For Refinery29’s celebration of Black History Month we put together a list of Black men and women you ought to know. Their legacy in civil rights, feminism, and LGBTQ equality lives on today.
Bayard Rustin — A leading Black figure in the civil rights movement and advisor to Martin Luther King, he was the architect of the 1963 March on Washington and was heavily involved in the first Freedom Rides. He was also gay and a registered communist who went to jail for his sexual orientation. Although widely heralded, he was attacked even by fellow activists for his faith in nonviolence, unapologetic queerness, and attention to income equality. President Obama honored Rustin posthumously with the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2013.
Combaheee River Collective — A seminal Black lesbian feminist group active from 1974-1980. Although officially short lived, its influence has been major. The group is best known for writing the Combaheee River Collective Statement, an important document in promoting the idea that social change must be intersectional — and that Black women’s needs were not being met by mainstream white feminism and therefore must strike out on their own. Members of the collective included Audre Lorde and…Chirlane McCray, now First Lady of New York City and author of the landmark essay “I Am a Lesbian,” published in Essence in 1979.
John Carlos, Tommie Smith, and Peter Norman — The winners of the 1968 Mexico City Olympics 200 Meter Sprint. In one of the proudest and most political moments of sports history, John Carlos and Tommie Smith raised their leather-gloved fists in the Black Power salute. They wore black socks without shoes to represent black poverty and a scarf and necklace to symbolize “those individuals that were lynched, or killed and that no-one said a prayer for, that were hung and tarred. It was for those thrown off the side of the boats in the middle passage.”
We also include in our list Peter Norman, the white Australian silver medalist from that ceremony, to commemorate his solidarity with the two Black athletes. White people are more than indebted to black history, and Norman is an excellent example of a white ally. Although he didn’t perform the black power salute, he publicly supported the duo without regard to personal safety or retribution. Norman was penalized for his alliance with Carlos and Smith and was never again allowed to compete in any Olympics despite repeatedly qualifying. Largely forgotten and barred from major sporting events, he became a gym teacher and worked at a butcher shop. At his funeral in 2006, John Carlos and Tommie Smith were his pallbearers.
The Friendship Nine — This group of nine Black students from Friendship Junior College willingly went to jail without bail in 1961 after staging a sit-in at McCrory’s lunch counter in Rock Hill, South Carolina. They pioneered the civil rights strategy “Jail, No Bail,” which placed the financial burden for racist incarceration back on the state. They’re appreciated today for their bravery and strategic ingenuity. In 2015 their conviction was finally overturned and prosecutor Kevin Brackett personally apologized to the eight living members of the group.
Barbara Jordan — A lawyer and politician, Barbara Jordan was the first Black woman elected to the Texas Senate after Reconstruction, the first southern Black woman to be elected as a US Senator, and the first Black woman to deliver a keynote speech at the Democratic National Convention. Her keynote address is widely considered the greatest of all time, aided by her charismatic and eloquent public speaking skills. She is also remembered as one of the leaders of the impeachment of Richard Nixon. We chose the above quote to illustrate her unique punchy sense of humor.
Pauli Murray — This civil rights activist, feminist, and poet was a hugely successful lawyer who is also recognized as the first Black female Episcopal priest. Like many figures on this list, Murray was acutely aware of the complex relationship between race and gender, and referred to sexism as “Jane Crow,” comparing midcentury treatment of women to that of African Americans in the South. Although she graduated from Howard University first in her class, she was barred from enrolling as a postgraduate at Harvard because she was a woman. Instead, in 1965 she became the first African American to receive a JSD from Yale Law. Once armed with a law degree she became a formidable force in advancing feminist and civil rights. She is a cofounder of the National Organization for Women (NOW). She also identified as having an “inverted sex instinct,” which she used instead of “homosexual” to describe her complicated gender identity and lifelong attraction to women.
Apple pays a lot of lip service when it comes to diversity and inclusion,
but when it comes to its splashy keynote events, it fails. Big-time.
Once again, in 2017, the stage was dominated by almost exclusively white
We calculated approximate speaking
time for men versus women during Apple’s Worldwide Developers’
Conference keynote on Monday, and gender representation was worse than
the last two years.
