the archbishop

Saint of the Day – 27 May – St Augustine of Canterbury – Benedictine Monk who bacame the first Archbishop of Canterbury ((born in Rome first third of the 6th century – died probably 26 May 605 in Canterbury, England of natural causes, his relics interred outside the church of Saints Peter and Paul, Canterbury, a building project he had started).   He is considered the “Apostle to the English” and a founder of the English Church.

Augustine was the prior of a monastery in Rome when Pope Gregory the Great chose him in 595 to lead a mission, usually known as the Gregorian mission, to Britain to Christianize King Æthelberht and his Kingdom of Kent from Anglo-Saxon paganism.   Kent was probably chosen because Æthelberht had married a Christian princess, Bertha, daughter of Charibert I the King of Paris, who was expected to exert some influence over her husband.   Before reaching Kent, the missionaries had considered turning back, but Gregory urged them on, and in 597, Augustine landed on the Isle of Thanet and proceeded to Æthelberht’s main town of Canterbury.

King Æthelberht converted to Christianity and allowed the missionaries to preach freely, giving them land to found a monastery outside the city walls.   Augustine was consecrated as a bishop and converted many of the king’s subjects, including thousands during a mass baptism on Christmas Day in 597.   Pope Gregory sent more missionaries in 601, along with encouraging letters and gifts for the churches, although attempts to persuade the native Celtic bishops to submit to Augustine’s authority failed.   Roman bishops were established at London and Rochester in 604 and a school was founded to train Anglo-Saxon priests and missionaries.   Augustine also arranged the consecration of his successor, Laurence of Canterbury.   The archbishop probably died in 604 and was soon revered as a saint.

anonymous asked:

explain cheeky nandos??

you know like when you’re hanging with the lads and its top notch banter and your mate joe is like lets go down for a cheeky nandos but you’re skint so you’re like i dont have quids for that lets just go for a quick maccies or gregs or somat and joe bloody banterclaus is like stop being a wanker but then your lad johnny offers to pay for your nandos cuz he’s a absolute fuckin ledge so you’re well chuffed and you all get proper hyped having top bants bout torie cunts with your fucking ledges

Hey Everyone! When I was younger, I used to read a ton. As a direct result of that, my writing and reading were on point. Recently, however, I haven’t been reading as much, and as a result, my writing isn’t as good as I want it to be (albeit, still pretty good). I’ve decided to read all the books on this list over the next 1 and a half years to get back into reading and to improve my writing. Enjoy! :)

