that is a very rare occurance

Succulent Guide

Congratulations on becoming a proud plant parent! Welcome to to the wonderful world of succulents and cacti, here is a small guide of how to take care of your succulents properly and tips on how to maintain a healthy, happy plant based on personal experience. (・ω・)ノ


General Knowledge

Firstly, here is some general knowledge on succulents that will (believe it or not) help you greatly when it comes to taking care of your plant.

  • Succulents and cacti are in the same family! This means there are many different kinds and like dry places with little water
  • The world “succulent” refers to the plant’s fleshy, thick leaves. They are like this to retain water.
  • Because succulents are cacti, some can be pointy and have spines (like aloe!) so in general, be careful.

That’s basically all the general information you need to know that will help your plant grow.


Watering your plant:

Although most people believe that succulents thrive on neglect, they really don’t, and need almost as much maintenance as a regular house plant.

MY RULE OF THUMB: When the leave look thin, water the plant.

This rule of thumb is a bit of a last resort. If your plant’s leaves are withered or thin, it needs a lot of water.

Regularly, I water my 2" succulents with about 2 tablespoons of water A WEEK.

In winter, succulents and Cacti go through a dormant phase and don’t need to be watered as often, but I found this information as not useful because when I went as little as 1.5 weeks without watering some of my plants in the winter, they’d start to wither.

Remember, succulent leaves should remain fleshy! And watering them often is the key to doing this.

If you happen to forget to water your succulents for up to three weeks and even beyond, do not worry. At that point, the plant will ration it’s water until you water it.

If you happen to do this, do not immediately think that you have to drown your plant in water to make up the weeks you missed. For a 2" succulent, 2 tablespoons or less is the key. These types of plants can only take so much water at one time.



Repotting Cacti and Succulents is a lot of fun, especially when you get decorative pots or creative with potting ideas.

Some people like to use teacups, and other people use plain old terra-cotta pots.

Whatever the case may be, succulents and cacti like drainage.

So your teacup doesn’t have a drainage hole? No problem.

It is ideal to pot your plant in something that has drainage holes, but if it doesn’t, adding rocks to the bottom of whatever it is you’re using will help greatly.

I have small, 2" white square ceramic pots for my babies, which have a singular, small drainage hole in the bottom. Because I wanted more drainage, I used a few rocks on the bottom, and filled the rest of the pot with succulent and cacti potting mix.

It’s also healthy to keep some of the soil from the original pot to mix in with the potting mix.

When repotting my cactus plant, I preferred using thick rubber gloves to repot rather than gardening gloves because I didn’t want the thin spines to prick me.



I normally keep my succulents on the windowsill over my kitchen sink because it gets the most light in the house while being indirect.

This is the key to good sunlight: light, but indirect. So if you have a windowsill where the sun crosses over it throughout the day, that is the ideal place for your succulent. In winter, keep your succulents inside! And on the sill of a west facing window is ideal because the light is not too harsh in the afternoon.

TIP: make sure to rotate the pot so the plant grows straight.

If you do not have much sun, although I have not tried this, I know some people grow their plants under special lamps which work just as fine.

As far as heat goes, heat was not much of a problem for my plants except for my one pesky Echeveria nodulosa ‘Painted Beauty’ which I had named Rory.

Rory was not a fan of being near an open window, and since I had gotten my succulents in January, it was cold outside. A few rare days of warmth would occur in February which called for an open window, and any time he was near it, he would wilt.

And although Rory is due for what looks like propagation, he is my smallest plant to this day and I don’t want to go onto that step for him yet.



When I noticed my plants reaching for sunlight, they’d bend towards the window and grow very tall and their leaves would space out. Soon, the bottom leaves would die and need to be plucked off and I’d be left with a long stem, a few spaces but still alive leaves, and a small rosette on the top.

This means it’s time for propagation. When I first read on how to stop my plants from getting so leggy, results appeared calling it “decapitation” where you would cut of the head of the plant and leave a stump.

This sounded very scary to me and I waited until a month before I tried to look for answers again and found propagation as the solution.

There are basically three parts of propagation.

  1. the stump
  2. the rosette
  3. the babies (which are actually a bunch of little parts).

The first step to propagation is to remove the bottom leaves from the plant completely from the stem by gently twisting them off. (Even if they are alive)

Place the leaves on a wet paper towel on a pan after they have calloused over and dried out (takes about 2-3 days). You may notice the the root of the leaf may already be growing roots, and if it has not, it will eventually. From each leaf you will grow a new baby rosette and have a forest of succulents! The babies make great gifts. (Note that not every leaf will be successful in growing a baby). This process takes about 3-4 weeks.

For the left over plant, you now have a super long stem with a rosette at the top. Cut the rosette leaving some stem on it and submerge the stem in water after letting it callous and dry out (takes about 5 days) For mine, I submerged the rosette in a medicine cup filled with 2 tablespoons of water. Soon, roots will appear so you can repot the rosette. This takes 2-3 weeks.

