the cell cycle


the raven ring: trips through the gangsey’s iphones → henry cheng


high-quality scan of my mitosis, cytokinesis, cell cycle, and tumour formation notes!!!

I apologise for being completely inactive for the past few weeks, May has the biggest struggle of my life. I have honestly just been in survival mode, but I’m so glad I have come so far! There is still a lot more to go (IB ugh) and I am in the middle of my grade 11 finals so wish me luck. It’s so close to summer yet so far because of everything from here to then.

Here are some scans of my bio notes on mitosis, the cell cycle, and tumour formation. Can’t wait to come back onto tumblr, update you all and be active again after this huge load of work :) 

How to study Histology

Hey guys! I know a lot of people have trouble with histology and I found myself so many times teaching my friends not only the subject but also how to study for it so this post is for you, I hope you enjoy it since it’s my first post.


I know medical books tend to have too much information that may not be always necessary so I really recomend highlighting IN DIFFERENT COLORS, I can’t stress enough about how important is to use color coding, most of my friends get tired easily when reviewing and I truly believe it is because the whole textbook page is yellow, so every time they open it they get saturated by the amount of information highlighted. Also when you are trying to find something is easier to look straight to the type of info you need (could be numbers, functions or anything) so a color for each type is a lifesaver

I use:

  • Yellow: Really important stuff (If you don’t know this you don’t know anything about the subject)
  • Purple: Numbers (size of this type of cell, percentages, life cycle or anything that includes numbers)
  • Blue: Functions (what does it do? How does it work?)
  • Pink: Specifications (something you can only find in this tissue/cell/organ or anything really really specific or detailed to know)
  • Orange: Terms and vocabulary to know

Also if there is any clinical case try to summarise it, take a post it and just write the disease, cause and main simptoms.

Some really good histology books are: Gartner, Genesser and Ross yet try to study not only from one textbook, having one physically and the rest as ebooks is great because you can highlight and write notes on one, but study also from the rest. I feel like I need to actually mark the page or something to feel like I did read it, but that is just me.


FOCUS IN THE PICTURES: is more important to tell the difference between the tissues (normally the hardest part of the subject) than knowing what they do (you’ll learn that again later on physiology), so pay lots of attention when that explain how to identify them, most doctors will be kind enough to give you tips and tricks on how to do it WRITE THEM DOWN!

Read at least the chapter summary before the lecture.

Draw!!! It is easy to make a quick sketch about what the doctor just explained about the tissue, for example if you are talking about red cells draw one and write any notes given regarding how it will look on the microscope


Take pictures of the tissues: At home you can play matching them to the correct name or cells, and also you can’t try to draw the but now focusing more on the details so you can remember how it looks like

Rough translation of the ghoul biology portion presented by Nishiki:

I’ll summarize it for you. The number of times a cell can divide is predetermined. And, every time a cell divides, the telomeres shorten a bit each time. If the telomere becomes shorter than a certain length, then the cell can no longer divide. This is known as ‘senescence’. There’s a possibility that RC cells contain enzymes that can increase the length of the telomeres. That might be why ghouls are able to handle that amount of cell propagation like in their kagune. Your body goes through the cell cycle faster than people by using your kagune or regenerating..

I hate Tumblr politics y'all are so annoying forgetting that most of us on here are in our early and late 20s saying shit like “where where you protestors when Bill Clinton was getting deep throated by Monica ☕️🐸” and “where were you guys when Thomas Jefferson owned slaves take a fuckin sip babes 🐸🐸☕️☕️” like idk maybe I was a single fuckin chromotid in my dads nut sack waiting for him to bust and go through the cell cycle with my mom’s egg cell, you freakin geese

Reconstructing life at its beginning, cell by cell

After 13 rapid divisions a fertilized fly egg consists of about 6,000 cells. They all look alike under the microscope. However, each cell of a Drosophila melanogaster embryo already knows by then whether it is destined to become a neuron or a muscle cell – or part of the gut, the head, or the tail. Now, Nikolaus Rajewsky’s and Robert Zinzen’s teams at the Berlin Institute of Medical Systems Biology (BIMSB) of the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association (MDC) have analyzed the unique gene expression profiles of thousands of single cells and reassembled the embryo from these data using a new spatial mapping algorithm. The result is a virtual fly embryo showing exactly which genes are active where at this point in time. “It is basically a transcriptomic blueprint of early development,” says Robert Zinzen, head of the Systems Biology of Neural Tissue Differentiation Lab. Their paper appears as a First Release in the online issue of Science.

