the incuse

v original tattoos that i have wanted since uhhhh forever

  • (ivy?) vines growing + wound around at least one leg. maybe two
  • clow reed’s seal/circle on m’back
  • illegeal contractor incuse on m’chest
  • ouroboros symbol on the back of m’left hand bc, like, ofc i’m that fucking predictable
  • s/t lc! related bc, as you know, los campesinos! is… good

Electrum Hekte - Sixth Stater from Ionia, Phokaia c. 625-522 BC Rooster with a small seal above. On the reverse, an incuse square punch.

This week we have a coin from the earliest years of coinage, an electrum sixth of a stater. The coin is one of the earliest examples of small denominations. The full stater, a large coin of electrum, a gold-silver alloy, was too large to be an effective coin for any but the largest of purchases. The halfs, thirds, and sixths (and sometimes even smaller denominations) were useful for common exchanges.

The rooster and seal were images common to Phokaia, and the rooster-head is used on Phokaian currency for at least a century and a half. There has been a suggestion that the rooster may be related to Hermes, the god responsible for exchange and sale. The seal has not been thoroughly explained as a device, and it falls out of use after about two generations.

so apparently the non-english lyrics in Moana’s “We Know the Way” are written in “Tokelauan” which is the native language of one of the song writer/singers Opetaia Foa’i, whose from New Zealand, and apparently its a language only spoken by roughly 3000 IN THE WHOLE WORLD. thats crazy and amazing and once again im just blown away by how much representation and incusion of these cultures are in Moana.

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Very Rare Coin from Phokaia with Silenos

This electrum hekte, struck in 521-479 BC, at the ancient city of Phokaia in Ionia features the front facing head of Silenos (Silenus) with wide eyes, beard and mustache. The reverse is a quadripartite incuse square. A very rare coin, only 10 examples are known, five of which are in museums.

In Greek mythology, Silenus was the old rustic god of wine making and drunkenness. He was Dionysus’ foster father and tutor. Dionysus was nursed by the Nysiad nymphs and raised by Silenus in a cave on Mount Nysa. He was usually depicted as a bearded, balding old man with a pot belly and stubby nose, with the ears and tail of a donkey.

hey-there-juliet  asked:

can't believe I just read that xenophobic shit! I'm too angry to form a coherent response. Also, love the tags. E vou falar bastante português sim, porque a última vez que eu chequei, o tumblr é pra todo mundo. AND ANOTHER THING, I wish I had a monkey, a Mico or a Prego, idk, they are the cutest little things!

Né viado? Eu não sou obrigada a nada e vai ter português sim e se reclamar a gente fala até tupi! HAHAHA tem umas pessoas muito sem noção! I speak o que eu want incusive I mix tudo junto and nobody vai me stop! ABRAÇOS!!!

PHOKIS, Delphi. 5th century BC. AR Tridrachm (25mm, 18.26 g). Two rhyta (drinking vessels) in the form of ram’s heads; above, two dolphins swimming toward each other; ΔAΛΦ-I-KON in small letters below; all within beaded border / Quadripartite incuse square in the form of a coffered ceiling; each coffer decorated with a dolphin and laurel spray.

We come this week to a coin that is considered to be one of the most important historical, religious, and architectural artifacts from the Greek world. Struck in Delphi, the so-called “navel of the world,” this coin is thought to show two drinking vessels shaped like the heads of rams on the obverse, and is commonly associated with the Greek defeat of  the Persians in 479 BCE. The reverse is thought to show the actual ceiling of the temple of Apollo at Delphi on the reverse.

This attribution has raised some questions, but it is believed that the Persian treasure from the campaign was dedicated at Delphi and the frequent repetition of dolphins, associated with Apollo Delphinios, the particular god of Delphi, has strengthened these claims.

This is a very rare denomination (tetradrachms are most  common, along with didrachms and drachms) and a very rare coin. Less than twenty are known to still exist.

