Mars was once a small, wet and blue world, but over the past 4 billion years, Mars dried up and became the red dust bowl we know today.
But how much water did Mars possess? According to research published in the journal Science, the Martian northern hemisphere was likely covered in an ocean, covering a region of the approximate area as Earth’s Atlantic Ocean, plunging, in some places, to 1.6 kilometers (1 mile) deep. More info
Hidden Ocean Found on Saturn’s Icy Moon Enceladus, Could Potentially Support Life
The Saturn moon Enceladus harbors a big ocean of liquid water beneath its icy crust that may be capable of supporting life as we know it, a new study reports.
The water ocean on Enceladus is about 6 miles (10 kilometers) deep and lies beneath a shell of ice 19 to 25 miles (30 to 40 km) thick, researchers said. Further, it’s in direct contact with a rocky seafloor, theoretically making possible all kinds of complex chemical reactions — such as, perhaps, the kind that led to the rise of life on Earth.
“Discovered in 2005, the peculiar looking crustacean known as the yeti crab gets its name from the layer of "furry” setae that covers most of its body. Given the scientific name “Kiwa hirsuta” and sometimes called a “furry lobster”, the yeti crab was originally discovered in the Pacific Ocean near the Antarctic Ridge about 900 miles off the coast of Easter Island. Since then another species has been discovered and named “Kiwa puravida”.
Yeti crabs are known to inhabit the ocean floor and stay near hydrothermal vents, and due to their entire lives being spent on the ocean floor, they never develop the ability to see. The white hairy crabs are known to be unusually large for living where they do, with an average length of around 6 inches (15 centimeters), and are found at depths as deep as 7200 feet (2200 meters). The arms are actually covered in bacteria, which lives in the setae and is most likely a food source for the crab. Yeti crabs are also believed to feed off mussels, shrimp or algae. Their hair is possibly a means of sensing their surroundings. Not much else is known about the yeti crab, but it is believed to be a distant relative of the common hermit crab.“ -
So long, Nereus, and thanks for teaching us more about our world.
On Saturday, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution confirmed it lost the unmanned deep-sea explorer Nereus. During the science platform’s short service, it revealed details about the deepest parts of Earth’s oceans.
“On Saturday, May 10, 2014, at 2 p.m. local time (10 p.m. Friday EDT), the hybrid remotely operated vehicle Nereus was confirmed lost at 9,990 meters (6.2 miles) depth in the Kermadec Trench northeast of New Zealand. The unmanned vehicle was working as part of a mission to explore the ocean’s hadal region from 6,000 to nearly 11,000 meters deep. Scientists say a portion of it likely imploded under pressure as great as 16,000 pounds per square inch.”
How do deep sea creatures survive at such high pressures?
At sea level, the air pressure is equivalent to one atmosphere, or 14.696 psi (approximately). Psi is a measure of pounds of force per square inch; at sea level for every square inch of surface area there’s almost 15 pounds of force.
Under the ocean, water pressure increases rapidly. At sea level the pressure is one atmosphere. For every ten meters (33 feet) you go down, the pressure of the water increases by another atmosphere. Just 50 meters underwater, the pressure has already increased fivefold from the pressure at the surface. 6 miles down in the Mariana Trench, the pressure is over 1000 atmospheres, the equivalent of 15,000 psi.
So how do deep sea creatures survive the incredible pressure at lower depths?
The first thing you should know about Sylvia Earle is that she has a LEGO figurine modeled after her. One that has little yellow flippers instead of little yellow feet.
But you should also, if you don’t already, know many more things about Sylvia Earle. You should know that she has been a pioneer of deep-sea exploration—becoming, essentially, the maritime equivalent of an astronaut. You should know that she has spent more than 6,000 hours underwater, which is more than many fish can claim. And that, in 1986, she plunged down 1,000 meters (more than half a mile) into the ocean in a small little submarine, tying the world record for the deepest solo dive (a record set, incidentally, by her then-husband Graham Hawkes). You should know that she is a knight (in the Order of the Golden Ark, in the Netherlands.) And that she is the author of several books about the ocean—among them several children’s books.
The accolades that have resulted from Earle’s wide-ranging relationship with the sea have been themselves wide-ranging. Earle was the first person—not the first woman, the first person—to be named as Time magazine’s “Hero for the Planet.” In 1998, she was named National Geographic’s "explorer-in-residence.“ In 2000, she was inducted into the National Women’s Hall of Fame. She served as the first female chief scientist of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). In In 2009, she won a TED Prize. She has been nicknamed, at various points in her career, ”Her Deepness“ and ”The Sturgeon General.“ She has been called, unironically, a ”Living Legend.“
1 Don’t Save Me (Cyril Hahn Remix) by Haim
2 Bliss by The Maine
3 Paris by Magic Man
4 We’re The Kids by Parade Of Lights
5 Easy Now by Sir Sly
6 Settle Down by The 1975
7 Young Hearts by Strange Talk
8 All Of The People by Panama Wedding
9 Miracle Mile by Cold War Kids
10 Shot At The Night by The Killers
11 Punching In A Dream by The Naked And Famous
12 Orange County by Swim Deep
13 Got To My Head by Waters
14 Young by Air Review
15 All Night by Icona Pop
16 Miracle by Ghost Beach
17 Mason Jar by Smallpools
18 Lonesome Dreams by Lord Huron
19 We Move Like The Ocean by Bad Suns
20 A Sky Full Of Stars by Coldplay
check out this playlist on my 8tracks which is paigehahs
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration sent a titanium-encased hydrophone into the darkest, deepest part of the Pacific Ocean near Micronesia. This trough located in the Mariana Trench is known as the Challenger Deep and for three weeks in July of 2015 researchers recorded eerie noises from depths of nearly 6.7 miles (10.9 kilometers). That’s deeper than Mount Everest is tall (5.4 miles/8.8 km)!
