tbh that’s why i don’t have time for people to split hairs over whether Ethnic Group A discriminating against, raping or murdering Ethnic Group B is “xenophobia” or “ethnic discrimination” and therefore “not racism”.
cos in much of the world, the xenophobia is often hand in hand with racialising the foreigners in question as an Other of some sort. and ethnic discrimination “not being racism” is v annoying to deal with. often it’s imposing a US or more general Western-centric lens when ppl deny it’s racism just cos the victim and oppressor are seen as the “same race” in some other context. this makes no sense yet this is done time and time again on this website. i mean, to an alien, we’re all the “same race” but obviously when we talk about racism going on we’re saying the issue is precisely bc ppl don’t just see ourselves as “human” but X ethnic group or Y colour instead. it matters how the victims were seen by the oppressor, not by some random third party.
it should be obvious that racism as a phenomenon isn’t always abt broad colour lines given how a lot of things going on today predated the modern idea of “white people”.
One of the purest expressions of Walt Disney’s genuine patriotism during the war years was his decision to establish a unit devoted to producing customised military unit insignia free of charge for U.S. armed forces and their allies. Headed by the talented draftsman Hank Porter, whom Walt referred to as a “one-man art department,” the unit worked steadily throughout the war, turning out nearly 1,300 insignia upon request.
“An Italian flying boat burning of the water off the coast of Tripoli, on August 18, 1941 after an encounter with a royal air force fighter patrol. Just above the tip of the port wing, the body of an Italian airman can be seen floating.”
On this day September 1st, 1939 Germany invades Poland thus starting the Second World War.
The above images are as follows:-
i- German soldiers remove the border barrier in the Polish town of Sopot (Zoppot). Photograph from the Imperial War Museum.
ii- German forces moving on September 1st.
iii- German planes drop bombs on September 1st.
iv-Warsaw in flames.
v- British newspaper headlines on the evening of the 1st September.
vi-Britain’s Evening Standard on the evening of the 1st September.
Czar Nicholas II (center) with Alexeyev (right) at the new Stavka.
September 1 1915, Mogilev–The last four months had been essentially one series of disasters after another for the Russians: they were expelled from Galicia, forced out of Poland, and now Kovno had fallen and Riga was under serious threat. No great encirclements had trapped the Russian armies during their retreat (much to Hindenburg & Ludendorff’s chagrin), but this had never been Falkenhayn’s plan.
By late August, the Czar had decided that the appropriate response was to take personal command of Stavka, Russia’s high command. Sukhomlinov’s successor in the War Ministry, Alexei Polivanov, tried to talk him out of it, but was unsuccessful. Late in August, Polivanov arrived by train at Stavka, met with neither Grand Duke Nicholas (its formal head) or Yanushkevich (its chief of staff and de facto head), took Stavka’s Rolls Royce, and met with Alexeyev, head of the Northwest Front.
On September 1, the Czar announced his decision to take command of Stavka, to almost universal surprise, with Alexeyev to serve as his chief of staff. Grand Duke Nicholas and Yanushkevich were both sent off to the Caucasus. The exact reason for the Czar’s actions here are still unclear, but Norman Stone hypothesizes that it was his way of quashing political dissent, especially in the Duma, regarding the course of the war. It also had the benefit of effectively exiling Grand Duke Nicholas, who had been often considered in liberal circles as a possible replacement for the Czar–and the Russian military failures in the summer finally gave the Czar a chance to get rid of the popular and politically influential Grand Duke.
The reorganized Stavka under Alexeyev was certainly apolitical. Alexeyev had a very simple background, and would not have fit in naturally in the old, aristocratic Stavka; he hated the Stavka dinners (never knowing the right time to drink coffee), was embarassed to be saluted in the street, and paid for his own meals. Alexeyev swept out all but one of the aristocrats from the old Stavka (including the now superfluous governors of Galicia and Poland). The Czar, of course, was still there, but was largely concerned with domestic politics and deferred to Alexeyev on military affairs. A French observer would write:
It is Alexeyev whom one obeys, or, rather, disobeys.
It was nurses who waited for a young soldier to wake up from an operation so that they could console him when he realised that his legs had been amputated. It was nurses who held the hand of a man whilst they guided him to a mirror so that he could see for the first time his empty pyjama sleeve, neatly folded and pinned up high where he had lost his arm.
They carried a good supply of handkerchiefs at all times. Men cried in their arms until the fronts of their aprons were wet. And while a man cried, the nurses discreetly looked about the ward to see what else needed doing – where pillows had fallen or blankets had got tangled around broken limbs; who needed a drink or salve on dry chapped lips; who needed a smile and some reassurance.
[Winifred] Kenyon was surprised at how quickly she got used to the gentle, comforting lie. Yes, you will get better. No one at home has forgotten you. Anaesthetics really aren’t that bad. Everything will be alright. The war won’t go on for ever – or at least, it can’t possibly get any worse.
She stopped telling that lie in the summer of 1916.
Emily Mayhew, from Wounded: A New History of the Western Front in World War I