Then, cut the rest of the stem the is in the original pot down to a stub. After the stub callouses over, it will start to regenerate new babies around it. This takes about 3 weeks.

When it comes to propagation, it takes time and patience.



Here is where I was going to put any tips I had for growing plants but I kind of mentioned them throughout my spiel. In that case, here is where I will reiterate my most important tips:

- Water your plants once a week or when the leaves look less fleshy.
- 2 tablespoons of water a week for 2" plants (some species may need more or less)
- For repotting cactus plants with spines, it’s ideal to use rubber gloves instead of gardening gloves
- Rotate the plant so it grows straight!

Those are my best tips. There really aren’t any tips on propagation since its a hit or miss kind of ordeal.

Feel free to ask questions! uwu


Originally posted by spirits-of-lavender

I’ve been wanting to make this brief introduction to lychnomancy ever since I made my first post about the different forms of Pyromancy and after reaching the 400 follower milestone, I figured it was about time!

Now, admittedly, lychnomancy is not a very complex practice. It is a very basic form of divination involving three identical candles arranged in a triangle; you ask a question, light the candles, then focus on your query as you or someone else interprets the candle’s flames. 

If one flame burns brighter than the others, the answer is a positive one. Wavering or flickering flames indicated a journey, or that you may encounter obstacles. If your flame spirals upward, enemies are plotting against you. An uneven flame indicates danger. If sparks occur, caution is advised. It is considered very bad luck if all flames are extinguished at once, but I have never personally seen this occur and consider it rare!

Originally posted by she-is-beautifully-broken

Despite being rather simplistic, I really do love this form of divination. It speaks to me on a level that I cannot describe and every time I read the flames to answer my own questions, it feels deeply personal. 

I’ve taken creative liberty with this practice to spice things up every once in a while. Sometimes I will take a crystal that represents my emotions, charge it with my thoughts and feelings, and place it in the center of the three candles just before lighting them, as a way of focusing. This way the fire is able to draw on the power of raw emotion. Other times I will include tarot, using a combination of a single card and the three flames to find the answer to my question. It feels more detailed and dynamic this way.

I love what fire represents. It is the energy of life. It is passionate, raw and untamed. Dangerous, necessary, creative, and destructive. It is the most lively of the elements, and it can do so much. It is no different in lychnomancy. When practicing, keep that in mind. A simple candle flame can be so many different things, and it’s important to be in touch with your emotions when you practice any sort of pyromancy. However, be sure to balance yourself out afterward. If you do get this involved with your divination you’ll start to feel burnt out, like a candle at the end of its wick. Take a moment, drink some water - to put out the flames inside, of course - and breathe. Use the other elements to ground yourself. Sit on the floor, breathe deeply, and have some water nearby.

Originally posted by blackaestheticsoul

 As a special gift to all of my followers, I will be keeping my divination requests open throughout the month of May starting today, April 30th! I will be answering questions using the very basic form of lychnomancy as not to exert myself with constant, draining sessions. Feel free to send me an ask at any time ( anon or not! ) with any questions you may have, and I will answer it as soon as I am able!

Practice safely, my witchy friends~

I’ve always been a very easy going and straight forward person. I operate from the vibes I receive from people and base my decisions via my intuition only. If I’m not feeling appreciated, I will move to a place where I am. It’s that simple. Happiness is the most important thing and I love being around people who make me happy. I have people around me who tell me what I need to hear, regardless of how it makes me feel and this is vital because without discipline, structure and constructive criticism how does one expect to grow? Arguments or drama rarely occurs because of the respect and standards the people around me maintain and value. I’ve spent many years filtering through the people I’ve allowed into my life, to guarantee I have the right souls around me and I’m happy with the choices I’ve made.
—  MR
Riverdale Headcanon║ Cuddling w/ Sweet Pea

