awfully kind to you that you almost cry 
    • no one has ever been this attentive to you and you feel like you don’t deserve his treatment
  • Nothing works until one night, he slams the door open, looking visibly upset and when you ask him, he remains scarily silent, dragging you into his arms and pinning you to the wall
    • he fucks you against the hard surface, as he leaves bruises on your neck, forcing you to cum multiple times that night. he’s not finished with you, as he throws you onto the bed, pushing himself between your legs as his mouth latches harshly onto your wetness
    • Lotor comes in you about three times that night, his refractory period almost nonexistent
    • when he seems ready to talk, you ask him and he says that he’s just received word that his Father is thinking about appointing another successor as the Galran Emperor
      • he’s sorry, saying that he’s been mistaken and you’ve never seen him this broken. you know he has a hard relationship with his Father, but you never expected it to be this bad
      • you comfort him that night and allow him to make love to you, and despite the horrible news, you’ve never felt that connected to him
  • Everything’s all well and fine as he concentrates on outwitting the Paladins and stealing Voltron
    • but then you miss your period

take a deep breath.

feel the earth slowly turning. feel the tides responding to the moon. reach out with your consciousness and touch the stars. breathe in the air filled with particles of galaxies. run your fingers through the light. 

you are not trapped. this is not the end. you will make it through this.

and so the universe said, “be at peace.”

Don’t be afraid to follow the changing flow of your interests. It might seem scary when you have fixed your mind on a subject. Especially at the beginning of an academic career & university, one thinks one knows what field to work in. I thought I was going to be a particle physicist, until I actually studied quantum field theory and realized it isn’t what I thought it was. Now I’ve ended working on open quantum systems in quantum information theory. When I was in graduate school, I never thought I would like it; but again, it turned out I didn’t know anything about it. Keep your mind open. Do what you like and what you’re good at rather than what you thought you would do, perhaps in a time when your decision was based more on a fantasy than real interest.

The Flash!AU Nobody Asked For

ok ok I’m gonna need you to stop scrolling bc i’ve been binge watching the Flash like crazy and I was like, yanno, spence what if keith was the flash??? scarlet speedster, red paladin?? hELLO?? and now i have these headcanons i need to get off my chest and i’m typing really fast to get them all down so get your asses ready for the Flash!AU nobody fucking asked for but y’all are getting anyways oK lETS GO

