I haven’t seen a post that really depicts the history of Rwanda yet. So here’s my little contribution. By the way, thanks for the posts you reblogged.
Before the colonization, Rwanda was made of three social classes : Tutsi (10-15%), Hutu (over 80%) and Twa (less than 1%). Tutsi (upper social class) were cattle breeders, Hutu were farmers and Twa (lower social class) were hunters. One could become Tutsi or Hutu by marriage for example. They all had the same language, same religion and same culture.
German settlers arrived in Rwanda in the end of 19th century. They thought that Tutsi were more intelligent and more beautiful (according to European beauty standards of course : tall, skinny, light-skinned, thin nose, thin lips etc.). They thought that Hutu were boor, stupid and ugly (again, according to European beauty standards : shorter, huge lips, large nose etc). Twa were very short and seen as a species between humans and monkeys. After losing WWI, Germany gave Rwanda (and Burundi, which is like the twin of Rwanda with same language, same social classes etc) to Belgium. Belgians thought the same as Germans and started to gather all Rwandans and measure their height, their nose, etc to see if they were from the superior race (aka Tutsi) or inferior race (aka Hutu (or Twa but Twa were a very small minority)). Because of that, some Hutu became Tutsi just because they “looked” Tutsi and vice versa. Belgians privileged Tutsi over Hutu. They said only Tutsi could rule the country because they were the only intelligent ones. Tutsi were privileged in administration, education etc. Eventually in the 50s, Tutsi Rwandans asked for independence and Belgians didn’t want to lose their colony so they started to talk to Hutu who’d been discriminated against for a few decades. They said : “Look how Tutsi despise you! They think only they can rule the country but this country is yours! They don’t even come from here, they stole your land (there’s a myth saying that Twa were the first inhabitants in Rwanda, Hutu came from West Africa and Tutsi were the last ones to arrive in Rwanda and forced Hutu to subject to them). You have to rebel against Tutsi supremacy!” So that’s what Hutu did in 1959. The Tutsi King fled. Hutu killed thousands of Tutsi with the support of Belgian settlers and Catholic church, and hundreds thousands of Tutsi had to flee to Uganda and Tanzania. Rwanda became a Republic in 1961 and Rwandans elected a Hutu president named Kayibanda. Finally Rwanda became independent in 1962.
The president Kayibanda was an extremist and under his leadership, thousands of Tutsi were killed in 1963 and in 1972, just for being Tutsi. Their homes were burnt, they were stolen and beaten up. They were fired from their jobs, fired from schools. And hundreds thousands of them fled outside the country. In 1973, a Hutu man staged a coup d'état and became president. His name’s Habyiarimana He seemed a little bit more accepting of Tutsi but he still didn’t want the Tutsi exiles to come back. Because of that, the Tutsi exiles with the help of Hutu political opponents who had also fled created an army called PRF (Patriotic Rwandan Front) to come back to Rwanda by force, in 1987. The PRF declared war against the Rwandan government in 1990 and the war went on until 1994. During those 4 years, innocent Tutsi were killed or imprisonned by the government every time PRF tried to attack the government army. There was a huge propaganda against Tutsi (through the Radio for example) and that propaganda made Hutu think that Tutsi wanted to take back the power like under the Belgian colonization. Therefore, every Tutsi was an enemy.
On April 6, 1994, the president’s plane was shot down. Hutu extremists might be responisble for that. The day after, moderate Hutu were killed by extremist Hutu and the genocide of Tutsi started, which made about 1 million victims in 3 months. Rwanda’s population was about 7 millions at that time. The genocide was planned and organised by the Hutu extremist government (as I said, the moderate members were killed) and executed by militia who recruited Hutu civilians and gave them machetes, grenades, and guns.
France had been an ally of Rwanda since its independence. France helped Rwanda fight back against the PRF during the war until end of 1993. France also trained Rwandan soliders (the army was made of 5,000 men in 1990 and 35,000 men in 1994 because of France). France gave arms and ammunition to Rwanda even after the genocide started. France never asked President Habyirimana to stop discrimination and killings of Tutsi. Actually the French President and Habyirimana were good friends. In June 1994, France decided to take action in Rwanda, officially to save Tutsi but its intention is very contested today and we think their main goal was to not let the PRF win the war, because if they did, Rwanda would become English-speaking (PRF was made of people who grew up in Uganda and Tanzania so they spoke English) instead of French-speaking and France still wanted Rwanda to be French-speaking so that they could have an influence on it. The thing is the PRF was actually liberating Tutsi by chasing the Hutu extremist killers so fighting against them meant letting more Tutsi being killed. France or French politicians have never been sentenced for that.
