the outline of science

So I wanted to outline some of the new topics outlined in the new California history-social sciences curriculum to include and celebrate LGBTQ+ history. Because it’s something I’ve been doing a lot of research into and I just think it’s absolutely fantastic. The following is copied from the “Making the Framework Fair” document - a report from the Committee on LGBT History. It’s a comprehensive list of the topics proposed.

> Grade 2: 

• LGBT families in the context of understanding family diversity as a contemporary and historical reality 

>Grade 4: 

• Central roles played by gender and sexuality in California’s history as a site of rich, contested, and changing diversity 

- How settlers and missionaries sought to impose European American concepts of gender and sexuality on Native American societies 

- Possibilities and motivations for same-sex intimacies and gender diversity in frontier conditions and the Gold Rush era 

- The role of gender and sexuality in nineteenth- and early twentieth-century migrant belonging and policing 

- The crucial place of California and Californians in the development of the modern LGBT rights movement 

>Grade 5: 

• Variation over time, region, and culture in colonial American practices and laws with regard to gender and sexuality 

- Native American gender and sexual diversity and European responses in the context of North American colonialism 

- Regional diversity in family and community arrangements, gender roles and possibilities, and approaches to sexuality in law and practice, with attention to Puritans, Quakers, Southern settlers, and enslaved Africans 

>Grade 8: 

• Fundamental transformations in gender and sexuality in conjunction with nineteenth-century urbanization and industrialization 

- Same-sex romantic friendship as an accepted cultural practice resulting from the separate spheres ideology and shifting gender expectations for women and men 

- Roles of gender and sexuality in the practice and struggles over slavery and emancipation 

- Interlocking ways that gender, sexuality, and race shaped Western expansionism and the diverse possibilities it presented 

- Evolving social and cultural expressions of intimacy between men and women (including same-sex relations) through urbanization and immigration

>Grade 11: 

• The evolution of modern LGBT communities and identities 

- Relationships formed in the late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century female worlds of settlement houses, women’s colleges, and social movements

- Sexual and gender diversity in early twentieth-century cities and cultural movements, including the Harlem Renaissance 

- The impact on approaches to same-sex sexuality, gender diversity, and cultural expression of 1920s changes in sexual and gender norms, including Prohibition, the rise of dating, and the emphasis on companionate marriage

- New possibilities in World War II for same-sex intimacy, community, and identity on the homefront and abroad 

- The postwar creation of vibrant if persecuted LGBT subcultures 

- The formation of open and expressive LGBT cultures and communities since the 1970s 

- Contemporary diversity of LGBT people, families, and relationships 

• Twentieth-century persecution of sexual and gender minorities and the related growth of the LGBT civil rights movement 

- The medicalization of homosexuality and gender diversity as pathological and the subsequent struggle against this perspective

 - Systematic World War II attempts to eliminate gay men and lesbians from the military and the establishment of a regime of dishonorable discharge that denied many veterans their rights to benefits 

- The Lavender Scare targeting gay men and lesbians, which developed in conjunction with the postwar Red Scare and exceeded its impact in both time and scope 

- Homophile, gay liberation, and contemporary LGBT movements as part of the story of civil rights activism in the United States 

- Anti-gay activism as part of the rise of the New Right 

- AIDS as a medical, political, and social issue in U.S. history 

- Court cases about same-sex sexuality and gender diversity demonstrating changes in policies and public opinion over time


This is super exciting news for parents and teachers in California. Hopefully the rest of the U.S. follows suit quickly. It’s also important to note that teachers aren’t really being forced to teach these subjects, nor are they yet included in textbooks, worksheets, or other teaching tools very widely. Teachers are receiving trainings, but it will take years to disseminate this throughout the state. 

I have to submit my course outline on friday so I’m adding the last informations before my s/o makes it all pretty for me ! (They’ve got a better eye for these things than I do).

Since the course is quite intensive, it was suggested to me not to have more than one complete mandatory literary work. My students are going to be reading Fahrenheit 451, lucky them !

Note Taking Systems

The Cornell Method

The Cornell method provides a systematic format for condensing and organizing notes without laborious recopying. After writing the notes in the main space, use the left-hand space to label each idea and detail with a key word or “cue.”