1. To Kill A Mockingbird by Harper Lee

2. The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald

3. Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen

4. Animal Farm by George Orwell

5. Jane Eyre by Charlotte Brontë

6. The Catcher in the Rye by JD Salinger

7. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain

8. Macbeth by William Shakespeare

9. Lord of the Flies by William Golding

10. Hamlet by William Shakespeare

11. Brave New World by Aldous Huxley

12. The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne

13. Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare

14. A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens

15. The Ecological Rift by John Bellamy Foster, Brett Clark, Richard York

16. This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs The Climate by Naomi Klein

17. Catch-22 by Joseph Heller

18. The Crucible by Arthur Miller

19. The Odyssey by Homer

20. The Red Badge of Courage by Stephen Crane

21. Wuthering Heights by Emily Brontë

22. Slaughterhouse-Five by Kurt Vonnegut

23. Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe

24. The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer 

25. The Stranger by Albert Camus

26. Frankenstein by Mary Shelly

27. The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck

28. Beowulf by Unknown

29. The Systems View of Life: A Unifying Vision by Fritjof Capra, Luigi Luisi

30. All Quiet on the Western Front by Erich Maria Remarque

31. A Midsummer Night’s Dream by William Shakespeare

32. Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad

33. Treasure Island by Robert Louis Stevenson

34. The Glass Menagerie by Tennessee Williams 

35. Faust: First Part by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

36. Crime and Punishment by Fyodor Dostoyevsky

37. The Awakening by Kate Chopin

38. Candide by Voltaire

39. The Color Purple by Alice Walker

40. The Metamorphosis by Franz Kafka

41. Oedipus Rex by Sophocles

42. Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe

43. Steppenwolf by Hermann Hesse

44. One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn

45. The Bell Jar by Slyvia Plath

46. The Call of the Wild by Jack London

47. Walden by Henry David Thoreau

48. Antigone by Sophocles

49. Things Fall Apart (The African Trilogy, #1) by Chinua Achebe

50. Gulliver’s Travels by Jonathan Swift

51. The Last of the Mohicans (The Leatherstocking Tales #2) by James Fenimore Cooper

52. Madame Bovary by Gustave Flaubert

53. Beloved by Toni Morrison

54. Vanity Fair by William Makepeace Thackeray

55. Selected Tales by Edgar Allen Poe

56. Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury

57. 1984 by George Orwell

58. Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes 

59. The Sound and the Fury by William Faulkner

60. One Hundred Years of Solitude by Gabriel García Márquez

61. The Picture of Dorian Gray by Oscar Wilde

62. A Good Man is Hard to Find and Other Stories by Flannery O’Connor

63. Pygmalion by George Bernard Shaw

64. As I Lay Dying by William Faulkner

65. Invisible Man by Ralph Ellison

66. The Three Musketeers by Alexandre Dumas

67. A Doll’s House by Henrik Ibsen

68. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass by Frederick Douglass

69. Tess of the D’Urbervilles by Thomas Hardy

70. A Farewell to Arms by Ernest Hemingway

71. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man by James Joyce

72. Waiting for Godot by Samuel Beckett

73. Moby-Dick; or, The Whale by Herman Melville

74. The Iliad by Homer

75. Inferno (The Divine Comedy #1) by Dante Alighieri

76. Babbitt by Sinclair Lewis

77. An American Tragedy by Theodore Dreiser 

78. The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling by Henry Fielding

79. Long Day’s Journey into Night by Eugene O’Neill

80. War and Peace by Leo Tolstoy

81. Cyrano de Bergac by Edmond Rostand

82. The Hunchback of Notre-Dame by Victor Hugo

83. The Mill on the Floss by George Elliot

84. The Cherry Orchard by Anton Chekhov

85. Their Eyes Were Watching God by Zora Neale Hurston

86. Bartleby the Scrivener by Herman Melville

87. Doctor Zhivago by Boris Pasternak

88. The House of Mirth by Edith Wharton

89. Selected Essays by Ralph Waldo Emerson

90. Leaves of Grass by Walt Whitman

91. The Good Soldier by Ford Madox Ford

92. Call it Sleep by Henry Roth

93. Fathers and Sons by Ivan Turgenev

94. The Portrait of a Lady by Henry James

95. The Adventures of Augie March by Saul Bellow

96. A Death in the Family by James Agee

97. The Turn of the Screw by Henry James

98. The Magic Mountain by Thomas Mann

99. Go Tell It on the Mountain by James Baldwin

100. Death Comes for the Archbishop by Willa Carther

101. To the Lighthouse by Virginia Woolf

5

The second born child and only daughter of Their Royal Highnesses The Duke & Duchess of Cambridge was born on May 2, 2015 at 8:34am BST at Lindo Wing of St. Mary’s Hospital weighing 8lbs 3oz. Her Royal Highness is fourth-in-line to the throne; and on May 4, 2015, it was announced that the new Princess would be named HRH Princess Charlotte Elizabeth Diana of Cambridge. Princess Charlotte was christened at St. Mary Magdalene Church by the Archbishop of Canterbury on July 5, 2015.

Happy 2nd Birthday, HRH Princess Charlotte Elizabeth Diana of Cambridge!

nytimes.com
ISIS Claims 2 Deadly Explosions at Egyptian Coptic Churches on Palm Sunday
The bombings, which killed at least 40 people and injured dozens of others, happened weeks before Pope Francis was to visit Egypt
By Magdy Samaan and Declan Walsh

Two explosions at Coptic churches in Egypt on Palm Sunday left at least 40 people dead and injured dozens of others as a day of worship in the besieged Christian community turned to destruction and carnage.