Men spoke for approximately 117 minutes. Women spoke
for approximately 9 minutes. Of those 9 minutes, a few were relegated
to a woman demoing a product backstage, with another male speaker in the
foreground. Read more (6/6/17)
I sat next to Carrie Fisher at an event in 2008. She was the keynote speaker and before she took the stage she turned to me and asked if she had lipstick on her teeth. Without waiting for an answer she said “eh, who gives a fuck” and winked at me. It was the best keynote address I’ve ever heard.
Nerds like us are allowed to be unironically enthusiastic about stuff. Nerds are allowed to LOVE stuff, like, jump-up-and-down-in-your-chair-can’t-control-yourself LOVE it. When people call people nerds, mostly what they’re saying is, ‘You like stuff,’ which is not a good insult at all, like, 'You are too enthusiastic about the miracle of human consciousness
Each one of us has four personal numbers that carry a specific vibration. They are the Life Lesson Number, the Soul Number, the Outer Personality Number, and the Path of Destiny Number. In this post, we’ll be focusing on the Life Lesson number.
The Life Lesson Number represents lessons one must learn in this lifetime and is most significant to career choices. It is derived from your full birthdate.
Though this post will be focused on calculating one’s number using the numbers in your birthday, I’m including information on how to calculate the numeric vibration of letters as well, because it’s intrinsically related.
To work with the value of letters beyond “I”, which is 9, we reduce the value to a single digit. For example, “O” is 15, so we reduce the number by adding the first digit to the second: 1+5=6. The number 15 is then written as 15/6. The letter “T” is 20. We reduce the 20 by adding the first digit to the second: 2+0=2. The number 20 is then written as 20/2.
Number Values of the Alphabet
A 1 J 10/1 S 19/1 B 2 K 11/2 T 20/2 C 3 L 12/3 U 21/3 D 4 M 13/4 V 22/4 E 5 N 14/5 W 23/5 F 6 O 15/6 X 24/6 G 7 P 16/7 Y 25/7 H 8 Q 17/8 Z 26/8 I 9 R 18/9
We can reduce any word to a numeric vibration by using the above table. Before we move on to calculating one’s Life Lesson number, lets experiment with a few words:
3 + 9 + 6 + 5 = 23/5 C R O W
We reduce 23 by adding 2+3=5, which is written 23/5
5 + 9 + 2 + 3 + 8 = 21/3 W I T C H
We reduce 21 by adding 2+1=3, which is written 21/3
3 + 9 + 7 + 8 + 2 = 29/11 L I G H T
We reduce 29 by adding 2+9=11, which is written 29/11
There are four double digits which generally are not reduced. These are referred to as master numbers. Master numbers offer more opportunity for expression, yet demand more effort from the person or thing in question. The master numbers are 11, 22, 33, and 44. Whenever you arrive at one of these numbers in your calculations; retain the master value.
Because the word “light” vibrates to master number 11, it’s written as 29/11 instead of 29/2, which would be the case if reduced entirely. The number 2 is still acknowledged as the base number as the word will fluctuate between the vibrations of 2 and 11.
An individual will fluctuate between any master number and its base digit because the vibration of the master number is too intense to live under continuously. Living under the vibration of one’s base number offers respite while preparing to work with the master number vibration again.
Calculating Your Life Lesson Number
To calculate your Life Lesson Number, add all the digits of your birthdate together and reduce the sum. Here is an example of how someone with the birthdate of 24 October 1948 would calculate their Life Lesson Number:
Since the reduced sum of their birthday is a master number, the sum is not reduced further.
Now that you know how to calculate your Life Lesson Number, read on to see the description of each numeric vibration. All number descriptions come directly from Numerology and The Divine Triangle (1979) by Faith and Dusty Bunker, the reference material for this post.