words to keep ⇛ the 'in' edition (part 1)
  • Here are a list of words and their definition every writer should know the meaning of/know how to use in their writing. All of these words begin with in.
  • Please like/reblog if this helped you! I compiled the list myself, and all definitions came from the Dictionary application on Macs.
  • Inability: the state of being unable to do something
  • Inaccessible: unable to be reached
  • Inaccurate: not accurate
  • Inadequate: lacking the quality or quantity required
  • Inadvertently: without intention; accidentally
  • Inane: silly; stupid
  • Inanimate: not alive, esp. not in the manner of animals and humans
  • Inapparent: causing no noticeable signs or symptoms
  • Inapplicable: not relevant or appropriate
  • Inapposite: out of place; inappropriate
  • Inapt: not suitable or appropriate in the circumstances
  • Inarguably:
  • Inarticulate: unable to speak distinctly or express oneself clearly
  • Inartistic: having or showing a lack of skill or talent in art
  • Inattentive: not paying attention to something
  • Inaudibly: unable to be heard
  • Inaugurate: begin or introduce (a system, policy, or period)
  • Inauspicious: not conducive to success; unpromising
  • Inauthentic: not in fact what it is said to be
  • Inborn: existing from birth
  • Inbound: traveling toward a particular place, esp. when returning to the original point of departure
  • Inbred: produced by inbreeding
  • Inbuilt: existing as an original or essential part of something or someone
  • Incalculable: too great to be calculated or estimated
  • Incandescent: emitting light as a result of being heated
  • Incantation: a series of words said as a magic spell or charm
  • Incapability: (incapable of) unable to do or achieve (something)
  • Incapacitate: prevent from functioning in a normal way
  • Incarcerate: imprison or confine
  • Incarnation: a person who embodies in the flesh a deity, spirit, or abstract quality
  • Incendiary: (of a device or attack) designed to cause fires
  • Incentive: a thing that motivates or encourages one to do something
  • Incept: graduate from a university with an academic degree
  • Inception: the establishment or starting point of an institution or activity
  • Inceptives: relating to or marking the beginning of something; initial
  • Incertitude: a state of uncertainty or hesitation
  • Incessantly: without interruption; constantly
  • Inchoate: just begun and so not fully formed or developed; rudimentary
  • Incidence: the occurrence, rate, or frequency of a disease, crime, or something else undesirable
  • Incinerate: destroy (something, esp. waste material) by burning
  • Incipient: in an initial stage; beginning to happen or develop
  • Incircle: a circle inscribed in a triangle or other figure so as to touch (but not cross) each side
  • Incise: mark or decorate (an object or surface) with a cut or a series of cuts
  • Incision: a surgical cut made in skin or flesh
  • Incisive: (of a person or mental process) intelligently analytical and clear-thinking
  • Incisor: a narrow-edged tooth at the front of the mouth, adapted for cutting. In humans there are four incisors in each jaw.
  • Incisure/Incisura: a deep indentation or notch in an edge or surface
  • Incite: encourage or stir up (violent or unlawful behavior)
  • Inclement: (of the weather) unpleasantly cold or wet
  • Inclination: a person’s natural tendency or urge to act or feel in a particular way; a disposition or propensity
  • Inclose/Enclose: surround or close off on all sides
  • Inclusion: the action or state of including or of being included within a group or structure
  • Inclusionary: designed or intended to accommodate diversity in age, income, race, or some other category
  • Inclusive: including or covering all the services, facilities, or items normally expected or required
  • Incognisance: lacking knowledge or awareness
  • Incoherence: (of spoken or written language) expressed in an incomprehensible or confusing way; unclear
  • Incombustible: (esp. of a building material or component) consisting or made of material that does not burn if exposed to fire
  • Incommensurable: not able to be judged by the same standard as something; having no common standard of measurement
  • Incommodious: causing inconvenience or discomfort
  • Incommunicable: not able to be communicated to others
  • Incomparable: without an equal in quality or extent; matchless
  • Incompetence: inability to do something successfully; ineptitude
  • Incomprehensible: not able to be understood; not intelligible
  • Incomputable: unable to be calculated or estimated
  • Inconceivable: not capable of being imagined or grasped mentally; unbelievable
  • Inconclusive: not leading to a firm conclusion; not ending doubt or dispute
  • Incongruent: incongruous; incompatible
  • Incongruous: not in harmony or keeping with the surroundings or other aspects of something
  • Inconsecutive: not in order or following continuously
  • Inconsequent: not connected or following logically; irrelevant
  • Inconsiderable: of small size, amount, or extent
  • Inconsolable: (of a person or their grief) not able to be comforted or alleviated
  • Inconsonant: not in agreement or harmony; not compatible
  • Inconspicuous: not clearly visible or attracting attention; not conspicuous
  • Incontestable: not able to be disputed
  • Incontrovertible: not able to be denied or disputed
  • Inconvertible: not able to be changed in form, function, or character
  • Incoordination: lack of coordination, esp. the inability to use different parts of the body together smoothly and efficiently
  • Incorporate: take in or contain (something) as part of a whole; include
  • Incorporeal: not composed of matter; having no material existence
  • incorrigible: (of a person or their tendencies) not able to be corrected, improved, or reformed
  • Incrassate: thickened in form or consistency
  • Increasingly: to an increasing extent; more and more
  • Incredulous: (of a person or their manner) unwilling or unable to believe something
  • Incriminating: make (someone) appear guilty of a crime or wrongdoing; strongly imply the guilt of (someone)
  • Incubate: (of a bird) sit on (eggs) in order to keep them warm and bring them to hatching
  • Inculcate: instill (an attitude, idea, or habit) by persistent instruction
  • Incunable: one book in a collection of incunabula
  • Incurable: (of a sick person or a disease) not able to be cured
  • Incursion: an invasion or attack, esp. a sudden or brief one
  • Incurvate: curve inward
  • Incus: a small anvil-shaped bone in the middle ear, transmitting vibrations between the malleus and stapes
  • Incuse: an impression hammered or stamped on a coin