  • so some backstory: Keith is a 20 year old uni student who goes to Garrison Tech, majoring in astronomy and mechanical engineering; he used to live with his adoptive older brother Takashi, but the latter went missing a few months prior to the Incident™, so now he lives on his own; growing up, he and Takashi lived on their own next to the Sanchez family, who practically adopted them as one of their own
  • he got his powers from a particle accelerator “accidentally” exploding at Altea Labs; he was hit with the blast while on his way to university and got his ass knocked into a coma for almost an entire year
  • he was transferred from the hospital to Altea Labs, seeing as the Sanchez family weren’t qualified to keep paying his medixal bills, seeing as they weren’t legally family (Mama Sanchez almost punched the doctor when they told her this?
  • when he finally woke up, Keith realized he wasn’t in any hospital, and that he was strapped down to a table; he tried to escape, only to end up blowing a hole through the side of a room he was being kept in
  • Pidge and Hunk, the only two lab techs who stayed at the labs even after it closed down, tried to calm him down, but Keith ended up running off somewhere before they could actually explain what had happened to him
  • after running into a few buildings and maybe destroying a bridge, Keith ends up at the Sanchez house, where he finds his childhood friend/mortal enemy, Lance; he’s about to get Lance’s attention and tell him that he’s here, that he’s somehow still alive, but he gets knocked out and hauled back to Altea Labs
  • this time when we wakes up, it’s not just Pidge and Lance with a tazer gun at the ready in case he tries to escape again, but the founder of Altea Labs, Alfor, is there
  • this time, they’re able to explain to Keith what actually happened; he got hit with the blast and his cells were altered at a molecular level, and now he can literally break the sound barrier, which would be really awesome and so so so amazing, except it’s n o t
  • Keith doesn’t want superpowers, he just wants to be normal, he wants to go to uni and graduate and he wants to pay off his debts to the Sanchez family and maybe marry Lance but he doesn’t want to be some superhuman
  • except now he doesn’t have a choice, because realtering his cells and take away what’s giving him powers would probably kill him, or at least render him useless in some way
  • so now, Keith is stuck with powers he doesn’t want and a secret he doesn’t need, but you know, it can’t be that bad - at least he doesn’t have to fight anyone, right?
  • w r o n g
  • shortly after Alfor and the two tech geeks tell him about his powers and start training him to control the Speed Force, these new mutants start popping up around the city; metahumans, people who were affected by the explosion in the same way he was, except they use their powers to commit crimes, and now Keith has this responsibility to stop them
  • at first, he absolutely refuses to fight them
  • don’t get him wrong, being a superhero sounds great, but there is no way in hell that he’s going up against a seven foot tall monster who can control freaking f i r e
  • but then, while making his way downtown (walking fast, walking faster) he sees the meta attacking a preschool - and not just any preschool, but the preschool where Lance works at
  • oh shit
  • Keith manages to rush into the preschool and save most of the afternoon class, but when he turns to make sure Lance is okay, he realizes that he’s not there
  • Lance had noticed that one of the children was still inside the building, about to be freaking m a u l e d by the metahuman, and rushed back in to save him without a moment’s hesitation
  • the child manages to run to safety, but Lance isn’t so lucky - he’s caught by the meta, and is being pounded into the wall
  • something snaps inside Keith, and he bolts into the preschool, beating the meta into next year (literally) saving Lance from dying (what a hero, what a man)
  • Lance, ofc, doesn’t remember the face of the “mysterious man” who saved him, bc yanno, why not
  • after almost seeing the love of his life Lance almost get killed by someone whose just like him, Keith relents; he goes back to Altea Labs, and agrees to help stop the corrupt metas who were created from the blast
  • “It was amazing! I swear I was going to die - Juan, this is all your fault by the way - but he saved me! Like, like a knight in shining armor! And a mullet! Saving the day in…in..” “In a flash?” “Yes! In a flash!”
  • and thus, the Flash was born

anonymous asked:

I was told that biology and psychology aren't real sciences like physics/chemistry because they have issues with reproducibility and one of the criteria for science is reproducibility. Is there any truth to this?

I mean there are issues with reproducibility, although I tend to think that a lot of it stems (at least in bio, in psych it comes from reading universality into college age white men) from bio dealing with such intricately complex systems that we don’t understand well enough to know how small perturbations in method affect outcome. 

Each cell is different, and we don’t know all the variables at play in each experiment, which makes reproducing things very difficult. This isn’t to downplay how difficult something like, say, high energy physics is, but when you’re running tests on the universe, you can be much more certain that it’s gonna be mostly the same each time you run the test and that any issues you have are on your end, not the universes. When you run a test on a cell you don’t know if the problem is you, or the methodology, or if that particular cell on that day is just behaving differently because they just do that sometimes. 

Also, physicists can’t throw stones because they have this habit of writing literally hundreds or thousands of papers on things that haven’t been reproduced yet and then having to go, oh nvm I guess when CERN says that a certain observed particle or whatever was just a false positive. 

Reproducibility is important, but it plays a different role in different fields, according to the need and complexity of those fields. Should we strive for it as an ideal? Definitely. But we also have to recognize the specific issues at play and understand the limitations of our methods. 

Stars align in test supporting 'spooky action at a distance'

Quantum entanglement may appear to be closer to science fiction than anything in our physical reality. But according to the laws of quantum mechanics – a branch of physics that describes the world at the scale of atoms and subatomic particles – quantum entanglement, which Einstein once skeptically viewed as “spooky action at a distance,” is, in fact, real.

Imagine two specks of dust at opposite ends of the universe, separated by several billion light years. Quantum theory predicts that, regardless of the vast distance separating them, these two particles can be entangled. That is, any measurement made on one will instantaneously convey information about the outcome of a future measurement on its partner. In that case, the outcomes of measurements on each member of the pair can become highly correlated.

Keep reading

fic; if scully were that stoned

standalone; pg-13; msr & Gunmen; warnings for drug use; Scully gets high with the Gunmen. The Fed bursts in.