Method

Rule your paper with a 2 ½ inch margin on the left leaving a six-inch area on the right in which to make notes. During class, take down information in the six-inch area. When the instructor moves to a new point, skip a few lines. After class, complete phrases and sentences as much as possible. For every significant bit of information, write a cue in the left margin. To review, cover your notes with a card, leaving the cues exposed. Say the cue out loud, then say as much as you can of the material underneath the card. When you have said as much as you can, move the card and see if what you said matches what is written. If you can say it, you know it.

Advantages

Organized and systematic for recording and reviewing notes. Easy format for pulling out major concept and ideas. Simple and efficient. Saves time and effort. “Do-it-right-in-the-first-place” system.

Disadvantages

None

When to Use

In any lecture situation.


The Outlining Method

Dash or indented outlining is usually best except for some science classes such as physics or math.

  1. The information which is most general begins at the left with each more specific group of facts indented with spaces to the right.
  2. The relationships between the different parts is carried out through indenting.
  3. No numbers, letters, or Roman numerals are needed.

Method

Listening and then write in points in an organized pattern based on space indention. Place major points farthest to the left. Indent each more specific point to the right. Levels of importance will be indicated by distance away from the major point. Indention can be as simple as or as complex as labeling the indentations with Roman numerals or decimals. Markings are not necessary as space relationships will indicate the major/minor points.

Advantages

Well-organized system if done right. Outlining records content as well as relationships. It also reduces editing and is easy to review by turning main points into questions.

Disadvantages

Requires more thought in class for accurate organization. This system may not show relationships by sequence when needed. It doesn’t lend to diversity of a review attach for maximum learning and question application. This system cannot be used if the lecture is too fast.

When to Use

The outline format can be used if the lecture is presented in outline organization. This may be either deductive (regular outline) or inductive (reverse outline where minor points start building to a major point). Use this format when there is enough time in the lecture to think about and make organization decisions when they are needed. This format can be most effective when your note taking skills are super sharp and you can handle the outlining regardless of the note taking situation.

Example:

  • Extrasensory perception
    • definition: means of perceiving without use of sense organs.
      • three kinds
        • telepathy: sending messages
        • clairvoyance: forecasting the future
        • psychokinesis: perceiving events external to situation
      • current status
        • no current research to support or refute
        • few psychologists say impossible
        • door open to future

The Mapping Method

Mapping is a method that uses comprehension/concentration skills and evolves in a note taking form which relates each fact or idea to every other fact or idea. Mapping is a graphic representation of the content of a lecture. It is a method that maximizes active participation, affords immediate knowledge as to its understanding, and emphasizes critical thinking.

Advantages

This format helps you to visually track your lecture regardless of conditions. Little thinking is needed and relationships can easily be seen. It is also easy to edit your notes by adding numbers, marks, and color coding. Review will call for you to restructure thought processes which will force you to check understanding. Review by covering lines for memory drill and relationships. Main points can be written on flash or note cards and pieced together into a table or larger structure at a later date.

Disadvantages

You may not hear changes in content from major points to facts.

When to Use

Use when the lecture content is heavy and well-organized. May also be used effectively when you have a guest lecturer and have no idea how the lecture is going to be presented.

Example:


The Charting Method

If the lecture format is distinct (such as chronological), you may set up your paper by drawing columns and labeling appropriate headings in a table.

Method

Determine the categories to be covered in the lecture. Set up your paper in advance by columns headed by these categories. As you listen to the lecture, record information (words, phrases, main ideas, etc.) into the appropriate category.

Advantages

Helps you track conversation and dialogues where you would normally be confused and lose out on relevant content. Reduces amount of writing necessary. Provides easy review mechanism for both memorization of facts and study of comparisons and relationships.

Disadvantages

Few disadvantages except learning how to use the system and locating the appropriate categories. You must be able to understand what’s happening in the lecture

When to Use

Test will focus on both facts and relationships. Content is heavy and presented fast. You want to reduce the amount of time you spend editing and reviewing at test time. You want to get an overview of the whole course on one big paper sequence.