The first blast ripped through St. George’s Church in northern Egypt in the Nile Delta city of Tanta, 50 miles north of Cairo, during a Mass about 9:30 a.m., according to an official from the Health Ministry. The deputy minister of health put the death toll at 27.

Hours later, a suicide bomber set off an explosion outside the main Coptic church in Alexandria, St. Mark’s Cathedral, killing at least 13 — including three police officers — and injuring 21 others, the Health Ministry said.

The explosions followed a number of attacks by Islamic State militants targeting Egypt’s minority Christians. And on Sunday, the group claimed responsibilty for both bombings.

An online statement shared by sympathizers and attributed to the militants said: “A security detachment of the Islamic State carried out the attacks against the two churches in the cities of Tanta and Alexandria.”

The bombings happened weeks before Pope Francis was to visit Egypt, and a week before Easter.

The second attack took place while worshipers at St. Mark’s were leaving at the end of Palm Sunday Mass. The service had been led by the Coptic pope, Tawadros II. The pope had already left when the explosion happened.

Photos from St. George’s circulating on social media showed scenes of blood and devastation inside. Initial reports said that the explosion occurred in the pews near the front of the church, and that many of the dead were children.

A security official told the state news agency they believed the blast had been caused by an explosive device planted inside the church.

After the first blast, President Abdel-Fattah el-Sisi ordered military hospitals to treat the injured, Sky News Arabia reported.

Eyewitnesses said that an angry crowd outside the church in Tanta attacked a young man they accused of being involved in the attack.

After that explosion, the provincial governor, Ahmad Deif, told the state-run Nile News channel, “Either a bomb was planted or someone blew himself up.”

Christians, mostly Orthodox Copts, account for about 10 percent of Egypt’s population, which is predominantly Sunni Muslim.

In December, the Islamic State claimed responsibility for a suicide attack on a chapel in the grounds of St. Mark’s Cathedral, the main Coptic Church in Cairo, killing at least 28 people.

In February, hundreds of Christians fled northern Sinai, where the Egyptian Army is fighting a local Islamic State affiliate, following a targeted campaign of violence and intimidation.

In 2011, a suicide bombing ripped through a throng of worshipers outside a Coptic Christian church in the port city of Alexandria, killing at least 21 people in one of the worst attacks against Egypt’s Christian minority.

Earlier this month, an explosion near a police training center in the Nile Delta city injured 13 officers.

Francis’ planned trip to the country is seen as an opportunity to improve ties between Christians and Muslims. The pontiff is to visit with Mr. Sisi; the leader of the Coptic Orthodox Church; and the grand imam of Al Azhar, a 1,000-year-old mosque and university that is revered by Sunni Muslims.

In a news conference to provide details about the trip on Friday, the Catholic archbishop of Egypt, Bishop Emmanuel, said that the pope’s pending journey was a signal that Egypt is safe for visitors.

On Sunday, Francis said in response to the first bombing: “We pray for the victims of the attack carried out today, this morning, in Cairo, in a Coptic church.”

He called the leader of the Coptic Christians his “brother” and expressed his “deep condolences” to the church and the Egyptian nation.

The archbishop of Canterbury, Justin Welby, also responded in a post on Twitter: “As we come to Easter, pray for victims, the justice of the cross, hope & healing of resurrection.”

In a Twitter post, a spokesman for the Egyptian Foreign Affairs Ministry, Ahmed Abu Zeid, said, “Terrorism hits Egypt again.”