Medieval Gold Henry VII Signet Glove Ring, 15th Century

A substantial gold ring dating from the period of Henry VII and the Wars of the Roses, the tapered band with channeled edges engraved with flower and foliage design, a line of three rose blooms at the shoulders, the circular bezel with incuse and retrograde design of a standing heraldic dragon passant sinister with wings addorsed and mouth open, palm branches above and behind, ’S’ before and a star below, with Latin retrograde Black Letter ’+Crede.et.vi[n]c[e]’ inscription for ‘Believe and Conquer’ and the letter ’S’ possibly relating to the name of the owner.

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Extremely Rare Greek Cerberus Coin, c. 500-450 BC

This is an electrum stater from the city of Cyzicus (aka Kyzikos) in the region of Mysia (map), with the very rare depiction of the hellhound Cerberus (with just two heads). He is depicted above a tunny fish with a quadripartite incuse square on the reverse. Cerberus appears with some frequency on Roman provincial coins, yet rarely on Greek coins. In Greek and Roman mythology Cerberus guards the entrance of the Greek underworld to prevent the dead from escaping and the living from entering. He is best known for having been captured by Heracles in his twelfth and final labor, which was by far his most dangerous. After delivering the hellhound to King Eurystheus, he then returned to chain the creature at the gates of Hades, which he continued to guard.

Cerberus is typically described as having three heads of wild dogs, though often with just two, as here on this coin; but as with most every aspect of Greek mythology there are various traditions and little agreement, such that Cerberus is described as possessing somewhere between one and one hundred heads. He is said to have had the claws of a lion, a tail in the form of a serpent, and his mane sometimes is described as being composed of a great mass of serpents. 

It has been suggested that this type coin was struck in reference, or homage, to Cimmerium (Kimmerikon), a city on the southern shore of the Cimmerian Bosphorus that earlier had been called Cerberion. The reason being that this city would have been a familiar destination for the intrepid Cyzicene merchants. However, Cyzicus was particularly attached to the story of the Argonautic expedition – especially to Heracles’ involvement – and to the goddess Persephone, who Appian says had received Cyzicus as a marriage gift from Zeus. Since Cerberus is associated with both Heracles and Persephone, this type perhaps is best seen as part of a larger display of designs associated with those deities.

Silver stater from Salamis, Cyprus, c. 445-411 BC,

This extremely rare coin minted under an uncertain king shows a recumbent ram with a pellet-in-crescent above, “Euelthon” in Cypriot around. The reverse shows a large ornate ankh enclosing Cypriot letter ku; Cypriot letters ko and ru flanking, floral ornaments in corners; all within incuse square.

Salamis was an ancient Greek city-state on the east coast of Cyprus, at the mouth of the river Pedieos, about 4 miles north of modern Famagusta. According to tradition the founder of Salamis was Teucer, son of Telamon, who could not return home after the Trojan war because he had failed to avenge his brother Ajax.

The Wolf God of Argos:  Apollo Lykios

One of the most famous and magnificent buildings in ancient Argos was the sanctuary of the wolf god, Apollo Lykios. It was for this reason that the people of Argos chose the wolf as an emblem for their coinage, an instantly recognizable symbol of the great city.

This coin is a silver triobol struck in Argos circa 270-260/50 BC. The obverse is the forepart of a wolf with a Θ above its neck. The reverse has a large A, a monogram to the upper right and an eagle standing on a harpe below, all within an incuse square.  The harpe was a type of sword or sickle; a sword with a sickle protrusion along one edge near the tip of the blade. The harpe is mentioned in Greek and Roman sources, and almost always in mythological contexts.

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Very Rare Incuse Stater from Laos, Lucania, c. 510-500 BC

The obverse has the inscription ΛAFΣ with a man-headed bull standing to the right, its head turned back to face to left in an exergual line of a row of dots between two lines below. The reverse is a similar type, incuse, with the inscription NOM in retrograde above.

Laos (aka Laüs or Laus) was an ancient city of Magna Graecia on the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea. It was a colony of Sybaris at the mouth of the Lao River, which formed the boundary between Lucania and Bruttium in ancient times. The river and the city have the same name in Ancient Greek.

Little is known about its foundation or history. Herodotus states that the inhabitants of Sybaris, who had survived the destruction of their city in 510 BC, took refuge in Laos and Scidrus. Strabo (c. 64/63 BC - AD 24) describes the city as still being in existence in his time but. Pliny the Elder, whose Natural History was published in approximately 77–79 AD, states that the city no longer existed in his.

