the essays of montaigne

We must learn to suffer whatever we cannot avoid. Our life is composed, like the harmony of the world, of discords as well as of different tones, sweet and harsh, sharp and flat, soft and loud. If a musician liked only some of them, what could he sing? He has got to know how to use all of them and blend them together. So too must we with good and ill, which are of one substance with our life.
—  Michel de Montaigne, ‘Essays’
A (Printer’s) only son, and wealthy: an alternate Enjolras interpretation

A couple nights ago, @robertawickham and I were complaining that Hugo took so much from Charles Jeanne’s story to make his Ideal Barricade Hero (Enjolras) and then class-bent him to be a bourgeois student, instead of the working-class guy  Jeanne actually was. 

And then we realized Hugo doesn’t ..actually say… Enjolras is a STUDENT. Just “an only son and wealthy”.  And he LOOKS like a student (a ‘college escapee’)  but that’s in the same sentence that claims he looks like a pageboy and we’re all pretty sure he’s not that.  And hey, workers can BE wealthy! Class often correlated with income (very often) but it wasn’t dependent on that; it was dependent on what sort of work a person did– manual labor was working-class, intellectual labor was bourgeoisie, to oversimplify a ridiculously complicated social strata.  So after like five minutes of shouting TO HECK WITH YOUR CLASS ISSUES, HUGO, WE’RE TAKING ENJOLRAS BACK FOR THE WORKERS we realized we…needed a plausible profession? 

@amarguerite mentioned that printers could, depending on their job and position, be quite wealthy, and gave us a bunch of wonderful details and info which are included under the cut. And lo, IT IS GOLD.  All of it goes together to make Enjolras being the wealthy  only son of print-shop owning family work SO WELL?!? 

A SMALL  AND  ONLY  PARTIAL list of the ways   that Enjolras being the son of a printshop-owner makes Everything Better and Nothing Worse 

-As a printer Enjolras is a logical point of connection for many interest groups; people need printing done! I cannot even believe how easy this makes plothooks! 

-Also as a printer, Enjolras would be in a position to earn trust very quickly, despite his age and appearance, by printing illicit materials, serving as a message center, and so on. 

-Wealthy or not, he likely wouldn’t have the formal education needed to be student; but he would have access to a lot of books and a professional advantage in learning what he could. This explains his occasional slips with Latin and the like, as well as why he’s apparently managed to get an education that so much inspires his Republican convictions–he chose his own reading material, apart from the standardized curriculum. 

- He WOULD be in a position to have the kind of knowledge we see him display in Enjolras and His Lieutenants–awareness of who’s ramping up their revolutionary discussions, who’s getting cold feet, what the general mood of the radical groups in the city are. He’d know because THEY WOULD TELL HIM, with the kind of work they give him and how often and what the tone of it is. He’s  as close to an internet hub as they’ve got. A GREAT person to help organize your activist group! 

- Printers, whatever their more abstract politics, could hardly help knowing and caring about the various censorship and speech laws, which directly affected their business. A printshop owning family wouldn’t have to totally support Enjolras in his more dramatic views to agree with him taking dramatic action, especially in 1830; but they could still like Louis-Philippe, be more conservative– or very radical! So many options! (more on this under the cut)

- Printshop culture generally leaned heavily on the sort of jokes and teasing and goofing around the Amis are seen to love, and narratively applauded for, at least equally an evolution of working-class culture (which it really should be) as of student culture (which it still would be!)

- but as an expected heir and future manager of the shop he’d still be used to interacting with bourgeois clients and businesses! And probably dress quite well when out of the shop, in a subdued, professional way. 

-Gavroche is mentioned as doing the occasional odd bit of work in a printshop.  If anyone  wants, this gives a really easy hook for Gavroche and Enjolras’ interactions at the barricade. 

- Wait! (I panic.) Isn’t Feuilly the only workingman in this group of students?? **checks**! Wait, no, Hugo doesn’t actually say that! He only says that Feuilly IS a worker.  Enjolras ALSO being a worker takes away nothing from Feuilly; a wealthy shop-owner’s  only child and obvious heir will have dramatically more advantages than  an orphan. But it does acknowledge that the working class wasn’t a homogenous block or single sort of life experience. 

-Enjolras and Feuilly’s relationship is so much more interesting this way?? and it stops Feuilly being the Token Worker in a city full of workers in a worker-led movement.  Seriously, Hugo, screw your class issues so much. 

 -I have an excuse to draw Enjolras in a printer’s apron with his sleeves up. :Like, ALWAYS.   That is SO what I’m doing today. 

Below the cut: Longer discussion and more explanation, and some  Q&A with Amarguerite (shared with permission!)  for the use of anyone else who wants to adopt this headcanon/alternate reading!  (please consider sharing this headcanon it’s so great I am so happy right now)  Warning: VERY LONG. 