Belgium also was an ally of Rwanda until 1991 when they stopped supporting Rwanda because of the murders of Tutsi.
While the genocide was happening, even though everyone knew it was a genocide, the UN didn’t want to admit it was, because otherwise they would have had to take action and almost no country wanted to send their soldiers to Rwanda.
I really, really, wanted to emphasize some things: 1. Colonization played a big role in Rwanda self-destruction 2. Tutsi were discriminated against and killed for years before the genocide of 1994 happened 3. The genocide didn’t happen because the president’s plane was shot down. Extermination plans were already known by France and UN for months/years. It is important to remember that, because in the West, people like to think that Hutu turned crazy just because their president was killed and it doesn’t really surprise anyone because “Africans are savage and violent and uncivilised anyways”. 4. The genocide could have been avoided or at least there could have been way less victims if the UN and the rest of the world had cared about the 1 million innocent people who were being slaughtered (mostly Tutsi but also Hutu who tried to protect Tutsi)
If anyone wants to ask questions I’ll be glad to answer.
Synopsis: Jimin is finally returning home to Busan after a few years of college. His friend, Jungkook, tags along as well. Rather than being interested in the new sights, he finds his eyes following Jimin’s old friend — you.
Pairing: Jungkook x Reader x Jimin // childhood friends!au, fwb!au + love triangle!
A/N: it’s back and re-written :’) for those who read it on my old blog, this’ll probably take a different route than the original ^^
It is around four in the afternoon, saffron rays of sunlight spilling past the windows of Jimin’s car. There are not any other noises aside the blasting tune of his car radio that pairs along with the booming bass. Jimin’s gaze is locked on the narrow road, clammy palms gripping onto the wheel as he frequently licks his lips out of anticipation. His friend, Jungkook, who is kicking himself back into the soft of the passenger seat, is singing along to every catchy song that comes up on the radio. They often exchange glances, waggling eyebrows that follow with a fit of chortles from their excitement.
They are finally heading back home.
After what feels like ages of Jungkook straining his voice to the flow of the melody, Jimin interrupts his pase and twists the volume down a couple of notches. “Are you nervous?” he asks, eyes peering left and right when he reaches the stop sign, “My house is just around this corner.”
Jungkook lets out a chuckle. “Why should I be? You said your parents are nothing to worry about and that your brother spends most of his time outside.”
“Yeah,” Jimin confirms, “but first impressions are everything.”
“I’m sure that they’ll love me,” Jungkook says with a reassuring hand on his friend’s shoulder. “I cannot believe you lived in the same city as me all my life and we only met in college.”
Jimin grins and turns the corner. “Well, we did live on opposite sides of the city. What can you say? Ah, we’re here.”
Jimin brings his car to a slow stop in front of a rusting mailbox, still managing to messily park it with care. Jungkook’s entire self lights up like a child that had its interest captured by a simple scene, eyebrows raising and heart skipping. They both swing the doors open and close it with a loud bang before they skirt to the trunk of Jimin’s vehicle. Popping it open, they grab their bags from his ash grey car and the older boy gladly leads his enthusiastic friend to the front of his house. Every fiber of Jungkook’s being radiates with excitement along every step he takes towards Jimin’s front door. Jimin slides his keys in, unlocking the entrance then realizes something: he forgot his phone in the cupholder of his car.
“Here—” he says and hands Jungkook his bags—“place them inside and wait on the couch, I forgot something.”