The city was downsized gradually and abandoned in the second half of the third century BC. This was probably caused by the Punic Wars, which had a profound impact on the economy of the Tyrrhenian coast. The only material evidence of the Archaic Greek city consists of some silver coins like this one with the legend LAFINON (ΛAFΣ) and symbols similar to those of the coins of Sybaris, dated between 500 and 440 BC.

Today the archaeological site of the city can be found at a short distance to the east of Marcellina, Calabria. The site near Marcellina was possibly a refoundation of the Greek city  by Lucanians on a previously unoccupied site. Here is a map of ancient region of Lucania. The city of Laos (spelled as Laus) is at the bottom center.

Sea Monster Coin From Lycia

Uncertain Dynast, c.500-440 BC, Silver Stater, Obverse: Bearded sea-serpent (Ketos?) to left. Reverse. Another bearded sea-serpent to left, within a dotted square border within an incuse square. A fascinating mythical type and of the highest rarity.

In Greek mythology, both Perseus and Herakles killed a ketos (Latin cetus). When Cassiopeia boasted that her daughter Andromeda was more beautiful than the Nereids, this invoked the wrath of Poseidon who sent the sea monster Cetus to attack Æthiopia. Upon consulting a wise oracle, Cepheus and Cassiopeia were told to sacrifice Andromeda to Cetus. They had Andromeda chained to a rock near the ocean so that Cetus could devour her. Perseus found Andromeda chained to the rock and learned of her plight. When Cetus emerged from the ocean to devour Andromeda, Perseus managed to slay it. In one version, Perseus drove his sword into Cetus’ back. In another version, Perseus used Medusa’s severed head to turn Cetus to stone.

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Early &  Rare Example of Paradoxical Illusion

This very rare electrum hekte (only 8 known examples) is from the ancient city of Mytilene on the island of Lesbos, circa 454-427 BC. On the obverse is the head of Athena wearing a crested Corinthian helmet while the reverse shows two confronted female heads with their faces overlapping, all within an incuse square.

This coin seems like a perfectly ordinary hekte when the obverse is first viewed; it is only when the coin is flipped to reveal its highly unusual reverse does the importance and novelty of the type become apparent. Employing a simple but effective form of optical illusion, the reverse appears to show the same female portrait both to the left and to the right. The design is deliberately intended to confound the eye and engage the viewer’s attention in attempting to resolve both portraits independently of the other, which is of course impossible, thus presenting the viewer with a visual paradox.  The importance of this type, both in terms of numismatic art and in the wider context of Greek art in general, cannot be understated. It is a thoroughly novel, and never to be repeated experiment in paradoxical illusion on the coinage of a Greek city-state.

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An Extremely Rare Coin Promoting the Fine Wine of Lesbos

This electrum hekte was struck in Mytilene on the island of Lesbos circa 478-455 BC. It shows the bearded head of Silenos on the obverse and on the reverse is the incuse head of a roaring lion. There are only 5 known specimens of this coin.

Silenos, the rustic god of winemaking and drunkenness, is conspicuous for being commonly featured on the coinage of Mytilene in a variety of forms and types. That this is the case should immediately suggest to us that wine making was an important aspect of Mytilene’s economic activities, and when consulting the ancient sources we find that this was indeed the case.

The island of Lesbos has a long history of wine making dating back to at least the 7th century BC when it was mentioned in the works of Homer. Warmly spoken of in the 4th century BC, Lesbian wines achieve fulsome praise from Archestratos, the ‘Daedalos of tasty dishes’, who rated it above Thasian and Phoenician, without even a mention (in the surviving fragments) of Chian, the other first-class wine of the period. Euboulos implies that tax breaks for Lesbian wines at Athens increased its popularity and availability, and refers to it as “old, dripping with nectar.”

During this time the island competed with the wines of Chios for the lucrative Greek markets, and the popularity of Lesbian wine is well attested as continuing into Roman times where it was highly valued along with other Aegean wines of Chios, Thasos and Kos.

I can name and praise the wines produced in other cities
and their names I do not forget.
But none of them is compared to the wine of Lesbos.”
(Athenaeus, Deipnosophistae, A, 52d)

Very Rare Electrum Stater from Kyzikos, Mysia c. 500-450 BC

The coin shows a winged deer with a tunny fish below; an incuse quadripartite square is on the reverse.

Kyzikos (Cyzicus) was a city in the region of Mysia in the northwest of ancient Asia Minor or Anatolia (modern Balıkesir Province, Turkey).
The city was said to have been founded by Pelasgians from Thessaly, according to tradition at the coming of the Argonauts; later it received many colonies from Miletus, allegedly in 756 BC, but its importance began only after the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), when the decay of Athens and Miletus set in.