Life Lesson Number Descriptions
1: You must learn to be original, strong willing, creative, and innovative. You should have the courage and drive to go ahead into new fields of expression and be a pioneer. You should always go forward, never turn back. At times you may be dictatorial and stubborn because you do not like to be restricted or directed. You are a good executive and work best alone. You are usually efficient and well organized. You are not naturally domestic but can manage well in any situation. You usually like sports and athletics and enjoy the thrill of winning. You are sophisticated, not emotionally romantic, and always appear at the head of social and commercial groups. By learning the lessons of number 1, you become intimately familiar with the universal energy; that probing, seeking, independent spark that moves all creation. You are creative on the physical plane because your pioneer spirit precedes all others and expresses your unique individuality.
2: You are here to learn to become a good mixer. You are a good salesperson, more persuasive than forceful. You should be a support for those in leadership roles, help them to find their goals in life, and remain behind the scenes if necessary. This quality can be a help to you in business because those who benefit from your talents will in turn help you make use of your abilities. In partnerships and groups, you will encounter the lessons you came to earn in this lifetime. Success is then very possible. You must have consideration for others and should bring people together for a common cause. Various professions are open to you as you learn to be adaptable to most things that need to be done. You could select a career in finance, music, medicine, religion, or statistical analysis and research.
3: You are best in intellectual, artistic, or creative endeavors. You need to be expressive to manifest and to see the results of your work. Beauty, fruitfulness, luxury, and pleasure are your keywords. You should have ambition and pride. You must become conscious of the law, and by being an excellent disciplinarian, you will achieve a position of authority over others. 3 combines the daring of 1 with the caution of 2. It is a number of self-expression and freedom. You must guard against becoming a jack-of-all-trades; rather, you should specialize. You could then be successful in artistic, religious, or inventive pursuits. You should avoid routine work because you dislike restriction. You should work alone for the best results. Business partnerships become too disciplined for your freedom-loving nature. You could write, lecture, teach, or find your niche in journalism. Whatever you decide to specialize in, you must use your creative and inspirational talents.
4: You must build a solid foundation on which to base your life. This demands a well ordered system of conduct and morals. Administration or some sort of management would be the best type of employment for you. You want your home life to conform to the culture in which you live. You will provide well for those within your care, and you expect them to respond with respect and dignity. You should become a diligent worker and honestly earn your success. By being thrifty, you will have an adequate savings account as security against any possible losses. You should learn not to take a chance unless it is a sure bet. You should seek high goals. You might want to achieve concrete results quickly, and therefore should strive for patience and perseverance. Learn to face reality and base all your efforts on sound practical reasoning.
5: Your keyword is freedom. If you have “free rein”, you can accomplish wonders, but if you feel bound or limited, you lose your enthusiasm and accomplish little. You would be a good explorer or Peace Corps volunteer, as you learn well by travel and experience. You are a diligent student if interested in the subject, but you may fail in subjects for which you see no useful ends. You should be eager for new experience, and shun monotony. In your quest for knowledge, you will become interested in discovering answers in books and magazines. An avid reader, a fluent talker, and a versatile doer, you are the witty conversationalist and brighten any group by your mere presence. You are here to learn and experience the value of freedom and should not tie yourself down too severely. Your talents once learned, prepare you for a literary career or a a position in sales and dealing with the public.
6: You are here to learn a sense of responsibility for your family and community. 6 is the love and domestic vibration and requires that you be responsive to the social needs of others. A fine sense of balance must be acquired so that you can equalize injustices. This keen sense bestows artistic abilities as well as judgmental talents which can be utilized in the legal system. You should develop compassion and understanding necessary to ease the burdens of those who will naturally be drawn to you. You are among those who serve, teach, and bring comfort to humanity. A wide choice of professions is yours including nursing, teaching, welfare work, ministry, medicine, restaurant enterprises, a legal profession, and possibly veterinary or animal husbandry. You may also choose to end a career in the arts, interior decorating, or hairdressing.
7: You are here to use and develop your mind. Your words should be full of wisdom when you decide to talk. Your strong intuition helps in any line you choose and gives insight when needed. You may be an enigma to others, and even to yourself at times. You like to read, think, and meditate. Many times you have to relay on your soul-force to solve difficult material problems. You may delve into the occult, the mysterious, and the phenomenal side of life. Music and other arts are in harmony with your keynotes. You may be drawn to the church, science, or research and analysis. A career in mathematics or investigation could hold your interest. You should learn to open time by yourself in the woods or by the seashore where you can get in touch with your inner self and your deepest thoughts because your destiny is to use your mind.
