the moon: considered as a planet a world and a satellite

10 People You Wish You Met from 100 Years of NASA’s Langley

Something happened 100 years ago that changed forever the way we fly. And then the way we explore space. And then how we study our home planet. That something was the establishment of what is now NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. Founded just three months after America’s entry into World War I, Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory was established as the nation’s first civilian facility focused on aeronautical research. The goal was, simply, to “solve the fundamental problems of flight.”

From the beginning, Langley engineers devised technologies for safer, higher, farther and faster air travel. Top-tier talent was hired. State-of-the-art wind tunnels and supporting infrastructure was built. Unique solutions were found.

Langley researchers developed the wing shapes still used today in airplane design. Better propellers, engine cowlings, all-metal airplanes, new kinds of rotorcraft and helicopters, faster-than-sound flight - these were among Langley’s many groundbreaking aeronautical advances spanning its first decades.

By 1958, Langley’s governing organization, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, or NACA, would become NASA, and Langley’s accomplishments would soar from air into space.

Here are 10 people you wish you met from the storied history of Langley:

Robert R. “Bob” Gilruth (1913–2000) 

  • Considered the father of the U.S. manned space program.
  • He helped organize the Manned Spacecraft Center – now the Johnson Space Center – in Houston, Texas. 
  • Gilruth managed 25 crewed spaceflights, including Alan Shepard’s first Mercury flight in May 1961, the first lunar landing by Apollo 11 in July 1969, the dramatic rescue of Apollo 13 in 1970, and the Apollo 15 mission in July 1971.

Christopher C. “Chris” Kraft, Jr. (1924-) 

  • Created the concept and developed the organization, operational procedures and culture of NASA’s Mission Control.
  • Played a vital role in the success of the final Apollo missions, the first manned space station (Skylab), the first international space docking (Apollo-Soyuz Test Project), and the first space shuttle flights.

Maxime “Max” A. Faget (1921–2004) 

  • Devised many of the design concepts incorporated into all U.S.  manned spacecraft.
  • The author of papers and books that laid the engineering foundations for methods, procedures and approaches to spaceflight. 
  • An expert in safe atmospheric reentry, he developed the capsule design and operational plan for Project Mercury, and made major contributions to the Apollo Program’s basic command module configuration.

Caldwell Johnson (1919–2013) 

  • Worked for decades with Max Faget helping to design the earliest experimental spacecraft, addressing issues such as bodily restraint and mobility, personal hygiene, weight limits, and food and water supply. 
  • A key member of NASA’s spacecraft design team, Johnson established the basic layout and physical contours of America’s space capsules.

William H. “Hewitt” Phillips (1918–2009) 

  • Provided solutions to critical issues and problems associated with control of aircraft and spacecraft. 
  • Under his leadership, NASA Langley developed piloted astronaut simulators, ensuring the success of the Gemini and Apollo missions. Phillips personally conceived and successfully advocated for the 240-foot-high Langley Lunar Landing Facility used for moon-landing training, and later contributed to space shuttle development, Orion spacecraft splashdown capabilities and commercial crew programs.

Katherine Johnson (1918-) 

  • Was one of NASA Langley’s most notable “human computers,” calculating the trajectory analysis for Alan Shepard’s May 1961 mission, Freedom 7, America’s first human spaceflight. 
  • She verified the orbital equations controlling the capsule trajectory of John Glenn’s Friendship 7 mission from blastoff to splashdown, calculations that would help to sync Project Apollo’s lunar lander with the moon-orbiting command and service module. 
  • Johnson also worked on the space shuttle and the Earth Resources Satellite, and authored or coauthored 26 research reports.

Dorothy Vaughan (1910–2008) 

  • Was both a respected mathematician and NASA’s first African-American manager, head of NASA Langley’s segregated West Area Computing Unit from 1949 until 1958. 
  • Once segregated facilities were abolished, she joined a racially and gender-integrated group on the frontier of electronic computing. 
  • Vaughan became an expert FORTRAN programmer, and contributed to the Scout Launch Vehicle Program.

William E. Stoney Jr. (1925-) 

  • Oversaw the development of early rockets, and was manager of a NASA Langley-based project that created the Scout solid-propellant rocket. 
  • One of the most successful boosters in NASA history, Scout and its payloads led to critical advancements in atmospheric and space science. 
  • Stoney became chief of advanced space vehicle concepts at NASA headquarters in Washington, headed the advanced spacecraft technology division at the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, and was engineering director of the Apollo Program Office.