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André Burakovsky #1 - Stressful Studying

Anon asked: Hey I’ve been rereading your imagines while taking small breaks between finishing up scholarship essays! I was wondering if you could please do one with André Burakovsky and stressing about college? Xoxo

I will be honest this one took a turn I was not expecting. There is a bit of angst but seeing as how I like for things to be super fluffy and cheesy it was quickly resolved. Anon, I interpreted your ask to mean the reader is currently in college though I debated between that and the reader worrying about getting into college. I wanted to write about André for a while and if someone hadn’t requested it I would have likely done it myself. For some reason I was feeling a camping theme. Maybe I can use that elsewhere? I hope you enjoy it!

After the third consecutive night stuck in the university’s main library until the early hours of the morning you found yourself seriously questioning why you chose to become a biology major. The phases of the cell cycle and gene interactions blurred together until it gave you a headache and you finally decided to call it a night. Your watch told you it was nearing two in the morning and you debated on whether or not you could call your boyfriend to pick you up or walk back to the apartment. In the end as you exited the building the decision was made for you. A few spots down from the entrance was your car with your boyfriend André Burakovsky sitting behind the wheel playing with his phone. You smiled, hitched your backpack higher and crossed over the parking lot to meet him. He didn’t notice you approach and when you rapped your knuckles on the window he jumped, obviously startled.

He unlocked the passenger door and you slid in, “hey, what are you doing here?”

He shifted the car into reverse, “well when you didn’t text me back about dinner I knew you would be here for a while. I couldn’t sleep without knowing if you were okay.”

You rested your head against the window and watched the city as you drove by. Washington always seemed to be busy but as late or early depending on how you looked at it, as it was the city seemed to actually quiet down for once. The drive from campus to your apartment wasn’t a long one but you had apparently dozed off anyway. André gently shook your shoulder and walked around the front of the car to help you up. He took your bag without you having to ask and acted as a crutch for you to lean on. You just had to get to the elevators and it’d be easier from there. Your bright blue bag looked ridiculous on him and you couldn’t help the giggles that came out. To your exhaustion muddled brain everything was funny.

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the signs as things i’ve probably heard in school

aries: that’s not what your mom said when i tugged on HER flow last night

taurus: *chants* dunk on him! dunk on him!

gemini: this is comedic genuis: the first cell goes, “have you heard of the cell cycle?” and the second cell goes “nope” as it’s splitting in half. it’s funny cause the second cell looks like a bicycle. i’m getting extra credit for this one.


leo: *collective awkward/nervous laughter during assemblies*

virgo: i could get into harvard

libra: wHAt the fuck rachel i WILL NOT help you fix your thong

scorpio: *friend threatens to kill them* i’m actually kind of into that

sagittarius: i swear i don’t have pink eye! dude it’s from all the weed i’ve been smoking.

capricorn: i stayed up till three am trying to figure out this one problem for algebra II and it turns out the teacher didn’t even assign it to us in the first place

aquarius:  *starts choking on crayola*

pisces: couldn’t you have picked out a prettier plant? you are a disappointment to this lab group


gif’d an animation of cellular respiration in preparation for my lesson on mitochondria. 

for complex things such as this process, i find that videos (even the better ones) are just to fast or arbitrarily sequential to use as a classroom teaching method. alternatively, static diagrams utterly fail to convey the process or end up getting super cluttered in an attempt to include everything. looped gifs seem to be an ideal medium in the absence of some sort of interactive, dynamic thing.


“As surgeons, we rely on cycles, heartbeats, cell regeneration, circadian rhythms. We know something’s wrong when the cycle is broken. Our duty is to fix it. To force the cogs back in line. But that break can also be useful. Like a warning shot.”

“When we come to depend on a cycle, the thought of breaking it is scary. Even the cycles that cause us harm. But sometimes when we break the cycle, we find something better. Something unexpected. Something we never dared to dream as possible. You find freedom. We find peace.”
- Owen Hunt 14x05 -  “Danger Zone”

Chapter 131: The Thinking Pig

Feel free to copy and paste my summaries to other sites as long as you give me credit.  Please keep in mind when copying and pasting that I may continue to correct errors and tweak details after it is posted.

Pg 1: The ghoul children ask Kaneki where Touka is because they want her to read a book to them. Kaneki says that she might be doing an errand and asks if they want him to read to them instead. They say that Touka told them that it’s taboo for him to do it so Kaneki says they can go look for her. Kaneki thinks to himself that he hopes Touka isn’t angry that he read her memo (regarding her pregnancy due date in December). They find Touka.

Pg 2: Touka sits at the top of a large steel tower. Kaneki and the children climb up and the children ask her to read them the book. Touka begins to read it and Kaneki watches her.

Pg 3: The scene changes to Kaneki approaching the cell where Hajime is being held. Hajime sings to himself but stops when he sees Kaneki. Kaneki says that he wants to talk to him and Hajime screams his name at the sight of him.