8: This is the number of power and ambition, the number of the executive, the boss, who lives by brain and brawn. You will learn to work and will want to see everyone else working. You can push people to become successful in their own right. You should lead and show by example how to profit in business. You are here to learn to handle power, authority, and money. You can build a business empire and should work to that end. You want success for your family and for the family name as a matter of pride. You want your offspring to carry your name with honor and dignity. Sports is another field open to you, as this number vibration bestows great strength and endurance. Many famous athletes operate under an 8.
9: You should be the universal lover of humanity, patient, kind, and understanding. You are at the peak of life’s expression and must turn and show others the way. You seem to receive wisdom from above; thus you know that the true way of happiness is in service to others. You are the marrying type, strong in passion and compassion. You easily acquire money or wealth, and know how to preserve it. You are never petty, but deal in broad concepts and can attain success in the face of difficulties. You are here to show others the way, through your breadth of thinking. You can choose from many professions; education and medicine are the most usual. You may become an orator, writer, or lecture with equal ease. Communication, foreign service, statesmanship, and leadership positions are easily within your capacity.
11: The keywords here are altruism and community. You came into a unique and testing incarnation. You must practice “love thy neighbor as thyself” and use it as your foundation. Your strong intuitions are of value in gaining wisdom and inspiration. 11 is one of the most difficult vibrations because the demand for high standards is constant. You must learn patience and at the same time be able to make quick decisions. Seek for balance between the material, physical life which has to be considered, and the inspiration, spiritual life which underlies your self-understanding. You can succeed in the field of science because all new inventions and discoveries such as laser rays, research in fields of anti-gravity or kirlian photography, or any area of electronics would appeal to you. You could choose to be an astronomer or an astrologer, or a bible researcher and interpreter. You may become a teacher or writer in the field of philosophy. You are original and creative and could become and inspirational speaker. 11 is an esoteric master number of spiritual import. It bestows courage, power, and talent with strong feelings of leadership. You must not let this power go to your head, since frame and recognition are likely; instead realize that true mastership is service.
22: You must express a basic building urge, accomplish things in a big way, and work with large groups or business concerns. You would enjoy the import-export business which could demand long distance travel and meetings with persons of authority. You like to take an inspirational idea and put it to practical use. Self-knowledge is very valuable to you. 22 gives the promise of success. You know how to use your ability to adjust the physical laws of life and living to demonstrate esoteric wisdom. You could become an executive in banking or financial affairs in a national capacity, or help organize businesses for others as an efficiency expert or the like. As an ambassador to foreign countries, you would demonstrate statesmanship. You like to be occupied in some large enterprise to challenge your power to achieve. Your lesson is to learn to take charge of large organizations and corporations and to handle money efficiently and usefully for the benefit of large groups of people.
33: You should be steady and reliable and develop a strong desire to protect others. You would like to live close to nature, and this urge may influence you to choose a life in agriculture. Your goal would be to produce food on a large scale to provide sustenance for the hungry of the world. You would never be found in any profession that could act destructively to humanity. Your talent may lie along the line of the arts: music to bring harmony, painting to bring beauty, or literature to promote education. Service in the field of medicine an healing could also attract you. Possibly, you would choose the law as a way to protect others through justice. Since the 33 consciousness is almost beyond that of humanity, a place within ministry or priesthood could lead you to the realm of your dreams as world savior. You may be required to sacrifice your own desires for the need of others in order to fulfill your Life Lesson vibration.
44: This number stands for strength and complete mental control over your life while on earth. It requires discipline in every department of life so that you may be instrumental in promoting the material advancement of the world. Your mind must be trained to let the higher forces work within it, and you must keep your body and environment in order so that you are ready for any opportunity to achieve this same results from others. Your high energy potential is meant to further evolution by helping others set their world in order. You should try to promote better ethics and justice in the world of business. You must recognize reality, then use what you learn to alleviate the physical burdens of others. You are the instrument by which this alteration takes place. By displaying bravery, resourcefulness, courage, and discipline; you serve as an example for others. Edgar Cayce is an example of the 44 vibration.