Israel Taback (1920–2008) 

  • Was chief engineer for NASA’s Lunar Orbiter program. Five Lunar Orbiters circled the moon, three taking photographs of potential Apollo landing sites and two mapping 99 percent of the lunar surface. 
  • Taback later became deputy project manager for the Mars Viking project. Seven years to the day of the first moon landing, on July 20, 1976, Viking 1 became NASA’s first Martian lander, touching down without incident in western Chryse Planitia in the planet’s northern equatorial region.

John C Houbolt (1919–2014) 

  • Forcefully advocated for the lunar-orbit-rendezvous concept that proved the vital link in the nation’s successful Apollo moon landing. 
  • In 1963, after the lunar-orbit-rendezvous technique was adopted, Houbolt left NASA for the private sector as an aeronautics, astronautics and advanced-technology consultant. 
  • He returned to Langley in 1976 to become its chief aeronautical scientist. During a decades-long career, Houbolt was the author of more than 120 technical publications.

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BNHA - Space (symbolism) Edition

So @saisai-chan and I were talking about awesome space stuff and it bled into talking about BNHA, which led to this - BNHA characters as symbolic celestial *SPACE* objects. We’re just… Really enthusiastic about space…..


All Might - Sun. Center of everything, provides life/energy to the solar system, largest celestial body in solar system. (All Might’s influence.) Also protects the solar system from objects from outside the system. (Again, his influence, symbol of peace, number one hero)

Midoriya Izuku - Earth. Has life on the planet, the only planet bestowed with life thanks to the sun. (KINDA LIKE… ONE FOR ALL)

Bakugou Katsuki - Venus. Zero chill, greenhouse effect, VOLCANOES EVERYWHERE (which contributes to erosion and therefore makes the surface very “new” - lowkey nod to Mama Bakugou’s quirk glycerin, making her eternally youthful), atmosphere that burns up pretty much everything before it can actually hit Venus’ surface (kinda like how Bakugou doesn’t really get close to people that much; they are often repelled/intimidated by his attitude). Secondary Atmosphere is almost entirely CO2 - because its temperatures are so high, water could never condense and bring CO2 to the crust. Venus never underwent the change that Earth and Mars had, remaining as it did with greenhouse effect => high temperatures; it never cooled off. (Bakugou is stubborn, change is very slow, still hot-headed with zero-chill af)

Uraraka Ochako - Saturn. Lots of gravity, really pretty to look at, can float on water (average density is less than water).

Todoroki Shouto - Mars. Cold and Red, Mars had a secondary atmosphere like Earth’s at one point - lost Primary Atmosphere like all the terrestrials, gained a secondary like Earth’s (caused by water condensing and falling to the crust, bringing CO2 with it). Suspected to have been substantially warmer earlier on in its life. As its core continues to cool, the planet itself cools.

Kaminari Denki - Uranus. Only planet that’s tilted on its side (he’s a dork), looks plain and boring but actually isn’t. (Kaminari seems like a joke character at first but hey! He has a personality too, has friends, cares about them, will defend them. He’s more complex than he looks, even though it isn’t much) Also, storm planet. (Electricity, lightning. Fire + wind, Bakugou and Kaminari)

Kirishima Eijirou - Neptune. Water planet, a pair with Uranus. (Kinda like a complimentary opposite of venus - water + lava (from venus) makes land, land = life (Bakugou, Kirishima, and Kaminari), goes from Raging Inferno to HOPE.)

Tokoyami Fumikage - Pluto probably. Because it’s the edgiest celestial body in our solar system, furthest from the sun (darkness aesthetic). Has a giant heart-shaped mark on its surface. (He’s a dork and not nearly as cool and edgy as he thinks.)

Todoroki Enji - Jupiter. Second largest object in the solar system, right behind mars, separated by asteroid belt. Extreme pressure (expectations on others/daunting presence) and multiple natural satellites (his own following, influence in the world). Big Red Spot. Jupiter’s coriolis effect/numerous wind cells (this guy has some inner conflicts and issues, man). Protects the Earth and inner planets but also kinda directs some asteroids towards us.