Jungkook opens his mouth, dumbfounded and ready to protest; nonetheless, he does as he says and drops their belongings by the closest sofa. Jimin rushes to his automobile reaches inside to grab onto his device quickly, ready to dash back towards his house to save Jungkook from the pressing questions that could come out of his family’s mouth if they encountered him first; however, the second he twists on his heel he sees a face he knows all too well. “Y/N?”
i was blessed enough to be able to rewatch the original batb animated movie today with my cousin, and after thinking about it again and again and again and AGAIN, i’ve reached something of a conclusion
everything else is a minor hiccup. if they’d only kept three key things intact in the remake i would not be this angry (warning for spoilers):
belle’s character. the greatest strength the original belle had was that she was gracious, polite, and patient, even in the face of rude boors like gaston, and this strength of character was what ultimately helped her “tame” the beast and bring out the best in him. the new belle was not only haughty and dismissive of just about everyone around her (it might have been something of an upgrade if gaston had been more openly rude to her, but by downplaying gaston and belle’s interaction they made belle look much worse) but her “stubbornness” was almost excruciatingly emphasized to the point of seeming artificial and showed very little development throughout the course of the story which made her look, to me, very immature and unlikable. this might have been in large part due to emma watson not being able to act as any other character than movie!hermione, which i feel doesn’t fit this story at all. somehow, in the year 2017, the movie falls for the trap of making “strong female characters” the usual headstrong, mouthy stereotype of a woman and it makes me roll my eyes
beast’s character. in the original, it was made very clear that although he really did want to be a more polite, kind individual, he didn’t quite know how to do it, hence his numerous losses of temper and faux pas. his beastly nature, so to speak, overpowered the rest of his personality and it took the patience of another person to tame it out of him. he didn’t need a tragic backstory to explain why he became this way; he was a plenty tragic character on his own, and his quest to become a better person wasn’t just a natural result of him falling in love with belle but also an active effort on his part, something that was foreshadowed amply even before they started falling in love. in the remake, though, beast undergoes much less of a development, precisely because he isn’t given much room to develop. he’s your usual broody byronic hero (my friend used the term “emo teenage boy” lmao) who is petulant for the sake of being petulant, is just as reluctant to be close to belle as she is to him at first, and doesn’t show much initiative for a relationship with her, which is why it feels so artificial and out of the blue when he saves her from the wolves
belle and beast’s relationship. this follows naturally from all of the above. i get that they were trying to go for a more “organic” romance where belle and beast are just “naturally compatible, they just don’t know it yet~!” but that’s at the expense of the ENTIRE FUCKING POINT OF BEAUTY AND THE BEAST, and just ends up reducing it to another boring straight romcom story instead of one where the importance of changing one another and reaching compromises in relationships is highlighted. i almost feel like the “taming the beast” plot was discarded because belle and beast’s characters were so vastly rewritten that such a plot would seem implausible; belle feels just as immature as beast at times, and beast doesn’t seem to be afflicted with a curse that makes him act more beastly, so much as just a bad personality, but it’s all justified bc “his childhood was shitty, okay?” and what’s the point of a beauty and the beast remake if it’s not….a beauty and the beast story…….
that’s the worst of it, imo. if you read all that, kudos to you. everything else–the dress, the cgi, the designs, even the autotune–is all very minor and forgivable to me in light of the three main things up there, and all the other changes they made to the other characters would also be more palatable if not for them. i actually sort of liked what they did with lefou despite the debacle about his sexuality. i liked what they did with maurice. i liked that they clarified the relationship between beast and his servants a bit more. but all of it falls flat if the main players don’t stand up to scrutiny
~Seventeen Scoups birthday scenario for @rianne-loveeee! Happy birthday love! I hope you like it.
You’d woken that morning and found your boyfriend’s side of the bed empty. Sitting up in confusion, you’d gotten out of bed and checked the rest of the apartment but Seungcheol was nowhere to be seen. You’d showered, gotten dressed and had eaten breakfast, assuming he’d just gone out for a bit. An hour passed and you decided to call him. No answer. You tried twice more but still no answer. You’d sent him a couple of texts but received no replies.
Now, hours later, you were sitting on your couch and watching some random tv show but weren’t really paying attention to it. Did Seungcheol forget that today was your birthday? He couldn’t possibly forgotten because he’d spent the last month hyping you up for the day, only to disappear. None of your friends or family were available to hang out so you sat miserably on your couch alone.
Suddenly, your phone rang, making you jump a bit in surprise. You picked it up and answered, not checking who it was.
“Y/N?” Jeonghan’s voice came from the other end of the line and you were surprise to hear how serious he sounded.
