the last romanovs

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She was the most unaffected, affectionate, and friendly member of the family. By nature, she was the archetypal mother. She loved little children, especially playing with and fussing over them. She loved being with ordinary people: she would talk to the soldiers, asking them about their home life. - Charles Sydney Gibbes 

IMPORTANT EVENTS AND THEIR DATES IN MODERN EUROPEAN HISTORY

1453  Constantinople is sacked by Muslim forces

1488  Bartolomeu Diaz rounds the Cape of Good Hope

1492  Columbus encounters the Americas (God, Glory and Gold.)

1517  Martin Luther’s posting of the 95 Theses

1520  Diet of Worms declares Martin Luther an outlaw

1524-1525  The Peasants’ Revolt takes place in Germany

1534  Act of Supremacy passed in England → Henry VIII becomes head of the Anglican Church

1545  Council of Trent begins The Counter Reformation

1555  Peace of Augsburg (cuius regio, eius religio →whose region, his religion)

1585-1589  War of the Three Henries in France

1588  Spanish Armada destroyed by the English and “The Protestant Wind”

1603  Elizabeth I Dies → Tudor Dynasty Ends and the Stuart Dynasty Begins

1618-1648  The Thirty Years War (Treaty of Westphalia ends the war in 1648)

1642-1646  English Civil War (Roundheads vs. the Cavaliers)

1649  Charles I is executed → Oliver Cromwell begins his rule

1660  Stuart Restoration in England through Charles II

1688-1689  Glorious Revolution in England→ William and Mary of Orange replace James II and sign the English Bill of Rights

1643-1715  Era of Louis XIV  The Sun King (l’etat c’est moi)

1689-1725  Reign of Peter the Great in Russia

1756-1763  The Seven Years War

1789-1799  Era of the French Revolution (Radical Stage → late 1792-1795)

1799  Napoleon comes to power

1805-1815  Napoleonic Wars are waged

1814-1815  The Congress of Vienna meets (Main principles: Legitimacy, Conservatism, Compensation & Balance of Power)

1819  Peterloo Massacre in England

1830  Belgian Independence

1832  Reform Bill in England Passed

1848  Revolutions break out across Western Europe (France, Austria, Italy and Germany)

1861  Serfs emancipated in Russia under Alexander II

1870-1871  Germany and Italy Unification

1884-1885  Berlin Conference is held (“Scramble for Africa”)

1894  Tsar Nicholas II comes to power in Russia (the last of the Romanovs)

1905  Sunday Bloody Revolution in Russia → “The Dress Rehearsal”

1914  Archduke Franz Ferdinand is assassinated → WWI starts

1917  March and November (Bolshevik) Revolutions in Russia

1918  Treaty of Brest-Litovsk is signed →Russia withdraws from war

1918  WWI ends

1919  Treaty of Versailles is signed

1918-1921  Russian Civil War (Reds vs. Whites)

1922  Mussolini comes to power in Italy and establishes the 1st Fascist government

1922  Russia officially becomes known as the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) → The Soviet Union

1923  Adolf Hitler leads the Beer Hall Putsch in Germany

1924  Lenin dies

1928  Stalin is firmly entrenched as the leader of the Soviet Union → begins the first of several 5 year plans

1929  Stock Market Crash in the US → The Great Depression begins

1933  Hitler comes to power in Germany

1938  Munich Conference (Peace in our time→Neville Chamberlain)

1939  World War II starts with Germany’s invasion of Poland

1945  World War II ends (V-E Day → May 8, 1945 and V-J Day → August 15, 1945)

1945  First session of the United Nations is held

1945-1989  Cold War (U.S. vs. S.U. begins and begins to end in Poland)

POST WW II  Decolonization → European colonies become independent

1946  Winston Churchill gives the “Iron Curtain” speech

1948-1949 Operation Vittles→the Berlin Airlift

1949  USSR successfully tests first atomic bomb

1951  European Coal and Steel Community formed (sounds like the Zollverein)

1953  Stalin dies and is succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev → destalinization begins

1954  French forces defeated in French-Indochina at Dien Bien Phu

1956  Hungarian revolt against the Soviet Union → it is crushed by the Soviets

1957  Rome Treaty is signed → The European Economic Community (EEC) is created = Common Market

1957  Sputnik is launched by the Soviet Union → the first space satellite

1958  The fifth Republic is born in France and Charles de Gaulle becomes President

1961  Berlin Wall built → dividing East and West Berlin

1961  Soviet Yuri Gagarin becomes the first man in space

1962  Cuban Missile Crisis → 90 miles off the coast of Florida

1963  Betty Friedan’s The Feminine Mystique is published

1964  Leonid Brezhnev becomes leader of the Soviet Union

1966  Under President Charles de Gaulle, France withdraws from the common NATO military command

1968  “Prague Spring” occurs in Czechoslovakia → it is crushed by the Soviets

1968  Student revolt in France (Paris)

1978  Pole Karol Wojtyla elected Pope → Pope John Paul II → 1st non-Italian in 455 years

1979  Margaret Thatcher becomes the first female Prime Minister of England (“The Iron Lady”) (Mags loathes no one more than this heinous twat)