For @sunflowerseedsandscience, who said the words, and I quote: “@wtfmulder you HAVE to write this. Get high first if it’ll inspire you, but we NEED this.” So I did.

***

The moment the universe came into existence it knew it was destined for greater things. From a speck, a dot, the end of the first sentence ever truly spoken, it grew. It fed on itself, as it continues to do to this day: fattening up on particles, feasting on the waste and then expanding ever more… yes. It feasted…

Oh, hell! I’m starving. Where is Byers with that pizza, and how long have I been sitting here? Alone, no less, gaping like an idiot on the love seat. Why would they leave me here… oh. That certainly explains it. It appears that the cushions are stuffed with clouds and I am no longer afraid heights. I’m not sure I could be convinced to ever leave. I’ll become one with the Gunmen. We were all once so hairy and stooped, millions of years after emerging from the water. Most of us have evolved since then.

I’m being harsh. But Langley cheats at Monkey Ball, and Frohike is a narc. Byers orders his pizza without cheese. Can you blame me?

The grinding of my stomach curbs my pipe dreams of squatting in an underground lair. There’s food in here, somewhere, the godawful neon dairy goop they use on every sandwich –

Fuck me running that’s Mulder. Oh, Mulder. Oh, no.

Noooooooo.

“Mulder,” I smile. Why on earth am I smiling, and why can’t I stop? Without any approval on my part I erupt into giggles so high pitched and goofy I momentarily separate from my body to watch it all from the margins. Instead of feeling embarrassed I fixate on his forearms.

“Scully,” he says, sitting down, and oh it’s so fond I can feel myself melting. We both smile so little, I suddenly realize. I rarely ever see that face. I think of all the things we have to smile about. We most definitely have all of our limbs. I reach for one of his, leaning into warm, clean-scented space.

“You’re here to arrest me,” I say quite seriously, wiggling to sit up straight.

“We are on the clock,” he nods. “It’s my duty as a federal agent.” He reaches his hand up to touch my head, still smiling.

“What are you doing?” I ask, closing my eyes. It feels a bit like a massage, but as soon as I press into his fingers he pulls them back.

“Checking for brain injuries,” he replies, moving his knees away from mine. “But it appears that I’m the one who’s in a coma. And clearly coding.” And then I see it in his eyes, a hardening that chills my bones. He pats my thigh and stands up.

“We tried to tell him you weren’t here,” pouts Byers, who is already too morose when stoned. “But he saw the footage.”

“You’re taping me?” I gasp. They couldn’t be. What would they even – I don’t want to know, so never mind that.

“He’s talking about the outside footage, you standing at the door,” Frohike says gruffly, standing in the corner with his arms crossed. Frohike, who says he hates the smell but likes me, who makes everyone mulligatawny when delivery cuts off. Langley picks at something on his t-shirt. Bickering commences.

I ignore the conversation while I study Mulder’s expressions, of the few he actually has… I don’t think I ever quite know what Mulder’s thinking anymore. I’ve got no evidence and he’d deny it, if asked. But I think he looks hurt. He looks like a puppy that’s been kicked and dressed up in a leather jacket. An ember in me sparks up like the cherry and I consider dismissing him, like he dismissed me. I consider ditching him.

But the spark dies, maybe numbed by chronic good vibes. I follow him out of the lair. As we expand and collide and move on into infinity, we grow apart…

We sit in his car for some time, his head on the window, one hand immobile on the steering wheel. Mulder has – he has such nice hands. Groomed but strong and meticulous. When he talks with them they go wild. His hands suit him very well.

It only takes a few minutes. That’s a record for us. The tension leaves his body and another smile changes his face, this one smaller than before but more real.

“Dana Scully,” he says, a hint of laughter in his voice. “You are weeeeell and truly stoned.”

“Just a little,” I assert. But I can’t stop from laughing, and he teases me all the way back to Georgetown. Your eyes are as red as your hair. You were holding a can of Cheez Wiz, Scully. You smell like sophomore year at college. You smell like most of my sources. Halfway through the trip, I turn to him gravely.

“I think this is the perfect time to discuss something I’ve been meaning to bring up for awhile,” I say, taking wicked pleasure in the way he just barely slumps in his seat, lasers of discomfort shooting off at all angles.