List of medieval European scientists
  • Anthemius of Tralles (ca. 474 – ca. 534): a professor of geometry and architecture, authored many influential works on mathematics and was one of the architects of the famed Hagia Sophia, the largest building in the world at its time. His works were among the most important source texts in the Arab world and Western Europe for centuries after.
  • John Philoponus (ca. 490–ca. 570): also known as John the Grammarian, a Christian Byzantine philosopher, launched a revolution in the understanding of physics by critiquing and correcting the earlier works of Aristotle. In the process he proposed important concepts such as a rudimentary notion of inertia and the invariant acceleration of falling objects. Although his works were repressed at various times in the Byzantine Empire, because of religious controversy, they would nevertheless become important to the understanding of physics throughout Europe and the Arab world.
  • Paul of Aegina (ca. 625–ca. 690): considered by some to be the greatest Christian Byzantine surgeon, developed many novel surgical techniques and authored the medical encyclopedia Medical Compendium in Seven Books. The book on surgery in particular was the definitive treatise in Europe and the Islamic world for hundreds of years.
  • The Venerable Bede (ca. 672–735): a Christian monk of the monasteries of Wearmouth and Jarrow who wrote a work On the Nature of Things, several books on the mathematical / astronomical subject of computus, the most influential entitled On the Reckoning of Time. He made original discoveries concerning the nature of the tides and his works on computus became required elements of the training of clergy, and thus greatly influenced early medieval knowledge of the natural world.
  • Rabanus Maurus (c. 780 – 856): a Christian monk and teacher, later archbishop of Mainz, who wrote a treatise on Computus and the encyclopedic work De universo. His teaching earned him the accolade of "Praeceptor Germaniae," or "the teacher of Germany."
  • Abbas Ibn Firnas (810 – 887): a polymath and inventor in Muslim Spain, made contributions in a variety of fields and is most known for his contributions to glass-making and aviation. He developed novel ways of manufacturing and using glass. He broke his back at an unsuccessful attempt at flying a primitive hang glider in 875.
  • Pope Sylvester II (c. 946–1003): a Christian scholar, teacher, mathematician, and later pope, reintroduced the abacus and armillary sphere to Western Europe after they had been lost for centuries following the Greco-Roman era. He was also responsible in part for the spread of the Hindu-Arabic numeral system in Western Europe.
  • Maslamah al-Majriti (died 1008): a mathematician, astronomer, and chemist in Muslim Spain, made contributions in many areas, from new techniques for surveying to updating and improving the astronomical tables of al-Khwarizmi and inventing a process for producing mercury oxide.[citation needed] He is most famous, though, for having helped transmit knowledge of mathematics and astronomy to Muslim Spain and Christian Western Europe.
  • Abulcasis (936-1013): a physician and scientist in Muslim Spain, is considered to be the father of modern surgery. He wrote numerous medical texts, developed many innovative surgical instruments, and developed a variety of new surgical techniques and practices. His texts were considered the definitive works on surgery in Europe until the Renaissance.
  • Constantine the African (c. 1020&–1087): a Christian native of Carthage, is best known for his translating of ancient Greek and Roman medical texts from Arabic into Latin while working at the Schola Medica Salernitana in Salerno, Italy. Among the works he translated were those of Hippocrates and Galen.
  • Arzachel (1028–1087): the foremost astronomer of the early second millennium, lived in Muslim Spain and greatly expanded the understanding and accuracy of planetary models and terrestrial measurements used for navigation. He developed key technologies including the equatorium and universal latitude-independent astrolabe.
  • Avempace (died 1138): a famous physicist from Muslim Spain who had an important influence on later physicists such as Galileo. He was the first to theorize the concept of a reaction force for every force exerted.
  • Adelard of Bath (c. 1080 – c. 1152): was a 12th-century English scholar, known for his work in astronomy, astrology, philosophy and mathematics.
  • Avenzoar (1091–1161): from Muslim Spain, introduced an experimental method in surgery, employing animal testing in order to experiment with surgical procedures before applying them to human patients.[4] He also performed the earliest dissections and postmortem autopsies on both humans as well as animals.