Example:


The Sentence Method

Method

Write every new thought, fact or topic on a separate line, numbering as you progress.

Advantages

Slightly more organized than the paragraph. Gets more or all of the information. Thinking to tract content is still limited.

Disadvantages

Can’t determine major/minor points from the numbered sequence. Difficult to edit without having to rewrite by clustering points which are related. Difficult to review unless editing cleans up relationship.

When to Use

Use when the lecture is somewhat organized, but heavy with content which comes fast. You can hear the different points, but you don’t know how they fit together. The instructor tends to present in point fashion, but not in grouping such as “three related points.”

Three Examples:

Example 1:

A revolution is any occurrence that affects other aspects of life, such as economic life, social life, and so forth. Therefore revolutions cause change. (See page 29 to 30 in your text about this.)

Sample Notes:

Revolution - occurrence that affects other aspects of life: e.g., econ., socl., etc. C.f. text, pp. 29-30

Example 2:

Melville did not try to represent life as it really was. The language of Ahab, Starbuck, and Ishmael, for instance, was not that of real life.

Sample Notes:

Mel didn’t repr. life as was; e.g., lang. of Ahab, etc. not of real life.

Example 3:

At first, Freud tried conventional, physical methods of treatment such as giving baths, massages, rest cures, and similar aids. But when these failed, he tried techniques of hypnosis that he had seen used by Jean-Martin Charcot. Finally, he borrowed an idea from Jean Breuer and used direct verbal communication to get an unhypnotized patient to reveal unconscious thoughts.

Sample Notes:

Freud 1st – used phys. trtment; e.g., baths, etc. This fld. 2nd – used hypnosis (fr. Charcot) Finally – used dirct vrb. commun. (fr. Breuer) - got unhynop, patnt to reveal uncons. thoughts.

3

unscripted much? 😉

How I’d Ruin It: MST3k

Inspired by @tyrantisterror‘s post on breaking the Batman universe, here’s an outline of the Mystery Science Theater 3000 episode that I (and probably no one else) would like to see.

Kinga’s version of the Forrester experiment differs in one major way from Clayton and Pearl: the primary goal isn’t to drive Jonah insane. She tells us her real plan in the first episode: revive Mystery Science Theater 3000 (which was an in-universe television show during the days of Deep 13) and eventually sell the rights to Disney for a billion dollars.

This episode would take place a few years into Jonah’s imprisonment on the Satellite of Love. With the help of his robot friends, his riffing is as sharp as ever, but the ratings (we’ll ignore the Netflix format) are in a tailspin. Everyone makes fun of entertainment these days; MST3k no longer stands out in the comedy landscape it created. So Kinga decides it’s time for a mid-season shocker: she’s going to show Jonah a movie certain to break him once and for all. Not an abomination like Manos: The Hands of Fate or Invasion of the Neptune Men – Joel and Mike endured them both and kept on trucking. No, she has a different approach in mind to make her father and grandmother proud. Her confidence in its success is such that she’s already set a trap to lure the next host: a Moon 13 internship. Unpaid, of course.

“I’m sure they’ll cause a flame war or twenty, but the fans always get over it.”

Keep reading

anonymous asked:

OH MY FUCKING GOD, I'M DYING WITH THE UNDERBEAR STORY LOL Jensen showed to you guys his underwear? I'M SO JEALOUS LOL Now, I need to know and I hope that I don't sound like a creepy stalker, but did you managed to see the outline of his dick? I need details, for science 😏

so here’s the details of how the photo op and underwear showing sitch happened

in terms of dickage, uhm, n-no. i mean it’s not like he stood up and took OFF his jeans at us. but honestly even if he had, that’s totally not where my mind was at the time. like i was super exhausted and punch drunk and dying over the photo op and then got really amused and honestly mostly just happy for @amazinmango that jensen is sitting there having this discussion with him about underwear. while admittedly also kind of thinking that boys have weird weird conversations about what’s under their trousers. 

so then when we got flashed, for me i immediately went I KNOW THOSE and told jensen that i had considered buying that same print for mango and mango asking if they were the ones with the jellyfish, which then led to us seeing more of jensen’s underwear. 