“I uh, I don’t think this is a good… I mean… you’re not…”

“It’s time to tell you what I truly believe about the existence of extraterrestrials,” I whisper loudly.

He barks out a piercing laugh and grabs my hand over the console, twining our fingers together the whole ride back. Always expanding, always growing apart, but how we fill that infinite space…

quantum mechanics, smirks, and other complications of the universe (Pidge/Lance)

Summary: It’s the littlest things that are hardest to measure. Pidge tries anyways.
A/N: birthday fic for @flusteredkeith !!! you know how much I love you and basically every other fic I write ends up dedicated to you anyways but here’s a lil something short and sweet set in the canon universe <3 have a beautiful day~~
A/N2: partially inspired by this art by @shiros-sugar !

[Read and review on Ao3] or continue under the cut.


The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle says this: the more you know about the position of a particle, the less you can know about its momentum, and vice versa.

Pidge’s Field Guide to Her Friends (Version 2.0, after extensive beta testing) says this: in precisely ten ticks, Lance will approach the tall, four-eyed, four-armed alien with a wink and a pick-up line.

Sure enough, the experiment begins right on time.  Lance saunters over, all long limbs and diamond-edged smile, leaning casually against the pillar to deliver his pièce de résistance: “Are you from space?  Because your body’s out of this world.”  

Based on Pidge’s calculations (after all, a scientist is only as good as the notes she keeps), this line has a 67% success rate.

The alien looks at Lance, all four eyes staring at him blankly, before excusing itself from the conversation.  Pidge turns around to hide her snicker, taking out her palm pad so that she can update her data.  The column keeping track of “overtures made” goes up from 27 to 28.

“What are you doing?” Hunk appears at her shoulder.

“Testing a hypothesis.  Have you ever thought about how Lance is kind of like Schrodinger’s Cat?”

Hunk strokes his chin. “Not really. Explain.”

“The cat is both dead and alive until you open the box.  Lance is both charming and not until he opens his mouth, and then he’s just… not.”

Keep reading

arvit  asked:

About the dark matter thing, I have heard about a few possible candidates that are being examined more closely at the moment. One are the neutralinos, the other are black holes between 20 and 100 solar masses, which are the only size possible for dark matter and which have been discovered more often with LIGO and the other detectors for gravitational waves. What do you think about those theories? (And about MOND, that hardly ever gets coverage for the general public)

Thanks for asking! To start out, we don’t know much about dark matter, but here’s what we do know: Stars are orbiting galaxies too fast for the visible matter to be the only thing holding the galaxy together; in order for the speeds of stars orbiting to be reconciled with the amount of mass we can see, we’ve concluded that there has to be about 5-10x as much matter that can’t be seen because it doesn’t interact with light, giving it the nickname “dark matter.” Based on rotational curves (which show the speed of stars rotating around the galactic center at a given distance from the core), we know that the dark matter extends in a “halo” significantly larger than the visible galaxy. (image source)

This is a rotational curve; as you can see, the rotational curves don’t follow the path expected at all. Astrophysicists did a bunch of math and figured out that the dark matter must be in a huge halo around the galaxy: (image source)

Now for the different theories you talked about! I’m not too familiar with neutralinos; from what I (just) read, they’re theoretical particles with a lot of mass, and one of the predicted ones are WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles - don’t you love how astronomers name things), which is a good candidate for dark matter, but hasn’t yet been proven. A lot of articles I’ve read about dark matter searches spent some time talking about WIMPs so they’re probably a good candidate and could end up being right. Another particle had the acronym MACHOs and i believe it also has to do with dark matter.

Black holes are definitely not the source of dark matter, because there is 5-10x more dark matter than luminous matter in the universe, meaning that there would have to be at least 109 or more of these black holes (essentially one black hole for every 1-10 stars), so we can write this theory off. Also, this theory wouldn’t match the observed rotational curves - whatever dark matter there is, it has to be whizzing around in the dark matter halo. 

MOND, or modified-newtonian dynamics, is almost definitely not true. The theory of gravity (general relativity) is pretty pretty solid and extremely unlikely to be wrong, so redoing our entire theory of gravity to fit dark matter is probably not the answer; this is why it gets essentially no coverage.