Pg 4: Hajime excitedly tells Kaneki that he is a fan of his strength and has watched his video file many times. Kaneki says that he wants to talk about the letter that Hajime delivered to him. Hajime says that he doesn’t know anything about the letter, he was just sent to be a spy. Kaneki realizes that he may need to meet with Mutsuki directly.

Pg 5: Kaneki turns away from the cell and Hajime tells Kaneki that if he is going to the surface to take him with him. Kaneki thinks that Yoriko’s execution date is getting closer and he wonders how he can save her. He thinks that there are a number of places that she could possibly be held and he might need to rely on Mutsuki for that information. His eye begins to drip black liquid. Kaneki looks at and thinks that he isn’t a miracle human, he’s just a person. The scene changes to Kaneki and Nishio sitting on top of a metal structure talking about telomeres.

Pg 6: Nishio explains that telomeres are found at the end of DNA and every time that a cell divides the telomeres shorten until they can’t divide anymore. He says that the RC cells may contain enzymes that increase the length of telomeres so that ghouls can withstand the high rate of multiplication that they have in their kagune. He says that because Kaneki is using his kagune for regeneration his body is going through the cell cycle faster, therefore Kaneki is aging at a rapid rate.

Pg 7:  Nishio tells him that it’s just a theory but Kaneki says that he thinks that he’s right. Nishio asks Kaneki when he started to have black tears and Kaneki replies that it started about a month ago. Nishio says that he won’t be able to continue fighting because he’s not a ghoul. Kaneki asks if he’s able to stop the aging and Nishio tells him to stop using his kagune, avoid fatal wounds, and cannibalize other ghouls.

Pg 8: The scene changes to Kaneki lying alone on his cot. He wonders how much time he has left to live. He reaches for the paper under his pillow and notices that the letter is facing a different direction, meaning that Touka saw it.  The scene changes to hooded ghouls wandering deep underground.

Pg 9:  Ayato looks at the rubble and thinks that there’s nobody there, not even ghosts.

Pg 10: A ghoul jumps out, attempting to startle Ayato with a surprise attack.  Ayato dodges the attack. He forms his kagune quickly and fires projectiles at the attacking ghoul, knocking it back.

Pg 11: Another ghoul approaches and attacks Ayato with a kagune. Ayato takes the blow with his leg and kicks the ghoul back, telling it that he can’t be cut with a blade that thick. Ayato stabs the hood of one of the ghouls and tells them that it’s game over for them. He thinks to himself that there are three in total.

Pg 12: Ayato and the other hooded ghouls look at the ghouls that they found. The ghouls angerly tell Ayato that if they are going to eat them to just hurry up and do it. Ayato thinks that he can hardly understand them because of their accent. He says that they aren’t going to eat them and they act surprised. He asks them if they are part of the 24th ward and asks them what happened to the other ghouls. They ask him what a ghoul is.

Pg 13: Ayato says that they are ghouls because they used kagune. They ask if a kagune is what they call a “tsumamushi” and tell him that they are humans in Tokyo. Ayato asks them how the town came to be and they say that the “Nagaraj” (Snake King) destroyed it. A large serpent-like figure is shown throughout the rubble.

Pg 14: The scene changes to Touka and Kaneki sitting on a cot. Touka tells Kaneki that the kids were happy she read to them and then tells Kaneki that he’s making a face. Kaneki apologizes. He thinks that he wants to ask her if she saw the notice in his room about Yoriko’s execution.

Pg 15:  He wonders if he told Touka that he was going to rescue her if Touka would try to stop him. Touka asks if it’s something that’s hard to say and he agrees. She asks if he fell in love with another woman and he says that he didn’t. She asks if he wants her to talk and they look at one another.

Pg 16: Touka says that she thinks that she’s pregnant and apologizes for not telling him. She says that she wanted to wait until she was sure that it was going to be born healthy. Kaneki looks at Touka and wonders if she is trying to overlook the fact that Yoriko is going to be executed (she also knows that Kaneki is weak/sick at the moment and will not fare well if he tries to rescue her, meaning that she is choosing to ignore the fact that Yoriko will be executed in order to not endanger Kaneki).

Pg 17: Kaneki asks when it will be born and Touka says in December. Kaneki says that he’s happy. He asks Touka how ghouls get married. They hold hands and Kaneki says that he wants to leave proof (that they are a couple/married) behind on each other’s bodies.

Pg 18: Kaneki leaves a bite mark on Touka’s shoulder, proof that won’t fade away after they die (recall that Touka has already bitten Kaneki’s neck, during the fight with Tsukiyama in the original Tokyo Ghoul).