i mean i would go straight for jensen in a hot second but that’s kind of not what that moment was about. it was like 30 seconds after we’d walked away from the autograph table that i was like, … DAMN SON what the fuck just happennnnnned that whole interaction was very flirty and attractive. 

also, just to say, not necessarily directed at you, nonny, but just to put it out there in public. i think one of the reasons jensen talked to us a lot longer and gave us a short strip tease is because we did try REALLY REALLY HARD to make sure he (and misha during the op) was comfortable and okay with it and we weren’t violating any boundaries and we weren’t objectifying anyone. which i gotta pass credit for most of that to @amazinmango because i am DEFINITELY the asshole between the two of us and he really helped keep the focus on positive, safe, consensual experience for us and for the cast. which i think because we had that going, maybe that made jensen feel more relaxed around us and therefore more open??? like with his flies idk i just think that’s an important point. it was really important to me and mango to treat fellow fans, and the cast and crew at the con as PEOPLE and not objects, even objects we admired or found attractive or wanted a moment with. i think that’s generally hella important in fandom and fannish space. 

FIC: The light that shrivels a mountain, chapter 1

Pairing: eventually a slow burn Sara Ryder/Harry Carlyle story
Summary They will need new terms for everything now, a whole new vocabulary for their existence. Sara Ryder and Harry Carlyle try to get their bearings in a new galaxy as they find themselves closer to each other than they ever expected.

Read at AO3
or under the cut

Keep reading

As some of you might be aware of, I had received my IGCSE results almost a month ago. I did well and I thought I might share with you how I earned my distinctions (message me privately for details). Now, these tips could work with other types of exams, but I can’t guarantee that they’ll be as effective as for the IGCSEs.

Now, what I’m about to tell you might be a little disappointing: don’t rely on your notes, textbook, teachers, online sources, or youtube videos. Yes, these might be great ways to allow you to have a more comprehensive understanding of a certain topic and clarify any doubts you have, but they don’t always get you the highest marks on the exam.

There are only two sources that are 100% reliable: the syllabus and past papers.

The first step in studying for the exams is going through the syllabus. I myself use the syllabus as a checklist of the things I need to study, and I divide them into sections of maybe three or four chapters. For example, biology has 21 topics, and I would study 3 topics per day. Physics, however, only has 5 topics, so I studied one per day (but I mostly did practice questions).

During this stage of studying, you should make sure that you fully comprehend the concept. This is the time when you can refer to the sources mentioned in the second paragraph (notes, textbook, etc). I summarized all my notes from Secondary 3 and 4 into one binder (minus biology because that subject alone is nearly as thick as the other subjects combined), using the syllabus as an outline. I started revising for the science exams at the end of semester break, and then revised all my subjects over a period of about 3 months. Don’t cram all your studying the week before the exam (I think we all know this, but we still do so sometimes).

Now comes the crucial part of studying for the IGCSEs: doing past papers. Not only will you familiarize yourself with the type of questions they ask in the exam, you could come across recycled questions. You’ll also be more accustomed to answering properly, i.e. knowing which points count as separate points, keywords that account for a specific number of points, terminology required.

Youtube videos might give you a better understanding of a topic that you’re struggling with, and notes might be easier to remember, but only past papers have the precise answers examiners look for. I remember for my biology mock exams, there was the question: “state two functions of the placenta”. For one of the functions, I put down “producing progesterone during gestation period”. Well, that’s true isn’t it? Yes, but my mock exams were compilations of past paper questions and my answer wasn’t in the mark scheme. I asked my biology teacher, and that was his argument, even though he had acknowledged that my answer was not wrong. When you’re dealing with your teacher face to face, you might have the opportunity to debate for extra marks (he wouldn’t give it to me, though), but when you do the actual exams, you can’t expect the examiner to give you–an unknown student among thousands of other candidates–an exception.

Past papers include all the points required to get full marks for that question as well as how candidates should answer the question (structure, etc). The latter is especially important for humanities subjects such as Economics. For a ten mark question, definitions and showing an understanding of the concept could score around 2 to 4 marks, the argument and counterargument could score up to 5 marks each, and the conclusion might score 2 to 4 marks. Different questions structures, of course, would have different outlines, and you should practice writing according to those expectations. The person who knows the book or their notes like the back of their hand won’t necessarily score better than the candidate who didn’t study but knows how to answer the question. However, you could memorize all past year papers and expect a good grade. One of my seniors did this and received a perfect score (100%) on one of his exams.