Please remember that these are just general descriptions of the numeric vibrations pertaining to the Life Lesson Number. Not everything may resonate with you, and that is perfectly fine. Numerology is meant to be tool to guide, not a stringent set of rules to live by.
Stay tuned for follow up posts on the Soul Number, the Outer Personality Number, and the Path of Destiny Number
The Keynote (1915). William Arthur Chase (British, 1878-1944). Oil paint on canvas. Tate.
After attending the Regent Street Polytechnic Art School, Chase entered the Civil Service and became an Inland Revenue Officer but continued his painting and exhibited at the Royal Academy and several leading galleries. When he came to Bristol in 1908 at the age of thirty, he was already a well known portrait painter and a specialist in flower paintings.
The event was aimed at confronting the challenges of “climate change and the issues linked to food supply in an increasingly populated world with progressively scarce resources.”
During his keynote remarks, Obama directly addressed the subject of the Paris agreement, saying it had not so much solved climate change as
it had “put together the architecture, the mechanism where each year,
each country could progressively do more to reduce its carbon
emissions.” Read more (5/10/17)
Although she was not identified by name, MI6’s head of operational technology is a woman. This news came as part of a keynote speech that MI6’s chief, Alex Younger, gave to a group of women in technology, encouraging them to join the agency:
“If any of you would like to join us … the real-life Q is looking forward to meeting you and I’m pleased to report that the real-life Q is a woman.”
hey pals, I just finished reading sally ride: america’s first woman in space, by lynn sherr, and here’s a collection of my fave sally ride facts:
her favorite constellation was orion, because you can find it so easily
one of her first jobs was babysitting. she made the kids pb&j sandwiches, but they wouldn’t eat them because “the peanut butter was on the wrong side of the bread.” sally threw out the sandwiches and never babysat again.
she stopped drinking coors beer when she found out joseph coors had opposed the equal rights amendment
she told the u.s. ambassador to norway that his rape joke wasn’t funny
exxonmobil gave millions of dollars to her “sally ride science” teacher training academies. it was a business compromise between an oil company and an environmentally proactive nonprofit, and during each keynote speech, sally would make a comment about “oil spills” or “oily money” and glance over at the exxonmobil rep before moving on.
she had a border collie when she was a kid, and two bichon frises with her partner, tam.
watching barefoot contessa was a daily ritual, and she loved ina garten’s meatloaf
when her relationship with tam started getting serious, tam asked “is this forever?” and sally responded “I can’t think more than five years ahead.” so every five years, tam would ask her “are we renewing?” they ended up being together for 27 years. when she was dying of cancer, sally told tam “I wish I had another 27 years with you.”
Ross Mittiga is a Ph.D. student at the University of Virginia who researches the politics and ethics of climate change.
On Saturday, he watched as a car slammed into and killed a protester a few yards away from him in what appears to have been an act of white supremacist terrorism.
Mittiga’s wife was trying to take a photo of him when it happened.
“What happened this afternoon was an incredible tragedy that happened right in front of my eyes. I still can’t believe what I saw,” said Mittiga, who joined the protests against white supremacist groups in Charlottesville, Virginia, as a member of Charlottesville’s Democratic Socialists of America. “It was an act of domestic terrorism.”
On Friday night, hundreds of neo-Nazis amassed outside a church in Charlottesville carrying torches and, later, threatened and threw tear gas at student protesters protecting a campus monument of Thomas Jefferson. By Saturday, the neo-Nazis clashed and brawled with counter-protesters in feuds throughout Charlottesville’s typically quaint and quiet streets. (Vox’s Dara Lind and Libby Nelson have a broad overview of events here.)
Mittiga witnessed much of the action firsthand — from the neo-Nazis assembled outside the church, to scores of “Nazis dressed like Italian fascists” fighting with protesters, to the fatal crash itself. Below is a lightly edited transcript of his account of the last 24 hours.