  • Robert Grosseteste (1168–1253): Bishop of Lincoln, was the central character of the English intellectual movement in the first half of the 13th century and is considered the founder of scientific thought in Oxford. He had a great interest in the natural world and wrote texts on the mathematical sciences of optics, astronomy and geometry. In his commentaries on Aristotle's scientific works, he affirmed that experiments should be used in order to verify a theory, testing its consequences. Roger Bacon was influenced by his work on optics and astronomy.
  • Albert the Great (1193–1280): Doctor Universalis, was one of the most prominent representatives of the philosophical tradition emerging from the Dominican Order. He is one of the thirty-three Saints of the Roman Catholic Church honored with the title of Doctor of the Church. He became famous for his vast knowledge and for his defence of the pacific coexistence between science and religion. Albert was an essential figure in introducing Greek and Islamic science into the medieval universities, although not without hesitation with regard to particular Aristotelian theses. In one of his most famous sayings he asserted: "Science does not consist in ratifying what others say, but of searching for the causes of phenomena." Thomas Aquinas was his most famous pupil.
  • John of Sacrobosco (c. 1195 – c. 1256): was a scholar, monk, and astronomer (probably English, but possibly Irish or Scottish) who taught at the University of Paris and wrote an authoritative and influential mediaeval astronomy text, the Tractatus de Sphaera; the Algorismus, which introduced calculations with Hindu-Arabic numerals into the European university curriculum; the Compotus ecclesiasticis on Easter reckoning; and the Tractatus de quadrante on the construction and use of the astronomical quadrant.
  • Jordanus de Nemore (late 12th, early 13th century): was one of the major pure mathematicians of the Middle Ages. He wrote treatises on mechanics ("the science of weights"), on basic and advanced arithmetic, on algebra, on geometry, and on the mathematics of stereographic projection.
  • Villard de Honnecourt (fl. 13th century): a French engineer and architect who made sketches of mechanical devices such as automatons and perhaps drew a picture of an early escapement mechanism for clockworks.
  • Roger Bacon (1214–94): Doctor Admirabilis, joined the Franciscan Order around 1240 where, influenced by Grosseteste, Alhacen and others, he dedicated himself to studies where he implemented the observation of nature and experimentation as the foundation of natural knowledge. Bacon wrote in such areas as mechanics, astronomy, geography and, most of all, optics. The optical research of Grosseteste and Bacon established optics as an area of study at the medieval university and formed the basis for a continuous tradition of research into optics that went all the way up to the beginning of the 17th century and the foundation of modern optics by Kepler.[8]
  • Ibn al-Baitar (died 1248): a botanist and pharmacist in Muslim Spain, researched over 1400 types of plants, foods, and drugs and compiled pharmaceutical and medical encyclopedias documenting his research. These were used in the Islamic world and Europe until the 19th century.
  • Theodoric Borgognoni (1205-1296): was an Italian Dominican friar and Bishop of Cervia who promoted the uses of both antiseptics and anaesthetics in surgery. His written work had a deep impact on Henri de Mondeville, who studied under him while living in Italy and later became the court physician for King Philip IV of France.
  • William of Saliceto (1210-1277): was an Italian surgeon of Lombardy who advanced medical knowledge and even challenged the work of the renowned Greco-Roman surgeon Galen (129-216 AD) by arguing that allowing pus to form in wounds was detrimental to the health of he patient.
  • Thomas Aquinas (1227–74): Doctor Angelicus, was an Italian theologian and friar in the Dominican Order. As his mentor Albert the Great, he is a Catholic Saint and Doctor of the Church. In addition to his extensive commentaries on Aristotle's scientific treatises, he was also said to have written an important alchemical treatise titled Aurora Consurgens. However, his most lasting contribution to the scientific development of the period was his role in the incorporation of Aristotelianism into the Scholastic tradition.
  • Arnaldus de Villa Nova (1235-1313): was an alchemist, astrologer, and physician from the Crown of Aragon who translated various Arabic medical texts, including those of Avicenna, and performed optical experiments with camera obscura.