If you want my personal opinion, I think the most likely candidate would be a massive but very weakly (if at all) interacting subatomic particle that we haven’t discovered yet. From what I understand, we’re trying to figure out how to detect them, but it’s very very hard since these particles don’t interact with light (and only really interact gravitationally). 

If you want more information about dark matter, you should check out this post by @quantanaut about what we know (or more accurately don’t know), along with the dark matter tag on my blog. ps im sorry I literally typed you an essay but I wanted to be thorough. If i did a poor job explaining anything or you want to talk more about it or want clarification or something, feel free to shoot me another question!!

“Yeah, two particles that, at some point, were united, these are still in some kind of connection. No matter the distance between the two, even if they are at opposite ends of the universe. The connection between them is instantaneous. It’s the same thing that happens between two people when they link them to a bond that only living beings can experience. Is the way this relationship works to the one we call love. 💜✨“

Currently researching: How to destroy the universe

A cursory Google search mainly turns up theories about the natural fate of the universe.  For example:

  • The universe could continue to expand to the point that gravity can’t hold anything together, spreading all particles so thin as to be functionally useless.
  • Everything will eventually cool down to the point that the universe achieves thermodynamic equilibrium, preventing the development of complex structures like stars and life forms.
  • The energy expanding the universe is depleted to the point that gravity can pull everything back together again, reversing the Big Bang into a Big Crunch.

This is neat and all, but it fails to identify any process to cause these phenomena to begin, or to accelerate.  When I say I want to know how to destroy the universe, what I mean is I want to know how I can destroy the universe right now.

Keep reading

anonymous asked:

If i fall into a black hole and I survive, where will i go ?

That is a very good question, and we don’t really know the answer for a lot of situations. Firstly, if you fall into a black hole, you will certainly be killed by the immense tidal forces stretching out your body through a process called “spaghettification”. But it’s not very clear what happens to the particles that made up you, after this.

If the black hole isn’t spinning, the particles that made up you will certainly fall into the singularity at the center, but it’s not known where the information from the particles would go. This is the black hole information paradox, as I talked about earlier.

If the black hole was spinning, there is a very, very small chance that you could end up in another universe. This is what Stephen Hawking says, at least, but I am very doubtful of this. If black holes could carry something to another world, we should be able to see black holes from other worlds carrying things into our own. Since we don’t see this, I would say that’s good reason to suspect that this doesn’t happen. Still, it’s an interesting idea.

willygowild  asked:

Is it possible, or even merely,..Plausible, that black holes, "theoretically", might perhaps be more akin to, say, a super-massive quantum? They DO have a "life cycle" so to speak. If Occam's razor is more or less, universally given to prove factual,..When a caterpillar transform into moth/butterfly,..The caterpillar, did NOT die,..It simply moved to another state of being,. And merely, became, something else. Far grander than its lowly crawling beginnings.So, what do you think?

I’m not sure what you mean by ‘super-massive quantum’ BHs. So, forgive me if I misinterpreted your question. Here’s what I know:

Quantum mechanical black holes may have formed in the early stages of the universe. We call these primordial black holes (PBHs). What’s really interesting about primordial black holes is that they are not the result of collapsing stars. According to general relativity, the key ingredient is basically a region of high density matter – like the quark soup, add some intense energy density fluctuation to that region of space (inflation) and you get an increased amount of matter within a Schwarzschild radius, and voilà, a miniature event horizon is born. Of course, PBHs could span an enormous mass range; those formed in the Planck epoch would have the tiny Planck mass (10^−5g),  and those formed 1 second after the Big Bang would be as large as 10^5 solar masses - like the ones thought to reside in the center of galaxies. These PBHs may still be with us today because the rate at which a black hole evaporates (Hawking radiation) is inversely proportional to its mass; a small black hole evaporates rapidly, and a massive black hole, therefore, evaporates slowly.  The smaller ones that have evaporated left some clues behind; they produced a huge amount of radiation which affected and delayed the onset of nuclei formation (nucleosynthesis), we know this because we measured the abundance of those nuclei. There is a possibility that the observed baryon asymmetry was generated by the evaporation of PBHs. The ones that are still evaporating are actually plausible dark matter candidates, they are a bit different from the typical dark matter candidates, of course, because they are not elementary particles like the weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), rather massive astrophysical compact halo objects (MACHOs). The other interesting thing is that we don’t really know the end result of evaporating black holes, maybe they shrink to the Planck scale and circle around the universe as Planck-mass relics.