“Hey Jeonghan, what’s up?” you asked. You heard him sigh before answering.
“You need to get over here,” he said and hung up. You quickly get up and pulled on your shoes then dashed out of your apartment, filled with worry.
You knocked urgently on the door of the dorms and it opened to reveal a sad Soonyoung. You knew something was wrong. Soonyoung was never, ever ( you’re amazing if you get the reference) sad. He just closed the door and walked further into the dark apartment. You stayed standing by the door, completely confused. Suddenly, you were blinded by light and deafened by all your family and friends yelling happy birthday. Seungcheol broke away from the crowd and made his way over toy you. Pulling you into his arms, he whispered apologies into your ear about having ignored you all day. You didn’t even care anymore, you were just completely overwhelmed with how much effort he’d put in for today. You pulled away and smiled then kissed him softly.
“Ew PDA!” Seungkwan yelled from somewhere within the mass of people. You pulled away as your cheeks heated up from embarrassment. Seungcheol just laughed and kissed your forehead.
It had gotten late but the party was in full swing. Seungkwan had just decided that now was the time when he must dance to every girl group song ever made and Dokyeom was hyping him up like no tomorrow. You were standing in the large circle that had formed around the two and you were nearly crying from laughter. Hands grasped your waist and turned you around so you were facing their owner. Seungcheol winked at you as he grabbed your hand and led you away from the crowd to his room. When you both in, he reached behind his boor and pulled out a bag and handed it to you.
“Seungcheol you didn’t have to,” you said as you took the bag. He shushed you and insisted you open it. Inside were several jewellery boxes and a bear the wore a t-shirt with your dorky boyfriend’s face on it. You reached in and pulled out the first box, which contained a beautiful necklace. The next held the matching earrings and the one after that had the matching bracelet. There was one last box but when you opened it, it was empty. When you looked up at Seungcheol in confusion, you found him down on one knee with a beautiful engagement ring in hand. He smiled adoringly at you as you immediately said yes. You knew then that that birthday was the best one you’d ever have.
~A/N~ Requests are currently closed as the inbox is quite full at the moment.
We shall have a republic one day, and when it comes of its own free will, it will be good. But, let us not harvest in May fruit which will not be ripe until July; let us learn to wait…. We cannot suffer boors to bespatter our flag with red.
↳ “My last thought will be of you.” The two meet in 1871, after Verlaine responded to one of Rimbaud’s letters and invited him to live with him in Paris. Rimbaud was a striking youth with a baby face and bright blue eyes and Verlaine was captivated by him and his poetry. However, Rimbaud was a bit of a boor and prone to uncouth behavior which only served to drive a wedge in the Verlaine marriage. Shortly after the birth of his son, Verlaine left his wife and joined Rimbaud on a drunken and drug fueled two year trip through Europe. The relationship was a well publicized scandal as the two weren’t opposed to showing public displays of affection and Verlaine would commonly boast that the two made love “like tigers.” However, the relationship was fraught with bouts of rage and violence which culminated in 1873 when Verlaine shot Rimbaud in the wrist in Brussels. Verlaine was sentenced to two years in prison and Rimbaud returned home to live with his mother. The two would meet for the last time in 1875 in Germany where Rimbaud entrusted a volume of poems to Verlaine which he would later publish. Rimbaud would cease to write largely after this period and instead took to traveling before dying of cancer at 37. When asked why he thought Rimbaud had ceased to write, Verlaine reportedly said, “He simply grew up. The child in him died.”
Hello you all! I wrote an Oumasai fic and wanted to share! Yahooo! My first contribution to the Oumasai fandom! :D
Summary: After his horrible experiences in his past school, Saihara is ready to enter Saishuu Academy and start anew. Now all he has to do is fit in. Easy. Or so he thinks. It isn’t long before a classmate of his starts hanging around him more and more and more, practically existing around him like a benevolent shadow. What’s his deal, anyway? It isn’t like he asked for the attention, but then again, he’s not saying he minds, either.
Basically a fluffy, loving, and supportive high school au where kids don’t have to worry about killing each other. :D
Rating: Teen and Up
Word Count: 3,253
Warnings: None, though mentions of bullying. Stay safe!