Todoroki’s Mom - Frost Line. (FROST. ICE QUIRK.) Located in the Asteroid Belt, not an actual object (we’ve only seen her, like, twice? She is Elusive), but a distance from the sun, separation between the terrestrials and Jovians. SEPARATES MARS FROM JUPITER. (she tried to protect Todoroki from Enji before)

Midoriya Inko - Ceres. Dwarf Planet, named after goddess of fertility and motherhood. (kind of out there away from the focal point; a little forgotten sometimes but also not)

Izumi Kouta - Moon. Created literally after a celestial object collided with earth. (“sorry I punched you in the dick”) Controls the tides (Kouta controls water)

Shigaraki Tomura - Mercury. Fully-formed planet before, but as it died, it’s liquid core shrank - causing wrinkles on its surface as the crust collapsed on itself. Dead, metal, and flakey. (His wrinkles. He could have had a bright future, but it died.) BUT ALSO NOT AS DEAD AS WE THOUGHT. Literally a recent finding. (Still has surprises for us, he is still a Mystery)

AfO - Black Hole. (Maybe his brother = a smaller star that turned into a white dwarf, while he = a black hole.) Giant black hole at the center of the Milky Way. (headcanon, but AfO is integrated in society in various ways without the government/hero associations knowing. He is old and influential, is a massive force. Like a black hole at the center of the galaxy)

Villains/League of Villains - Oort Cloud. Cluster of debris that surrounds the solar system; is kept at the far reaches of it. (Villains are the rejects of society, they try to stay as far away from All Might as possible)

Other students in Yuuei - Asteroid Belt.

Yuuei/Japan - Solar System. (has all of this stuff)


EXCERPT FROM CHAT (b/c I think it’s funny):

saisai-chan: YE AH
i imagine the solar system is like either UA or japan specifically
since AFO is the giant black hole at the center of the galaxy

athanatosora: And honestly, AfO at the center - I have seen and have too many headcanons that he is integrated in society in various ways without the heroes knowing. He is too old and influential to not be

saisai-chan: so he has influence all around

athanatosora: YEAH

saisai-chan: YEAH

Mandalore Meta

Thanks to @sanerontheinside and @maawi for having questions, and then me being an utter potato and forgetting long enough that this has evolved into ALL THE META AHAHAHAHAHAHA, I have decided to actually write out and explain Mandalore as we see it in The Clone Wars to the best of my ability

Note: what I write might not be accurate and there is a load of speculation because JA is stupid and I hate it AND OBI-WAN NEVER DESERVED THIS SHIT! Also, there is so much more to things than what is on the surface so motives get murky and history gets blurred. Enjoy!

Edit: Because I was dumb, I didn’t mention about where Satine came from so thanks for @jhaernyl​ for mentioning that to me (wow I’m forgetful).

A Brief history of Mandalore

Mandalore was a war-based culture that evolved over several centuries and adopted new species and such into their own system based on whether they were useful, good at fighting or just generally impressive because honour. Old Mandalore was a pretty planet, full of people who liked to fight and fought because it brought them honour.

Note: this is not dissimilar to cultures here on earth - both historical and recent - that functioned on a system that promoted honourable behaviour and perceived battle against your enemies as an honourable pursuit. Vikings and Romans are two of the most obvious sorts - especially when considering how these two cultures took the spoils of war as their own, and also had systems that would provide a slave with freedom for particular reasons (Rome had Patrons who made slaves into ‘freemen’ for various reasons etc).

Keep reading

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Ask Ethan: Does Earth Really Have A Second Moon?

“There are two different ways that a planet can have a natural satellite. The one you’re most familiar with – the path that the “old” Moon follows – occurs when an object is directly bound to its parent body. That means it has a certain speed and orbits at a certain distance from a planet to remain in direct orbit around it for an arbitrarily long time. It can’t be too far away or too elliptical in nature, or the tug from other worlds and objects in the Solar System will destroy or eject it over time. If we take a look at each one of the moons in the Solar System, they all have those characteristics.

But you don’t need to be directly bound to a planet in order to remain a natural satellite of it. Just as the planets are in stable orbits around the Sun, each orbital distance has its own stable or quasi-stable set of paths around it.”

Earlier this week, NASA announced the discovery of Asteroid 2016 HO3, calling it Earth’s second moon. And it turns out that this is an object in a stable orbit, the same distance from the Sun as the Earth, that can be found revolving around our world at a distance between 38 and 100 times the distance from us to the Moon. But that isn’t exactly the same as having a second Moon! In order to be considered not just a natural satellite but a stable one, you need to remain orbiting your parent world for a long period of time, not just tens, hundreds or thousands of years, like a transient quasi-satellite. Despite its current orbital characteristics, this object is much more akin to the multiple Trojan asteroids orbiting with our world than anything we’d consider moon-like.

Go get the full story on all of our so-called “second moons” on this week’s Ask Ethan!

Warren De La Rue (British, active 19th century), The Full Moon, from The Moon considered as a Planet, a World and A Satellite by James Hall Nasmyth (English, 1808-1890) and J. Carpenter (1874), 1851/1854 (negative); 1874 (print), Woodburytype

Portland Art Museum