8

Five Brilliant Ideas For New Physics That Need To Die, Already

“ 4.) Technicolor: We all now know that the Higgs gives rest mass to the particles in the Universe. But what if there hadn’t been a Higgs; could there have been another way to get mass? There sure is: technicolor! Instead of the Higgs boson, additional gauge interactions provide another mechanism for giving mass to particles and, incidentally, avoid the hierarchy problem. But in theory, they should have produced new physics at the electroweak scale that wasn’t seen and flavor-changing neutral currents (a certain type of particle decay) that also isn’t seen. But the nail in the coffin was the experimental confirmation of the existence of the Higgs boson, rendering the idea of technicolor moot. Nevertheless, work continues on this discredited idea. ”

The history of physics is littered with brilliant ideas that have revolutionized how we look at the Universe… and have been discarded entirely because they’ve failed to describe reality. Theories like the Tired-Light alternative to relativity, the Steady-State alternative to the Big Bang, and even the Sakata Model alternative to the quark model of particles have come and gone, with practically no one working on them today. As it should be. But many ideas that the science has overwhelmingly spoken against continue to linger on, as their adherents continue to double down on investing in them, despite failure after failure after failure. At the end of the day, physics is an experimental science, and no matter how beautiful, elegant, or compelling your theory is, if it fails to have its predictions borne out by experiment and observation, it must be set aside as unsuccessful.

Here are five of the most popular, worked-on theories of today that have no business sucking up the time and talents of physicists interested in unlocking the deepest mysteries of nature.

The universe is made up of stories!

You know that quote about how the universe is made up of stories and not atoms? And how Bashar talks about how we’re each living our own separate realities but we can also co-create realities together?

Well, today I suddenly had this thought about how that’s actually true. Like, we’re all kind of not allowed to want to have a really amazing life, right? We’re supposed to want OTHER people to have an amazing life first or else we’re horrible and selfish. But this is actually our story. Every single person on this planet is the main character of their own story and any time we interact with someone else it’s like a cross-over. Like when one character from one show makes a cameo appearance on another show. Sometimes they make very small cameo appearances, and other times they’ll make a very big appearance where it seems like two stories are now blending into one. But in the end, everyone is living their own story. And everyone has the right to be the hero or the princess (or whatever) of their story and to have their happy ending and to edit their story however they want. Hell, maybe even every atom—every subatomic particle of this universe—is just the center of its very own story. Or even multiple stories since subatomic particles can be in two places at once.

But, my point is, you’re allowed to not like how your story is going. You’re allowed to be upset about how your story has gone. Just like you would be with a book you’re reading. It’s your story. It’s not someone else’s story, no matter what they say—and they have their own story anyway. Even if they don’t want to admit it or take responsibility for it or prefer distracting themselves with your story because they’re too afraid to read their own.

And if you want to blame some secondary character in YOUR story, go right ahead. (Not to their face though because that usually doesn’t do anything, but just like, in your own head. Just to vent and get it out.) Let there be a villain in your story if you want, if it makes you feel better. Because they are completely free to also acknowledge the fact that they are the main character of THEIR story and maybe you’re not someone they really loved having in THEIR story either. Either way, it’s all fine. Don’t feel bad about hating your story or loving it or wishing it was different. You’d never think twice about feeling a certain way about a book you read, so don’t beat yourself up for wishing your story was different.

Remember, this is all just a story. And stories can change. They can be edited and rewritten and go through huge plot twists. They can unfold magically and epically and beautifully and whimsically. It’s like how Lewis Carroll says; life what is it but a dream?

Well, life what is it but a story? And if you’ve read even a handful of books you’ll know that in stories anything is possible. And there are as many stories as their are main characters in this world. So if you’re alive and in this world, I’m pretty you’re the main character of your own story—not someone else’s.