the history of the kings of britain

4

The King’s Men Stone Circle, England

The King’s Men are part of the Rollright Stones, a complex of three Neolithic and Bronze Age megalithic monuments near the village of Long Compton, on the borders of Oxfordshire and Warwickshire. Constructed from local oolitic limestone, the three monuments now known as the King’s Men and the Whispering Knights in Oxfordshire and the King Stone in Warwickshire, are distinct in their design and purpose, and were built at different periods in late prehistory.

The King’s Men is a a stone circle which was constructed in the Late Neolithic or Early Bronze Age; unusually, it has parallels to other circles located further north, in the Lake District, implying a trade-based or ritual connection.

By the Early Modern period, folkloric stories had grown up around the Stones, telling of how they had once been a king and his knights who had been turned to stone by a witch; such stories continued to be taught amongst local people well into the 19th century. In the 20th century, the stones became an important site for adherents of various forms of Contemporary Paganism, as well as for other esotericists who hold magico-religious ceremonies there. They also began to appear more widely in popular culture, featuring in television, literature, music and art.

CARATACUS, The Warrior Rebel

Caratacus was a heroic British-Celtic warrior king, who was born just a decade after Jesus Christ. He was from the south-east of modern-day England.

He was first hero of Britain due to his fierce resistance to the Roman invasion.

With his leadership of brave warriors they fought against 40,000 Roman soldiers, an for 8 years, until being defeated in 51 AD. So he fled to the north…

With his army in disarray, he ended up in the tribe-land of the Brigantes, where he met their queen Cartimunda, an took sanctuary - as in modern-day Yorkshire.

However, Cartimunda betrayed him, by handing him over to the Romans, so they would look kindly upon her tribal realm. For the Roman way was the future.

As shown above, he was then taken to the capital city of the Roman empire, where he gave such a fine speech to the Roman emperor, that he was spared the usual death-sentence that a warring rebellious king would typically get.

But only a decade later, Queen Boudica, of another British tribe, would rebel !

Click here for my article on the above warrior Queen !

youtube

The single greatest thing about Britain HAS to be Horrible Histories. Damn, i miss this show

2

Celtic Coin of the Dobunni King Corio

This is a ‘Tree Type’ gold stater of the Dobunni tribe. It was struck circa 20 BC  to AD 5 during the rule of Corio. On the obverse is the image of a tree-like emblem known as a Dobunnic Tree, with a pellet below. The reverse bears the name Co[rio] above a triple-tailed, stylized Celtic horse, with a wheel below and other symbols in the field.  The Dobunnic Tree’s meaning is unclear although corn, ferns and a form of a wreath have all been suggested as explanations.

The Dobunni were one of the Iron Age tribes living in the British Isles prior to the Roman invasion of Britain (43-84 AD). They lived in the southwestern part of Britain that roughly coincides with the English counties of Bristol, Gloucestershire and the north of Somerset, although at times their territory may have extended into parts of what are now Herefordshire, Oxfordshire, Wiltshire, Worcestershire, and Warwickshire. Their capital acquired the Roman name of Corinium Dobunnorum, which is today known as Cirencester. Unlike the Silures, their neighbors in what later became southeast Wales, the Dobunni were not a warlike people and submitted to the Romans before they even reached their lands. Afterwards they readily adopted the Romano-British lifestyle.

Corio was a 'king’ of the southwestern Dobunni. No one knows if 'king’ is the correct term for their leaders however, it is likely that this is what the Romans called them. The Dobunni rulers are only known from names found on their coinage and the exact order of each of their reigns has yet to be determined. Some of the other Dobunni kings’ names are Anted, Eisu, Aatti, Comux, Inham and Bodvoc.

3

Hever Castle

Once home to Anne Boleyn, King Henry VIII’s unfortunate second wife, Hever Castle is a Tudor manor of exquisite beauty surrounded by some of Britain’s finest gardens. Try and stay dry in the unique water maze, walk among the flowers in the walled rose garden, then experience Tudor life in the rooms of the castle itself. You can even stay the night!

See more of Britain’s Castles

me: I must understand the medieval History of England.