Despite this, you should always caution not to refer to the mark scheme whenever you have difficulties in answering a question. Giving into the temptation will only give you a disadvantage as you won’t learn where you went wrong. If you believe you could reverse engineer the problem, try doing it for one problem only and then attempt to do the next set of problems on your own. This way, you could see where you went wrong. On another note, practicing answering past papers also allows you to identify the areas in which you require improvement.

I know that’s been quite a long read, but I can’t emphasize this enough: do your past papers! All other study methods are great for understanding and memorizing, but you could improve your grades by a significant amount just by doing past papers.

TLDR: just look at the bolded parts; you’ll get the main idea.

The expression ‘objective thoughts’ signifies the truth, which is to be the absolute object, not merely the goal of philosophy. And yet it also shows at once an opposition and, indeed, the very opposition around whose determination and validity the interest of the philosophical standpoint of our time turns, as does the question of truth and knowledge of the truth. If a fixed opposition attaches to the thought-determinations, i.e. if they are of a merely finite nature, then they are unfit for the truth that is absolutely in and for itself, and the truth cannot then enter into thinking. Thinking that produces only finite determinations and moves among them is called understanding (in the more precise sense of the word). More specifically, the infinitude of the thought-determinations is to be construed in this double sense: the one, that they are merely subject and are in permanent opposition to the objective; the other, that due to their limited content generally they persist in opposition to each other and even more so to the absolute.
— 

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel,

Encyclopaedia of the Philosophical Sciences in Basic Outline, Part 1: Logic

I’ve gotten a ton of asks about how I take notes and different types of note taking methods. So, below are different methods of note taking that I use and find useful.

Cornell Notes

I find the Cornell note method particularly helpful for any subject, and are extremely useful in lecture type settings. The standard Cornell note taking format is very structured which helps organization. I personally do no’t follow the traditional Cornell note look, because it can be quite impractical for using paper, and filling in all of the paper. To know when to write a summary and end notes, I usually divide each section of notes by the topic. If the topic of the notes that I am taking changes I write a summary about them. Below is a variation that I use of the Cornell Method. *Note: I do not always have vocabulary definitions at the end. I only make a section for vocab definitions if there are terms I did not define within my notes.

Mindmaps

Mindmaps are one of the best ways to show the relationship between topics and super flexible and are basically your own in terms of design. Overall it is pretty simple to make a mindmap:

  • In the center of a blank piece of paper you should have your main idea or overall idea
  • Branching from the main idea, a subheading of a subtopic should be written and connected by using arrows (I recommend writing your information first in the area you would like then drawing the arrow)
  • Under the subtopic the relationship between subtopic & main idea should be explained and other details about the subtopic should also be added such as: important dates, quotes, and themes

I would also recommend to go in order such as counterclockwise or clockwise to make sure you have enough space for each of your topics. I suggest color coding your mindmaps and adding pictures or diagrams to help you remember key points! Continue this until you fill up the paper with all of your topics!

Outline Method

The outline method can be used also in any situation. I like to use the outline method for subjects like science and english. The outline method is relatively simple and easy to use, and can be changed to your liking. All you do is, put the major points farthest to the left and then indent each more specific point to the right. The father away the point is from the main point, the less it pertains or is important to it. Indentions can be labeled with Roman numerals, dashes, or bullet points. There are some downfalls to the outline method, due to the thinking required if you are ordering the points by importance, which can slow down lecture note taking.

An example of the outline method:

1. Main Point (very broad/general)                                                                                 i. This concept must always apply to the sub-level above                                           ii. This is a second supporting piece of information but not as important                        iii. Other information                                                                                                iv. Information equally important as the point above

Two Column Note System

Two Column notes are literally as the name says. You split your paper down the middle creating “two columns”, and on the left side of the column you ask questions that explain your term. On the right hand side the definition of the term would be explained. There are different variations that can be taken on the two column notes. Two column notes can be used to learn new vocab and is super easy and quick to make. My two column notes can be found here.

