What insect is the smartest, like the ability to rationalize Idk something like orca smart
The real question here is “what is smart?” because rationalizing is something we as the human species invented in my opinion (what is “good” and what is “bad”). Anyhow, the question is still interesting, let’s look at the phylogenetic tree shall we:
Following the “if the clade is younger, the animals are more adapted/advanced”-argument, flies, butterflies and hymenoptera should be most “intelligent”. I think intelligence can be “measured” in cognitive behavior, and we know some examples of moths reacting to chemical cues. But this is not “real learning”.
Bees, bumblebees, wasps and ants are however capable of learning behavior. In nature, these animals live in colonies and are able to protect other individuals altruistically and care for larvae that are not even from their own. In addition, bees have developed the interesting “bee dance” in order to communicate about food-sources, and if I remember correctly, bees even learn the dance from other workers. Orchids even have some interesting co-evolution going on with inexperienced bees, indicating that bees can learn which flowers they can visit.
If asked to draw a
flower, most people will draw a simple flower with a round centre and a few
petals, but bilateral symmetric flower would be rare. The so-called zygomorphic
flowers can be found in a lot of different plant groups, but are still
understudied. Botanists and evolutionary biologists wanted to figure out what
might be the reason plants have evolved to grow mirroring flowers and what
genes might play a role in this process. This is a study of botanical evolution
and development at its finest.
In extant plants we
find zygomorphic flowers predominantly in the families of the legumes
(Fabaceae), mints and allies (Lamiaceae) and the most stunning examples in the
orchids (Orchidaceae). Opinions on why these plants have evolved to have such
interesting flowers might differ from scientist to scientist, so let’s focus on
the most accepted idea. First of all it’s worth mentioning that the first
flowering plants in prehistoric times were actinomorphic (so radial symmetric),
so all zygomorphy is evolved from this form. It is also pretty much taken for
granted that flowers evolved together with insect pollinators.
explanation of the first case of zygomorphy can be traced back to an ancestral
plant that had, like many plants we know now, horizontal branches. The flowers
of these plants would have to be subjected to gravity, bending the stamens (the
male reproductive organs) and style (the female productive organ) slightly
downwards. While the organs were not easily accessible to bee pollinators, the
flowers had to come up with a different kind of way to attract pollinators. A
landing platform, or botanically called a “lip”, was formed in the plants. In
addition to this mechanical evolution between pollinators and plants, bees are
apparently more attracted to bilateral symmetric objects than to radial
In the Fabaceae and
Lamiaceae, the constant co-evolution with bees has lead to a specific type of
zygomorphic flower. The legumes have developed a flower with five petals, of
which two make up the lower lip, designed for the bees to land on. The stamen
and style have evolved as well: they make up some sort of spring-loaded
pollination-system that only heavy bees can trigger. The Lamiaceae have
developed a similar system, but with the reproductive organs on the upper side.
Orchids are more famous for their pollinator-specific flowers, think for
example of the Darwin orchid, only pollinated by a specific hawk-moth with an
extremely long proboscis.
The genes for
zygomorphic flowers were studied in the common snapdragon - Antirrhinum majus. They found out that
there are a few gene families operating the flower symmetry, especially in the
top and bottom half of the flower. By mutations, Evo-Devo scientists could get
plants in which the genes that code for the upper half didn’t work. What they
saw was that the flowers grew radial symmetric flowers instead of their
original mirrored flowers. In other plants of the same family this system is
similar, but in other families the gene family differs quite much. In completely
different groups like the orchids we still don’t know what happens genetically.
As for now, we are still looking for the mystery genes of flower symmetry.
I am the essence of overconfidence. I am speculation, adventure, the spirit of pursuit, the stag howling for its winsome, yet anonymous mate. I am the love call of evolution, the perfume and color of the flowers as they offer their pollen to the gentle fuzz of the bees. I am sex itself, gentlemen. I am life, I am appetite!
And I'm not taking my clothes off till he leaves.
New Ichiban Kuji from Banpresto has been announced! THis time the theme is based on flowers and around Eevee and its evolutions. The different prizes are pictured above, as we are waiting for better pictures. Entry price is 620 yen in Japan. The lottery starts on August 12th, 2017 in Japan.
Macrocystis pyrifera is in the family Laminariaceae. Commonly known as giant kelp, it is found along the coasts of the Pacific Northwest, South America, and Australasia. It is a common misconception that giant kelp is a species of plant. In fact, it is a brown algae, very distantly related to plants and even green algae. However, giant kelp and other brown algae still have the capacity to photosynthesize due to an evolutionary event independent from rise of photosynthesis in plants. Giant kelp is the largest species of brown algae, and is even considered one of the fastest growing organisms on the planet. Giant kelp can form dense populations underwater known as kelp forests, which harbor hundreds of different species of aquatic life. Under the right conditions, giant kelp can grow up to 2 feet a day, reaching an ultimate height of over 150 feet tall.