Long ago, the four nations lived together in harmony. Then, everything changed when the Fire Nation attacked. Only the Avatar, master of all four elements, could stop them, but when the world needed him most, he vanished. (Avatar: The Last Airbender 2005-2008)
“ For a long time now, I’ve had shackles in my heart…And now those shackles and the ones on my legs are broken…It’s the first time I’ve felt like there’s a reason for me to be alive. I’m thankful…That I met you…And your friend, that little boy.” ——- Morgiana to Alibaba. Night 17
A toothpaste brand claims their product will destroy more plaque than any product ever made. A politician tells you their plan will create the most jobs. We’re so used to hearing these kinds of exaggerations in advertising and politics that we might not even bat an eye.
But what about when the claim is accompanied by a graph? After all, a graph isn’t an opinion. It represents cold, hard numbers, and who can argue with those? Yet, as it turns out, there are plenty of ways graphs can mislead and outright manipulate. Here are some more things to look out for.
First of all, the scale is inconsistent, compressing the 15-month span after March 2009 to look shorter than the preceding six months. Using more consistent data points gives a different picture with job losses tapering off by the end of 2009. And if you wonder why they were increasing in the first place, the timeline starts immediately after the U.S.’s biggest financial collapse since the Great Depression.
These techniques are known as cherry picking. A time range can be carefully chosen to exclude the impact of a major event right outside it. And picking specific data points can hide important changes in between. Even when there’s nothing wrong with the graph itself, leaving out relevant data can give a misleading impression.
This chart of how many people watch the Super Bowl each year makes it look like the event’s popularity is exploding. But it’s not accounting for population growth. The ratings have actually held steady because while the number of football fans has increased, their share of overall viewership has not.
Finally, a graph can’t tell you much if you don’t know the full significance of what’s being presented. Both of the following graphs use the same ocean temperature data from the National Centers for Environmental Information. So why do they seem to give opposite impressions? The first graph plots the average annual ocean temperature from 1880 to 2016, making the change look insignificant. But in fact, a rise of even half a degree Celsius can cause massive ecological disruption. This is why the second graph, which show the average temperature variation each year, is far more significant.
When they’re used well, graphs can help us intuitively grasp complex data. But as visual software has enabled more usage of graphs throughout all media, it’s also made them easier to use in a careless or dishonest way. So the next time you see a graph, don’t be swayed by the lines and curves. Look at the labels, the numbers, the scale, and the context, and ask what story the picture is trying to tell.
Digital Harmony: On the Complementarity of Music and Visual Art
“Computer technology has been available to a few artists for less than two decades. At the same time that computers are becoming household utensils, a mixture of high expectation and stubborn opposition surrounds the tentative use of these instruments for art. About the computer’s applicability in art there will be much more to say throughout the book. The purpose of this book, then, is to define, as much as I understand them, the principles of harmony as they apply to graphic manipulation of dynamic motion-pattern by computer. Whether my efforts constitute a final valid grammar is irrelevant. The purpose is to document my own approach and to propose the seminal idea of making an approach.” - John Whitney