A dramatic confrontation the night before
Since the KKK rally in June, a lot of people here have been busy organizing. Everybody knew August 12 was coming and that the white supremacists were going to have a rally much bigger than the July one. Our town racist, [white supremacist organizer] Jason Kessler, has been organizing this and then he got help from Richard Spencer; it’s been obvious that it was going to be huge. They’re both UVA grads, by the way.
So we knew this was happening. Yesterday, there was a big sermon at St. Paul’s church in preparation. I got there 20 minutes early and it was already standing room only, and there were a number of speakers from different faith groups, and the keynote speakers were Rev. Traci Blackmon and Cornel West. Her sermon focused on the David versus Goliath story, and she stressed that David takes the head off of Goliath — making the point we can’t settle for piecemeal success; we have to realize white supremacy isn’t isolated but is embedded in a larger ideology of imperialism and oppression. The overwhelming thrust of everything was that it was time for solidarity among the left.
Around 9:15pm, the church gathering started to break up. But then hundreds of white supremacists marched right outside the church. Everybody in the church was asked to remain inside. The Nazis came and made people essentially hostages in the church until they eventually marched away.
What they then did was go down UVA’s main lawn toward the Thomas Jefferson statute; student protesters headed them off, and they surrounded Thomas Jefferson’s statute to prevent the neo-Nazis from reaching it. The students wanted to say, “This is our space.” There are very moving pictures of these students being surrounded by neo-Nazis, and deeply unsettling video of them being physically attacked.
Enough of the educators who were at ALAN/ NCTE ‘16 have asked me for the transcript of my keynote there that I’ve finally decided to post it. Here it is, give or take.
This is going to be about heroes.
I’m going to tell you three stories about heroes and bravery, and then I’m going to tell you how all three of those stories could be told differently.
Nowadays, I find myself a professional storyteller. A maker of heroes. I spend my days putting swords in stones, monsters under beds, ghosts in attics. I have learned that often the difference between a hero and a villain is merely the narrator I choose for the lens of the story. I have learned, too, that the difference between a horror and a romance is sometimes as simple as where I choose to begin the story. A tragedy and a comedy can convey the same events — the difference is in how you tell them.
I’ve also learned that this isn’t just true of the stories I write. It’s true in the story I’m living. The first hero I ever built was myself.
So. These three stories. I’m sharing these three stories about heroes because I want to talk about how the most important stories we tell are the ones we tell about ourselves. Those who have the power and wherewithal to change the narrative of the events around them are the ones who will change the future. Those who have the guts to say “that’s not my version of events” when they hear someone else telling their story are the ones who get to own their own story.
Here is story number one: I drove down to NCTE from my home in Virginia on Saturday. It was supposed to be about a seven and a half hour drive but it turned into a ten hour trip because of Atlanta traffic. Because of my car’s tiny gas tank, I ended up stopping for gas three times. Each time I pulled into a station, a thing happened, the same thing that’s been happening every time I park my car in a public place for the past month. I’ll get out of my car and swipe my card at the pump, feeling like there are eyes on me. I plug in my zip code and put the fuel nozzle in the car, and as I do, I’ll see that the eyes are attached to a motorist or a pedestrian who has paused to stare at me. By the time the tank is full and I’ve gotten my receipt, I’ll discover that they’ve made their way over to me. The conversation goes pretty much the same way every time.
“10 years ago today, I met this band called Paramore. Below is the very 1st photo from many shoots we would do together for years to come… That day in 2007 would change my life and I’d like to share two of my favorite memories from the past decade working with them:
In 2009, I was honored to photograph & art direct Brand New Eyes. Unbelievably, Steve Jobs would show the cover during an Apple keynote…and in 2013, they performed a sold out show at Madison Square Garden. Growing up, I could not fathom ever getting to stand on this stage.
I wanted to say a gigantic THANK YOU to the band/crew and the Paramore fan base for the support over the past decade. Love to you all”.
Ryan Russell about Paramore on Twitter.