*some books and documentaries later*

me: …plenty of Kings indeed…

me: *a bit doubtful* So let’s systematize:

me: *quite doubtful and sweating* Just need to add the respective names and dates and it will be great…

In Congress, July 4, 1776


When in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the Earth the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident that all men are created equal that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights that among these are life liberty and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed - That whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or abolish it, and to Institute new government, lying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that governments long established should not be changed for light transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while Evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute despotism, it is their right, it is their duty to throw off such government, and provide new guards for their future security. - Such has been patient sufferance of these colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former systems of government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny over these states
To provide this, let facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his assent to laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
He has forbidden his Governors to pass laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless subjected in their operation till his assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
He has refused to pass other laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of representation in the legislature, a right Inestimable to them in formidable to tyrants only.
He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.
He has dissolved representative houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.
He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the legislative powers, incapable of annihilation, have returned to the people at large for their exercise; the state remaining in the meantime exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convolutions within.
He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these states; for that purpose obstructing the laws of naturalization of foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage the migrations hither, and raising conditions of new appropriations of lands.
He has obstructed the administration of justice, by refusing his assent to laws for establishing to judiciary powers.
He has made judges dependent on his will alone, for the tenure of their offices, in the amount and payment of their salaries.
He has erected a multitude of new offices, and sent hither swarms of officers to harass our people, and to eat out their substance.
He has kept among us, in times of peace, standing armies without the consent of our legislatures.
He has affected to render the military independent of in superior to the Civil power.
He has combined with others to subject us to jurisdiction foreign to our Constitution and acknowledged by our laws giving his assent to their acts of pretended legislation.
For quartering large bodies of armed troops Among Us.
For protecting them by a mock trial from punishment for any murders which they should commit on the inhabitants of these states.
For cutting off our trade with all parts of the world.
For imposing taxes on us without our consent.
For depriving us in many cases of the benefits of trial by jury.
For transporting us Beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences.
For abolishing the free system of English laws in a neighboring Providence establishing theirin an arbitrary government and enlarging its boundaries so as to render it once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these colonies.
For taking away our Charters abolishing our most valuable laws and altering fundamentally the forms of our governments.
For suspending our own legislatures and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
He has abdicated government here, by declaring us out of his protection and Waging War against us.
He has plundered our seas ravaged our coasts burnt our towns and destroyed the lives of our people.
He is at this time transporting large armies of foreign Mercenaries to complete the works of death desolation and tyranny already began with circumstances of Cruelty and perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages and totally unworthy the head of a Civilized Nation.
He has constrained our fellow citizens taken captive on the high seas to bare arms against their country to become The Executioner’s of their friends and brethren to or to fall themselves by their hands.
He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our Frontiers the merciless Indian Savages whose known rule of warfare is undistinguished destruction of all ages Sexes and conditions.

In every stage of these oppressions we have petition for redress in the most humble terms. Our repeated petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by Every Act which may Define a tyrant is unfit to be a ruler of a free people.

Nor have we been wanting in attention to our British brethren we have warned them from time to time of attempts by the legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us we have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration in settlement here we have appealed to their native Justice and magnanimity and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations which would inevitably interrupt our connections in correspondence they too have been deaf to the voice of Justice of consanguinity. We must therefore acquiesce in the necessity which denounces our separation and hold them as we hold the rest of mankind enemies in War and Peace friends.

We therefore the representatives of the United States of America in general Congress assembled appealing to the Supreme judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions do in the name in by authority of the good people of these colonies solemnly publish and declare that these United Colonies are and of right ought to be free and independent states that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British crown, and that all political connection between them and the states of Great Britain is and ought to be totally dissolved, and that as free independent states, they have full power to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce and to do all other acts and things which Independence States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other Our lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.

You: “Men were men and women were women in the 17th century”

Me: 

Philippe d’Orleans, brother of Louis XIV, flagrantly gay and dandy, in a long term relationship with the Chevalier de Lorraine, and loved to dress in female clothing too.

Hortense Mancini, royal mistress and female libertine, flagrantly bisexual and enjoyed to dress as a man on the odd occasion. 

Aphra Behn, poet and playwright, general libertine, most probably a lesbian and defied gender roles by managing to make it big in a man’s world some 200 years before feminism was a thing. Also advocated racial equality and denounced slavery.

James I, King of England (and Scotland), VERY VERY GAY. Boyfriends included the 1st Duke of Buckingham and Esme Stewart.

John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, one of the greatest soldiers in history but also “irresistible to either men or women” 

John Wilmot, Earl of Rochester, a poet and libertine who was defying ideas about masculinity anyway but who, on the good authroity of @thepurposeofplaying, was probably not cisgender.

Anne, Queen of Great Britain who was most probably gay and had romantic relationships with Sarah Churchill and Abigail Masham.