1979  The Soviet Union invades Afghanistan (eventually becomes their own “little Vietnam”)

1980  1st independent labor union in the Soviet Bloc formed  “Solidarity” led by Lech Walesa of Poland

1980  Ronald Reagan elected President of the US (calls the Soviet Union an “evil empire”)

1985  Gorbachev becomes Soviet leader (implements policies of perestroika and glasnost)

1986  Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in the Soviet Union (specifically the Ukraine)

1989  Berlin Wall comes down

1989  The “Velvet Revolution” occurs in Czechoslovakia → Vaclav Havel becomes President

1989  The Soviet Union withdraws its forces from Afghanistan

1989  Romanian leader Nicolai Ceausescu is overthrown and killed

1990  Lech Walesa becomes President of Poland

1990  East Germany and West Germany reunify into one Germany

1990  The first McDonalds opens in Russia

1991  Attempted coup attempt in the Soviet Union → The Soviet Union begins to disintegrate

1991  Boris Yeltsin becomes President of Russia → former 15 republics of the Soviet Union form the Commonwealth of Independent States (C.I.S.)

1991  Yugoslavia begins to break apart

1992  Maastricht Treaty signed

1997  Tony Blair becomes Prime Minister of England → 1st Labor Party leader in 18 years

1999  Eurodollar becomes the single currency of the European Union (EU)

Last Words of the Romanovs

Alexei I: “I would never have married had I known that my time would be so brief. If I had known that, I would not have taken upon myself double tears.” 1676

Peter the Great: (1, written).“Leave all to…” (2, spoken). “Anna” He was calling his daughter’s name but was unconscious when she returned to his room. He died the next morning. 1725

Peter II: “Get the sledge ready, I want to go to my sister.” Spoken while delirious. His elder sister had died two years earlier at age 14. 1730

Peter III: “It was not enough then to prevent my reigning over Sweden, and to tear from my head the crown of Russia! They must have my life besides!” 1762

Paul I: “Gentlemen, in heaven’s name, spare me. At least give me time to say my prayers.” Strangled after refusing to sign his abdication. 1801

Alexander I: (1). “What a beautiful day.” (2). “Give me the remedies that you judge necessary.” 1825

Elizabeth Alexeievna: “Do not worry too much about me, but if I dared, I would like to follow the one who has been my very life.” 1826

Nicholas I: “Now I shall ascend to pray for Russia, and for you all. After Russia, I loved you more than anything else in the world. Serve Russia.” 1855

Alexandra Feodorovna: “Niki, I am coming to you.” She’s referring to her late husband, Nicholas I of Russia. She died in 1860, in the Alexander Palace.

Alexander II: Home to the palace to die…His guards heard him utter this phrase after he was attacked with bombs by anarchists in an assassination attempt. His stomach and legs were bleeding profusely and he died hours later in the Winter Palace. 1881

Alexander III: (1). “I feel the end approaching. Be calm. I am calm.” (2). “How good!” as the priest placed his hands on his head after he received the Last Rites. 1894

AFTER THE COLLAPSE OF THE ROMANOV DYNASTY

Nicholas II: “What? What?” He uttered those words in shock after he was told that he, his wife, five children and four servants would be shot immediately. 1918

Sergei Mikhailovich: “Tell me why? I have never been involved in politics. I loved sports, played billiards, and was interested in numismatics.” 1918

St. Elizabeth Feodorovna: “Father, forgive them for they know not what they do.” Those words were reportedly uttered by Elizabeth shortly before she was struck in the head and thrown in an abandoned mine shaft. 1918

Dmitri Constantinovich: “Forgive them, for they know not what they do.” Spoken while he and other 3 Romanovs were being lined up to be shot. 1919

Olga Alexandrovna: “The sunset is over.” 1960

Winter Shadow - chapter 9

Nothing happens here. Literally, 2,859 words of nothing happening. And not even well written nothing. Sorry. If I can, I’m going to finish this tonight, so you can just skip this chapter and wait for the end (or skip both!).

Masterlist

Even by Quinjet, the flight time between North America and Wakanda was long. The jet was equipped with excellent AI and autopilots, but Natasha and Steve liked to stay at the controls, at least while they were flying over occupied lands. Once the jet was clear of the continent and there was nothing but Atlantic as far as the eye could see, they finally switched to the autopilot and both sat back. Steve continued their earlier conversation, as if there’d barely been a pause; it had been playing in his mind throughout the flight.

“So, you think we can find a way to remove the triggers, really?” They’d had this conversation so many times before, but he needed constant reassurance, that there was hope. Natasha didn’t mind, she could sense how close he was at times to losing faith, was always happy to try and talk him around, help him remain optimistic.