What does this look like to you? A sponge or a coral? Some kind of seaweed? A rock??? (pic credit: NOAA)
Nope, this is a xenophyophore, a type of marine protist. (A protist is a eukaryotic microorganism). These animals live deep in the ocean, even in places like the Mariana Trench. They have been found past depths of 6 miles! They can be extremely abundant on the sea floor, as many as 2000 per 100 square meters.
Xenophyophores are single-celled organisms. The most shocking thing about them is their size. A certain xenophyophore (Syringammina fragilissima) can get as big as 20 centimeters across! That’s right, a single animal cell almost as big as a dinner plate!
Very little is known about xenophyophores because they are almost impossible to study (they are very fragile, being single celled organisms in the deep sea). We know there are lots of different kinds with different shapes, sizes and structures. We know that they form tests, which are sort of like shells, out of basically spare scraps they pick up as they move. They eat bits of organic matter found in the water or in the substrate beneath them.
While they are single celled organisms, they are multinucleate, meaning they have multiple nuclei distributed evenly throughout the cell. A xenophyophore is organized into branching tubes. All this, within a single cell!
Here’s a video and some of the (little) information I was able to find about such an obscure and unique type of animal.
NASA’s Cassini spacecraft and Deep Space Network have uncovered evidence that Saturn’s moon Enceladus harbors a large underground ocean, furthering scientific interest in the moon as a potential home to extraterrestrial microbes.
Researchers theorized the presence of an interior reservoir of liquid water in 2005 when Cassini discovered water vapor and ice spewing from vents near the moon’s south pole. New data on the moon’s gravity field reported in the April 4, 2014, edition of the journal Science strengthen the case for an ocean hidden inside Enceladus.
The gravity measurements suggest a large, possibly regional, ocean about 6 miles (10 kilometers) deep, beneath an ice shell about 19 to 25 miles (30 to 40 kilometers) thick. The subsurface ocean evidence supports the inclusion of Enceladus among the most likely places in our solar system to host microbial life. Before Cassini reached Saturn in July 2004, no version of that short list included this icy moon, barely 300 miles (500 kilometers) in diameter.
This diagram illustrates the possible interior of Saturn’s moon Enceladus based on a gravity investigation by NASA’s Cassini spacecraft and NASA’s Deep Space Network, reported in April 2014. More
“The way we deduce gravity variations is a concept in physics called the Doppler Effect, the same principle used with a speed-measuring radar gun,” says Sami Asmar of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, Calif., a coauthor of the paper. “As the spacecraft flies by Enceladus, its velocity is perturbed by an amount that depends on variations in the gravity field that we’re trying to measure. We see the change in velocity as a change in radio frequency, received at our ground stations here all the way across the solar system.”
“This provides one possible story to explain why water is gushing out of these fractures we see at the south pole,” adds David Stevenson of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, one of the paper’s co-authors.
Cassini has flown near Enceladus 19 times. Three flybys, from 2010 to 2012, yielded precise trajectory measurements. The gravitational tug of a planetary body, such as Enceladus, alters a spacecraft’s flight path. Variations in the gravity field, such as those caused by mountains on the surface or differences in underground composition, can be detected as changes in the spacecraft’s velocity, measured from Earth.
The technique of analyzing a radio signal between Cassini and the Deep Space Network can detect changes in velocity as small as less than one foot per hour (90 microns per second). With this precision, the flyby data yielded evidence of a zone inside the southern end of the moon with higher density than other portions of the interior.
Watery jets erupting from locations near the south pole of Enceladus.More
The south pole area has a surface depression that causes a dip in the local tug of gravity. However, the magnitude of the dip is less than expected given the size of the depression, leading researchers to conclude the depression’s effect is partially offset by a high-density feature in the region, beneath the surface.
“The Cassini gravity measurements show a negative gravity anomaly at the south pole that however is not as large as expected from the deep depression detected by the onboard camera,” says the paper’s lead author, Luciano Iess of Sapienza University of Rome. “Hence the conclusion that there must be a denser material at depth that compensates the missing mass: very likely liquid water, which is seven percent denser than ice. The magnitude of the anomaly gave us the size of the water reservoir.”
There is no certainty the subsurface ocean supplies the water plume spraying out of surface fractures near the south pole of Enceladus, however, scientists reason it is a real possibility. The fractures may lead down to a part of the moon that is tidally heated by the moon’s repeated flexing, as it follows an eccentric orbit around Saturn.
Much of the excitement about the Cassini mission’s discovery of the Enceladus water plume stems from the possibility that it originates from a wet environment that could be a favorable environment for microbial life.
“Material from Enceladus’ south polar jets contains salty water and organic molecules, the basic chemical ingredients for life,” says Linda Spilker, Cassini’s project scientist at JPL. “Their discovery expanded our view of the ‘habitable zone’ within our solar system and in planetary systems of other stars. This new validation that an ocean of water underlies the jets furthers understanding about this intriguing environment.”