‘well, the joke truly is on me. helping you win your freedom all those years ago; foolishly being the midwife to the birth of the empire that would end mine—indeed, i should have strangled you in your cradle.’
‘empire? i’m not like you.’
‘call yourself whatever you like, my dear boy- shining city on a hill; special; exceptional; a grand experiment improving on the horrible Old World— but no matter how much you pretend and dress it up, you and I aren’t so different.’
this day in 1893, the Hawaiian monarchy of Queen Lilioukalani was
overthrown with the support of the United States. Throughout the
nineteenth century, a number of American sugar planters moved to the
Hawaiian kingdom. Determined to secure more power for themselves, these
planters pushed through measures to drastically reduce the monarch’s
role and limit non-whites’ voting power. Queen Liliuokalani, who
ascended to the throne in 1891, sought to reassert Hawaiian sovereignty.
Concerned about their financial prospects, a group of American
businessmen planned to depose the monarch. On January 17th 1893, the
conspirators gathered their supporters in Honolulu to launch a coup d’etat, which
had the tacit support of the U.S. government. The next day, conspirators
captured the government building and declared a provisional government,
which was immediately recognised by the U.S. Queen
stepped aside in the hope of avoiding bloodshed, and American troops
raided Honolulu. The new President, Grover Cleveland, opposed annexation
and supported reinstating the monarchy, but the provisional government
refused. Hawaii was eventually annexed by the U.S. in 1898, as the
strategic base at Pearl Harbor proved useful during the Spanish-American
War. Hawaii was officially designated the fiftieth U.S. state in 1959,
despite enduring concerns about the legality of the overthrow. Many
indigenous Hawaiians continue to object to American rule and call for a
return to sovereignty; the U.S. government officially apologised for the
overthrow of Hawaii in 1993.
“The Hawaiian pear is now fully ripe and this is the golden hour for the United States to pluck it.”
- U.S. minister to Hawaii, John L. Stevens, in a letter to the Secretary of State after the coup
Use of coca leaves, the leaves which can be used to make cocaine, is traditional in the Andes. In fact, its consumption dates to the very earliest of ancient South American cultures. We have evidence that coca was consumed in what is today Ecuador as early as the 8000s BCE. This is hardly surprising. Coca is extremely useful.
The leaves contain a powerful alkaloid which acts as a stimulant. Its effects include raised heart rate, increased appetite, and suppressed hunger and thirst. Its muscle-relaxing properties mean coca leaves are great for menstrual cramps. And that also helps treat altitude sickness, by opening up the respiratory tract and relieving the feeling of shortness of breath and tightness in the chest. Further, coca leaves have antibacterial and analgesic properties. It also aids in digestion and preventing constipation. Finally, the leaves themselves are nutritionally beneficial. They are rich in iron, vitamin B, and vitamin C. No wonder coca leaves continue to be a large part of Andean culture through today.
The Top Ten 90′s Teen Comedy Movies As Chosen By Me:
1. Clueless (1995) 2. Drop Dead Gorgeous (1999) 3. 10 Things I Hate About You (1999) 4. Election (1999) 5. Never Been Kissed (1999) 6. Bring it On (2000) 7. Can’t Hardly Wait (1998) 8. Jawbreaker (1999) 9. American Pie (1999) 10. She’s All That (1999)
Honorable Mentions: Drive Me Crazy, Idle Hands, Empire Records
February 12th 1818: Chilean Declaration of Independence
this day in 1818, Chile officially issued its Declaration of Independence from Spanish rule, following the initial declaration of September 1810. Desire
for independence had been on the rise in Chile for a number of years,
fueled by international independence movements, disaffection with the
corrupt Spanish-appointed governor, and the political turmoil following
Napoleon’s invasion of Spain and the capture of the Spanish king.
Following Argentina’s declaration of independence in May 1810, the
governor arrested patriots including the Chilean Bernardo de Vera
Pintado, prompting outrage in Chile. Citizens demanded a say in their
future, and 300 leading Chileans gathered for a meeting. Many of the attendees were Spaniards living in Chile, and
disagreements over the question of independence divided the meeting. It
was finally resolved that Chile, like Argentina, would establish an
independent government, but remain nominally loyal to the exiled King
Fernando VII. Count Mateo de Toro y Zambrano was named President, and
the new junta set about establishing a national Congress and military.
However, royalists vociferously opposed the declaration - which put
Chile resolutely on the path to total independence - and the next decade
saw bloody warfare between those who advocated full independence, and
those who wanted to remain within the Spanish Empire. In 1814, Spanish
troops reconquered Chile, but the oppressive rule of Spanish loyalists
reinvigorated the independence movement. The tide turned in favour of
the patriots, who retook Chile in 1818, when they defeated the last
large Spanish force in the Battle of Maipú, and issued a formal
declaration of independence on February 12th. The wars came to a close with the expulsion
of royalists in 1821, and the surrender of the last Spanish troops in
1826. Chilean independence was therefore secured, though not formally
recognised by Spain until 1844.
To us the Aztec universe may appear irrational, terrifying, murderous in its brutality; and yet it is a mirror held up to our humanity which we ignore at our cost. For in the name of other ideals and other gods Western culture has been no less addicted to killing, even in our own century.