“Someone put those triggers in there. So, there’s got to be a way to get them out. And now we have another tool…” her eyes flicked to the back of the jet, where the Shadow sat, still, lost in a world of her own. “… it could be the thing that helps.”

Keep reading

This is the seventh installment in a series of book recommendations, all of which will introduce you to kickass women from mythologies around the world, all of them written by women. All books listed had to pass the following criteria: 

  • Be written by a woman
  • Be fictional
  • Have a woman as (one of) the protagonist(s)
  • Feature Russian or Slavic mythology

This recommendation list comes on the heels of the Asian mythology rec list, because I really wanted to include Russia (which falls under both Asian and Slavic mythology), but I wanted to keep the country as a whole in one post. @kostromas (x) and @lamus-dworski (x) (x) were kind enough to take some time answering my questions.

While I mainly looked for books ft. Russian and Slavic mythologies (I used this Wiki file as a measure to determine the Slavic region), I also include a few books with other origins, such as Norway and various Eastern European countries, because I think - out of all the recommendation posts I have done and plan to do - this is the one they would fit best in. 

Please note as well that there is a lot of overlap among most of these cultures, with different versions of a character appearing in many, so some of the below classifications may be rather arbitrary (I usually go with what’s 1) listed in the summary, then see if 2) the writer specifies a culture, or if 3) readers had helpful input).

UPDATE: It’s been brought to my attention that this post could do with some clarification and additions. To start with, I’d like to address the small number of books listed under Slavic. I don’t mean to say that only the countries listed are Slavic countries. The list is as limited as it is because I found it difficult to locate books that met all the above listed criteria, and an unconscious fifth - that they be written in English. If you take out any one of those criteria, a larger pool of books would open itself up, and I encourage you to consider that as an option.

While I understand that limiting these lists to books written in or translated into English is not ideal, I also don’t think I am the right person to judge which books written in Slavic languages should be included, as I am not Slavic and don’t speak or read Slavic languages. Readers should be aware though, that reading a book featuring Slavic mythologies or cultures, which are not written by someone who identifies as Slavic, may promote a stereotypical or otherwise harmful depiction of those cultures. 

Moreover, those authors who do hail from the relevant region are more likely to be published if they don’t push the envelope too much to be acceptable for a generic Western audience. Therefore, additional reading of books on and / or featuring Slavic mythologies or cultures can aid in understanding the context of these tales. I have listed a couple of books in the honourable mentions with that in mind, and I have decided to add an asterisk (*) to all works written by an author who is confirmed as hailing from the region their work is set in. Typically, I’ve listed one or two books per author, but do check for their other writing.

Finally, I should add that I might have made a mistake in including Russia in this list. This was done because I wanted to keep the country in one post, rather than splitting it between the Asian list and this one. The Asian one was sufficiently long I didn’t want to add it there, but I might have been better off creating a completely separate list for it rather than including it here.

With the above reasons in mind, I have decided to move the Slavic section up, I have added a number of entries throughout, and expanded the resources list at the bottom.

Slavic

Russia

Other regions (not Slavic or Russian)

Undefined / speculative

Historical fiction

Comics & graphic novels

Some collected tales

Poetry

Honourable mentions

Other lists you can consult

If you have any suggestions for other Slavic and / or Russian women who deserve more attention (and a corresponding book), or which mythology should definitely be in this series, drop me a line!

Other kickass women in mythology: women in Greek mythology | women in Egyptian mythology & historywomen in Mesoamerican mythologies | women in Celtic mythologies | women in Native American mythologies | women in Asian mythologies | women in pirate lore & history

flickr

Nicholas II, the last Emperor of Russia by Olga

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The last Romanov patriarchs at their Coronation Mass, painting by Laurits Regner Tuxen, c. 1898.

“The coronation in Moscow on May 26th 1896 was the most opulent celebration which I ever witnessed. It bordered close to the Oriental and lasted for 10 days. In Moscow the cathedral was filled with paintings on gold ground of saints and all priests were dressed in gold robes applied with embroidery and precious stones. A very deep feeling of mysticism was in all the ceremonies and you could feel the tradition of Byzance… And following the prayer for the Emperor he gets up and then is the only person standing at that moment in the whole Russian Empire… To look at all this must have been like a fantastic dream because the sun was shining an all.” - Ernest Louis, Grand Duke of Hesse, Brother of Empress Alexandra, Grandson of Queen Victoria

anyways a Rasputin cameo in the musical would have been SO COOL if he had been the one to help Alexei up after he falls over in the Last Dance of the Romanovs.

granted, this would still be historically inaccurate since Rasputin was murdered in 1916 but at least it would have been more truthful to his actual role in the Imperial Family’s lives and lbr, anything is better than decaying corpse who caused communism.

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Artwork by: Елены Борисовой

Amazing paintings of NAOTMAA

never forget: despite popular belief, n*atasha r*omanov does not hesitate to love another person.