My organic chemistry study method

Here’s what I’m doing this semester for organic. The basic idea is that I bookend the class with study sessions so that I maximize retention and transform class to what would have been a learning session to a review session.

First, I use SQ3R, as outlined in How to Study Science, or by Melissa, to read and preview the chapter content for a few hours before class. The only difference is that I do this in conjunction to reading the professor’s powerpoint for that day.

Then in class, I take notes that supplement or clarify the slides.. I title a section of notes in accordance to the slide to which the content relates. Then, immediately after class, I sit down with the book, the powerpoint, and my notes, and I synthesize them all in a cohesive final version of notes.

Book is on the top screen, powerpoint is on the bottom, new notes to the left, slop notes to the right.

After that is done, I make a test based off of the synthesized notes. This test is then used before the following class as a way to review the previous content, and as a ready made method to prepare for exams. I mostly make it fill in the blank where I ask for facts or explanations, drawing, sample problems, etc.

Then I do practice problems, and keep those problems in my binder, annotated with explanations as to why this answer is right, and reminders for where I usually trip up on certain things in problems.

Rinse and repeat for each class.

And, yes, this is time consuming. I pity those that have multiple science classes in a row – or, even worse, those in medical school – because this would structure your days into nothing more than three giant blocks: preview/review; class; synthesize, make tests, and practice.

anonymous asked:

Hi Sabrina, my name Brittney and I'm a huge fan of your work. I also admire your writing skills. Would you happen to have any advise on writing dialogue for comics?

Ooh, this is a neat question!! I had to think about this one a lot …

For me, the most important part of writing dialogue is making sure your characters have strong “wants” or motivations. I tend to outline my stories pretty heavily before I write scripts, going through three or so passes of a scene written out as tight summaries of all the plot points of each scene, i.e. “Hyde tries to tempt Jekyll into going to the Bazaar by conjuring up glittery images of whimsical science stuff. It will look kinda trippy!!“ Rough outlines help me focus in on character motivation without getting slowed down with final word choices or nicely worded sentences. No one’s ever going to see this draft, so it can be as simple and messy as I need it to be!

Writing the actual script–at least, the first draft of it–is so much easier when you have a clear idea of where you need to go and why!! With those big questions out of the way, writing the actual dialogue is a lot like staging an improv scene in your head. I put myself in the headspace of each character as they speak and try to hear how they would respond in their own words. Sometimes I’ll even say them out loud to see how they sound!!

Tho it also helps that I’ve done years of thinking about these characters, so I have a pretty good idea of how they react to various things. If you don’t have that backlog of information built up, it may help to imagine your characters in random situations and imagine how they might react. 

An aside: My actual outlines use REALLY informal language and a lot of swearing. It helps me get un-stuck when I can’t remember the perfect word, i.e. The King’s Speech. Sometimes, when specific research-y details are required, I will literally write something like “UGH I DON’T KNOW THE DATE WHEN THIS HAPPENED?? LOOK UP LATER” so I don’t get caught up in a Wikipedia rabbit hole. I … usually get around to resolving these little holes by the final script stage. >>

snapshots; ed/winry, elric family

Summary: Three snapshots, taking place after the births of each of their kids.

Word Count: 3,302

Notes: ok so this is my belated birthday present for my bb cazz who is entirely to blame for my fma obsession. it kind of gave me a toothache to write this, it’s so fluffy ughhh. i haven’t decided yet how many kids i think ed and winry would have, so for this i decided three was a good number. hope you like this my dear~ 

-

Ed didn’t know quite what to make of his newborn son.

Winry had decided she would be most comfortable giving birth at home, and they’d called in a local doctor to help deliver when the time came. Al and Mei had both traveled from Xing a few days prior, after Ed wrote them to say that her due date was close. Even Colonel Bastard and Hawkeye were there, on temporary leave from their new stations in Ishval. Only Ed was allowed to stay in the room while Winry endured ten long hours of labor, letting her squeeze his hand as hard as she wanted while she fought through every contraction. There were several times that he wondered if he would ever get the feeling back in that hand.

Keep reading