Keep reading

I veri amici

Occorrono orecchi molto robusti per sentirsi giudicare con franchezza. E poiché ce ne sono pochi che possano sopportarlo senza esserne feriti, quelli che si arrischiano a farlo nei nostri confronti ci danno una singolare prova d’amicizia.

M. E. de Montaigne, [Essais, 1580-1595], Saggi, Milano, Bompiani/RCS Libri, 2012. [Trad. F. Garavina]

Si on me presse de dire pourquoi je l'aimais, je sens que cela ne peut s'exprimer qu'en répondant : parce que c'était lui, parce que c'était moi.
— 

Michel de Montaigne, Les Essais

‘’If I am pressed to say why I loved him, I feel it can only be explained by replying: ‘Because it was him; because it was me.’‘ 

rundown of the Northern Renaissance

RELATIONSHIP TO ITALIAN RENAISSANCE

  • students began to travel to Italy in the late 1400s 
    • there they learned new ideas and techniques in painting 
  • merchants from “low countries” such as France, Germany, and England all visited Italy for trade purposes 
  • Bottom Line: Students and merchants brought these ideas to the north

CHRISTIAN HUMANISM 

  • aka the Northern Humanists 
  • they studied the classics but related them more heavily to Christian content 
  • calmness and stoical patience (classics) combines with love, humility, and piety (religion) 
  • did a whole bunch of social work too
    • moral and institutional reform
  •  Bottom Line: It was the Classics but with Christianity mixed in

KEY FIGURES 

  • Desiderius Erasmus 
    • most famous humanist 
    • edited works of Christian fathers and translate the New Testament  into Latin and Greek 
    • most famous work: In Praise of Folly
      • satirical piece that poked fun on people of all class especially hypocrisy of Church leaders and Pope Julius II 
    • devout catholic who didn’t really WANT to hurt the church rather to REFORM it 
    • wrote all of his stuff in Latin
  • Thomas More
    • Englishman 
    • humanist scholar who had a lot of different positions including chancellor to Henry VIII 
    • most famous work: Utopia
      • wrote about a perfect society in which there was religious toleration, humanist education for men and women and communal ownership of property (aka everyone in the community owns the property)  
  • Michel De Montaigne 
    • French writer 
    • popularized the essay and used anecdotes 

ART

  • Characteristics 
    • oil painting was popular 
    • details and perfection of everyday objects 
    • symbolism became very popular 
      • The Arnolfini Wedding used a dog as a symbol for fidelity 
  • Artists 
    • Jan van Eyck 
      • Flemish artist 
      • pioneer in oil painting 
      • known for The Arnolfini Wedding and the Ghent Altarpiece
    • Albrecht Durer 
      • had influence of the Italian Renaissance 
      • used woodcuts and self-portraits 
    • Hans Holbein the Younger 
      • combined the realism of the Northern Renaissance with the proportion of the Italian Renaissance 

anonymous asked:

I'm starting summer soon and I'm looking for some really good books to read. Got any recommendations?

Off the top of my head, I suggest these works of literature:

-The Symposium by Plato (talks about philosophy of love, truly a must)
-The letters of Abelard and Heloise (tcc community would love this also it’s one of the most beautifully haunting things I’ve ever read)
-Lucy by Kincaid
-The Alchemist
-The Seducer’s Diary
-Don Juan
-Confessions of an English Opium Eater
-Montaigne: Essays

Also, I went to the library the other day and ended up picking these books up:

-Seductress : women who ravished the world and their lost art of love
-Whore stories : a revealing history of the world’s oldest profession
-Ku Klux Klan: its origin, growth, and disbandment
-Women of the Klan : racism and gender in the 1920s
-Between the fences : before Guantánamo, there was the Port Isabel Service Processing Center

Very excited to read these!! Also, I swear I’m not some ignorant racist ass bitch lmao (I’m actually quite the opposite). I’m just genuinely interested in the Klan and it’s history. I try to stay informed and educated about all things, good or bad. I suggest you guys do the same. Read books about subjects that peak your interest. As you can see, mine are pretty divided. From the KKK, to Latin immigrants, to sex. How about that?

If you guys want me to do reviews on the books I got from the library, please let me know!!

Anyways, thanks for the question! Hope you read some of them and let me know if you do!🤗

If I speak diversely of myself, it is because I look diversely upon myself… Shamefaced, bashful, insolent, chaste, luxurious, peevish, prattling, silent, fond, doting, labourious, nice, delicate, ingenious, slow, dull, froward, humorous, debonaire, wise, ignorant, false in words, true-speaking, both liberal, covetous, and prodigal. All these I perceive in some measure or other to be in mine, according as I stir or turn myself.
—  Michel de Montaigne, Essays, “Of the Inconstancy of Our Actions” (trans. John Florio)