  • John Duns Scotus (1266–1308): Doctor Subtilis, was a member of the Franciscan Order, philosopher and theologian. Emerging from the academic environment of the University of Oxford. where the presence of Grosseteste and Bacon was still palpable, he had a different view on the relationship between reason and faith as that of Thomas Aquinas. For Duns Scotus, the truths of faith could not be comprehended through the use of reason. Philosophy, hence, should not be a servant to theology, but act independently. He was the mentor of one of the greatest names of philosophy in the Middle Ages: William of Ockham.
  • Mondino de Liuzzi (c. 1270-1326): was an Italian physician, surgeon, and anatomist from Bologna who was one of the first in Medieval Europe to advocate for the public dissection of cadavers for advancing the field of anatomy. This followed a long-held Christian ban on dissections performed by the Alexandrian school in the late Roman Empire.
  • William of Ockham (1285–1350): Doctor Invincibilis, was an English Franciscan friar, philosopher, logician and theologian. Ockham defended the principle of parsimony, which could already be seen in the works of his mentor Duns Scotus. His principle later became known as Occam's Razor and states that if there are various equally valid explanations for a fact, then the simplest one should be chosen. This became a foundation of what would come to be known as the scientific method and one of the pillars of reductionism in science. Ockham probably died of the Black Plague. Jean Buridan and Nicole Oresme were his followers.
  • Jacopo Dondi dell'Orologio (1290-1359): was an Italian doctor, clockmaker, and astronomer from Padua who wrote on a number of scientific subjects such as pharmacology, surgery, astrology, and natural sciences. He also designed an astronomical clock.
  • Richard of Wallingford (1292-1336): an English abbot, mathematician, astronomer, and horologist who designed an astronomical clock as well as an equatorium to calculate the lunar, solar and planetary longitudes, as well as predict eclipses.
  • Jean Buridan (1300–58): was a French philosopher and priest. Although he was one of the most famous and influent philosophers of the late Middle Ages, his work today is not renowned by people other than philosophers and historians. One of his most significant contributions to science was the development of the theory of impetus, that explained the movement of projectiles and objects in free-fall. This theory gave way to the dynamics of Galileo Galilei and for Isaac Newton's famous principle of Inertia.
  • Guy de Chauliac (1300-1368): was a French physician and surgeon who wrote the Chirurgia magna, a widely read publication throughout medieval Europe that became one of the standard textbooks for medical knowledge for the next three centuries. During the Black Death he clearly distinguished Bubonic Plague and Pneumonic Plague as separate diseases, that they were contagious from person to person, and offered advice such as quarantine to avoid their spread in the population. He also served as the personal physician for three successive popes of the Avignon Papacy.
  • John Arderne (1307-1392): was an English physician and surgeon who invented his own anesthetic that combined hemlock, henbane, and opium. In his writings, he also described how to properly excise and remove the abscess caused by anal fistula.
  • Nicole Oresme (c. 1323–82): was one of the most original thinkers of the 14th century. A theologian and bishop of Lisieux, he wrote influential treatises in both Latin and French on mathematics, physics, astronomy, and economics. In addition to these contributions, Oresme strongly opposed astrology and speculated about the possibility of a plurality of worlds.
  • Giovanni Dondi dell'Orologio (c. 1330-1388): was a clockmaker from Padua, Italy who designed the astarium, an astronomical clock and planetarium that utilized the escapement mechanism that had been recently invented in Europe. He also attempted to describe the mechanics of the solar system with mathematical precision.
British culture (apart from cheeky nandos lmao)

-Dodgy af ice cream vans
-An insurance advert every 2 minutes
-Elaine the pain
-u wot m8???
-digestive fucking biscuits
-total wipeout
-going to tescos but finding a bunch of lads circling the entrance on their bikes
-Jeremy Kyle is top notch
-Chatty man is also top notch
-*friend gets offended* ‘it’s a only a bit a banter’
-no one voting for Tories but they somehow manage to end up running the country???
-chavs
-FUNKY PIGEON.COM
-watching come dine with me with the fam

ADD SOME MORE MY FELLOW BRITS