The Matilda Effect
The Matilda effect is the systematic repression and denial of the contribution of women scientists in research, whose work is often attributed to their male colleagues. This effect was first described in 1993 by science historian Margaret W. Rossiter.
It is named after the U.S. women’s rights activist Matilda Joslyn Gage, who first observed this phenomenon at the end of the 19th century. The Matilda effect is related to the Matthew effect, which states that eminent scientists will often get more credit than a comparatively unknown researcher, even if their work is similar.
Rossiter provides several examples of this effect: Trotula, an Italian physician (11th–12th centuries), wrote books which were attributed to male authors after her death, and hostility towards women as teachers and healers led to her very existence being denied. Known cases of the effect from the 20th century include Rosalind Franklin, Lise Meitner and Marietta Blau.