It was extremely in vogue for women to dress up as gentlemen, mainly for the pleasure of men, but also because they damn well wanted to because THEY LOOKED GOOD. Here is Elisabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate, Duchess of Orleans, in her male attire: 

Mary of Modena, Queen of England, in her attire:

And here is Lady Frances Stewart (who, incidentally, was the model for Britannia, the personfication of Great Britain) in her attire: 

Here’s what contemporaries have to say about the fashion styles of the age: 

“A strange effeminate age when men strive to imitate women in their apparell, viz. long periwigs, patches in their faces, painting, short wide breeches like petticoats, muffs, and their clothes highly scented, bedecked with ribbons of all colours. And this apparell was not only used by gentlemen and others of inferior quality, but by souldiers especially those of the Life Guard to the King, who would have spanners hanging on one side and a muff on the other, and when dirty weather some of them would relieve their gards in pattens.

On the other side, women would strive to be like men, viz., when they rode on horseback or in coaches weare plush caps like monteros, whether full of ribbons or feathers, long perwigs which men use to wear, and riding coat of a red colour all bedaubed with lace which they call vests, and this habit was chiefly used by the ladies and maids of honour belonging to the Queen, brought in fashion about anno 1662″

OH AND LET’S NOT FORGET MEN’’S HIGH HEELS:

Both of these belong to King Louis XIV of France.

Also, men didn’t start powdering their wigs until the 1700s which is the 18th century, you troll.

If you’re going to be homophobic and transphobic, try and be accurate next time. You wouldn’t want to be historically inaccurate.

LASTLY, a word from Philippe d’Orleans:

Christ Church Cathedral
Oxford, Oxfordshire

Originally St. Frideswide Priory, the church was taken over by Cardinal Wolsey in 1522 CE. Wolsey had planned to make this the site of his college – Cardinal College. However, after falling out with Henry VIII, the church came under control of the Crown. By 1546, King Henry had elevated the church to the status of a cathedral, and opened Christ Church College. 

I was really excited to start reading Lynne Olson’s new book, Last Hope Island: Britain, Occupied Europe, and the Brotherhood That Helped Turn the Tide of War (BOOK | KINDLE), which was released last week by @randomhouse. The book tells the stories of many of the governments and leaders of Nazi-occupied countries in Europe that were forced to flee to Britain where they set up their governments-in-exile with London as their de facto capital and made significant contributions to the war effort that ultimately helped defeat Hitler’s Germany and free their home nations.

What really attracted me to Last Hope Island was the story of King Haakon VII of Norway who is really one of the unsung heroes of World War II but whose role is largely unknown outside of his country. It’s difficult to find good books about King Haakon that aren’t written in Norwegian, so I was really pleased to find that he is one of the main characters that Lynne Olson writes about in Last Hope Island, alongside fascinating figures such as Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands, Charles de Gaulle, Jan Masaryk of Czechoslovakia, the Earl of Suffolk, Belgian King Leopold III, and many other men and women – largely from the occupied countries overrun in the Blitzkrieg – whose roles in the resistance and ultimate Allied victory have long been overlooked. There aren’t enough great books that explore the integral contributions to the Allied war effort by Europeans from the occupied countries, but Last Hope Island tells those stories and shares some really surprising information such as the fact that 20% of the Royal Air Force pilots flying during the Battle of Britain weren’t British or that the Norwegian shipping fleet, which was the fourth-largest in the world at the time and the most technologically-advanced, was largely responsible for replenishing the British shipping losses incurred during the devastating unrestricted submarine warfare by German U-boats in the Battle of the Atlantic.

Lynne Olson has written some top-notch books about World War II – I’d especially suggest checking out Those Angry Days: Roosevelt, Lindbergh, and America’s Fight Over World War II, 1939-1941 (BOOK | KINDLE) and Citizens of London: The Americans Who Stood with Britain in Its Darkest, Finest Hour (BOOK | KINDLE) – and I believe Last Hope Island is her very best yet. I’m a huge fan of Olson’s style which is reminiscent of Erik Larson’s (The Devil in the White City) ability to simultaneously tell multiple stories about forgotten people or overlooked subjects while seemingly making whatever topic she’s writing about it at that very moment feel like the only topic you ever want to focus on. Lynne Olson’s Last Hope Island: Britain, Occupied Europe, and the Brotherhood That Helped Turn the Tide of War (BOOK | KINDLE) is one of the best books I’ve read so far in 2017, it is available right now from @randomhouse, and I can’t recommend it enough so go get it now.

10

“- Do you remember our first night together?

- It feels like we’ve been unhappy ever since.

- I have been happy.”

A Royal Affair - En kongelig affære (2012)

Tintagel: King Arthur’s Castle

I recently visited Tintagel Castle in Cornwall, which has become inexorably linked with Arthurian legend. Writing around 1135–38, Geoffrey of Monmouth was the first to suggest that King Arthur was conceived at Tintagel. 

Legend (literally) has it that Arthur’s father, Uther Pendragon, had fallen in love with the Duke of Cornwall’s wife, Igraine. The Duke of Cornwall thus had her shut up at Tintagel, believing its being surrounded by sea on all sides, and accessible only by a narrow rocky walkway, would make it impenetrable to Pendragon’s armies. Then Merlin shows up, transforms Pendragon to have the Duke of Cornwall’s appearance, he seeks out Igraine and "in that night was the most famous of men, Arthur, conceived.”

Photo is my own | quote from Geoffrey of Monmouth’s Historia Regum Britanniae (“History of the Kings of Britain”)

The Declaration of Independance

When in the Course of human events it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. — That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, — That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security. — Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.
He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.
He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their Public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.
He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.
He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected, whereby the Legislative Powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.
He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.
He has obstructed the Administration of Justice by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers.
He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.
He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harass our people and eat out their substance.
He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.
He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil Power.
He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:
For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:
For protecting them, by a mock Trial from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:
For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:
For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:
For depriving us in many cases, of the benefit of Trial by Jury:
For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences:
For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies
For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:
For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.
He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.
He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation, and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & Perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.
He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.
He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.
In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince, whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.
Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our British brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.
We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these united Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States, that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. — And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred Honor.

Podcast Roundup

I have a confession to make, I think I am most definitely addicted to podcasts. I actually have a rotation of at least 20 of them to cycle between depending on my mood, though they tend to lean into the creepy and surreal. Here are my personal favorites on my list at the moment, in rough order of my immediate compulsion to listen:

1. Welcome to Night Vale: My first brush with the unknowable and standard for judging podcasts

2. Serial (DUH!)

3. Dear Hank and John: Vlogbrothers <3 and the inevitable condition of mortality <3 in a comedy podcast 

4. The Black Tapes Podcast and TANIS: Two podcasts, both from Pacific Northwest Stories, one about demons and cursed sounds and the other about whatever Tanis is…? Both are perfect for my walk home through either the cemetery or the woods, depending on my mood and how quickly the demons are pursuing

5. King Falls AM: If Night Vale felt more like a call-in radio show and less like a news ballad led by Cecil

6. Lore and Limetown: My next set of creepy stories (at least one of them is factual) that make me look over my shoulder at night. The mythos brought out by lore in telling stories and the story played out in limetown are both delightfully terrifying

7. Kakos Industries: Take Night Vale’s Strexcorp, add some kink and darkness into that evil and you have yourself these delightfully seductive shareholder announcements. This one is definitely not for the more delicate ears out there

8. Pleasuretown: Old-timey western and campfire ghost stories with some paranormal flare

9. EOS 10: Because every single character makes me feel things with their adorable sci-fi antics

10. Invisibilia: Because perception is a beautiful thing to explore…will be higher up once the new stuff roles around. Also, fair warning, the hosts of the program are right when they say that both of them sound alike but in time you will tell them apart :)

11. A History of the World in 100 Objects: My interest in museum studies brought out this little gem that I just discovered and have enjoyed as it delves into a new treasure from the British museum in each episode

A few others: The Bunker (Post-apocalyptic Britain…lots of tea and existentialism), Israel Story (Israeli This American Life), Codebreaker (Is any technology ever evil?), and This Anthropological Life (Brandeis University Anth students like myself talking about our research)

Hope this list brought at least one person to something new <3 

The thing is, capitalism has never been reformed ‘peacefully’.

Reform movements which have formally disavowed violent means - from the Civil Rights movement in 1960s America, to Attlee’s Labour government in 1940s Britain - have only been historically successful because mass, organised, revolutionary movements of the politically disenfranchised outside of the formal reform movement have forced those benefiting from the status quo to cede concessions to non-violent, often middle-class, reformist leaders. Malcolm X, the Socialist Party of the USA and the Communist Party forced the American elite to come to the table with Dr. King; the syndicalist and communist trade unions in post-War Britain made opposition to Attlee’s NHS and limited nationalisations foolhardy.

Those who preach non-violence as a strategy rather than as a flexible tactic fatally mistake capitalism for a rational, logical system which plays by its own rules and respects human life.

We know better.