Originally posted by riverdales-daily

  • Cuddling with Sweet Pea? Oh, boy….are you in for a treat.
  • Despite the fact that cuddling with Sweet Pea is an incredibly rare and spontaneous occurance, when it does happen, it’s the most amazing experience in the world.
  • And, suprisingly, it’s usually initiated by him. 
  • Like the two of you could literally be sitting in your room, watching TV or doing homework, when all of a sudden Sweet Pea would turn off the TV or take away your textbook, and next thing you know you’re craddled into his chest and his arms are wrapped around your waist. 
  • He’s also, despite what you may believe, a very gentle and loving cuddler, so he’ll often try to find a way to look into your eyes or gently stroke your cheek.
  • Sometimes, the two of you will literally lay on your sides and face each other, no words being said as you stare into each others eyes and say all the things you never could.
  • Being from the Southside, however, Sweet Pea is also extremely protective, so whenever the two of you do cuddle, he’ll hold you in a way that makes you feel safe, warm, and incredibly loved.
  • Spooning? It’s a thing, and it’s wonderful.
  • Oh, and he’s usually the big spoon.
  • Except for when he’s sad or angry.
  • Then you’re the big spoon.
  • Sweet Pea would snuggle his face into the crook of your neck, lightly kiss your shoulder, and would always have his fingers intertwined with your own.
  • And whenever you’re cradled against his chest, he would always manage to hold you so that you could hear his heartbeat loud and clear.
  • He knew it helped you fall asleep.
  • Kisses? Oh, there’d be lots of kisses.
  • Neck kisses, cheek kisses, soft kisses, rough kisses.
  • He’d give you all the kisses.
  • You also like to play with his hair.
  • A lot.
  • And sometimes you’ll sneak up on him and lightly wrap your hands around his waist, catching him off guard before softly kissing the exposed skin around his neck.
  • And once in a while, after he’s gotten into a fight or roughed up while messing around with his boys, you’ll find yourself spending a good 10 minutes just focusing on his newly formed scratches and scars, lightly tracing and kissing each and every one of them until the ways in which they got there no longer weighed on your mind. 
  • The cuddling isn’t always gentle and serious, through.
  • Sometimes it’s sappy and  playful, and the two of you would literally lay in each others arms and talk about the dumbest things for hours.
  • Like Netflix shows or your favorite ice cream flavor. 
  • Either way, cuddling with Sweet Pea was definitely an experience.
  • And you wouldn’t trade it for anything in the world. 

An ice circle is a natural phenomenon that occurs in slow moving water in cold climates. They are very rare and they rotate. They are formed when floating bits of ice get caught in an eddy (a whirlpool) and start spinning in a circle. 

Little Black Dresses: Mourning or Not?

because no, not every black Victorian dress is mourning

the basic rule of thumb is that mourning was meant to be simple, at times almost severe. trims would be kept to a minimum and be subtle when worn, often of black-on-black in deepest mourning. even as the stages of mourning progressed and white, gray, and purple began to sneak back into one’s wardrobe, gowns would often be far less ostentatious than those for everyday, non-mourning life. glossy/shiny fabrics in particular would not be used

mourning ball gowns are very rare. I won’t say they never ever occurred, because there was mourning ettiquette for attending a ball. but it was considered bad form to attend in deepest mourning and to dance in all but the very latest stage, especially for older or married ladies. and that same ettiquette also mentions the difference between wearing black to a ball as mourning vs. wearing it because you like black

for example, this 1860s ball gown is almost certainly not mourning. note the embroidered, peach-colored floral sprigs all over it

this 1878…looks like a dinner dress to me, although the description says day dress, by the House of Worth, is black but far from somber

look at the cuts, trims, and patterns of a black Victorian dress. are they conservative, or more flamboyant? if the latter, or if colors besides black, gray, white, lavender, and sometimes scarlet are used, it’s likely not mourning. ditto anything that’s black-on-black but made up in a shiny or glossy fabric; black-on-black would indicate deepest mourning if mourning it was, and in that stage (as I’ve said) shiny anything was Not Done

not all black dresses are created equal!

She could almost see herself glowing much brighter than ever. 

And even though it was such a rare occurance, she could remember it very well while he approached — almost as if it was her own light, and not his. That burning sensation, that blinding light. Something lingering in the back of her head, like a feeling, or memory long lost.

She could only trap his light for a few moments. But she always felt that slight connection, as if something was amiss. 

Was he that mysterious, with his blue smile and sweet words? No. Maybe it was just her curiosity towards those moments. But deep down, she felt, there was something else, hidden between the cycles, waiting for them to find out.

There was something about them.

About him.

About her.

She could only wonder. But that didn’t mean she couldn’t enjoy that moment, even if for a little bit.

The Eclipse

I saw @illustraice AU some time ago and got hooked. What an amazing AU! so I decided to make a fanart about it cause yaaaassssss it’s so good ç~ç

I’m done with you, Mr. Wayne - Bruce Wayne x Reader (angst?)

First, thank you very much for your comment, and then here for a somewhat angsty story based off your prompt  :-) ( I never know if I achieved my goal in making people feel with my stories so you know…). Hope you’ll like it :

My masterlist blog :


No matter what his brothers were telling him, how hard they were trying to reassure him and convince him that he did nothing wrong, Damian still thought it was his fault. Without him, none of that would have happened.

If he had been more careful, this all situation could have been avoided. His father wouldn’t be heart broken, and his mom…his mom…

No matter what his brothers were telling him, how hard they were trying to reassure him and convince him that he did nothing wrong, Damian still thought it was his fault. Without him, none of that would have happened.

Without him, his mother…He couldn’t even think the words. It hurts too much. To think he was the cause of it all ? It was even worst.

No matter what his brothers were telling him, how hard they were trying to reassure him and convince him that he did nothing wrong, Damian still thought it was his fault. Without him, none of that would have happened.

Without him…Without him…Without him his mother would have never left.

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luxtempestas  asked:

i'm reading up on british witch hunting and i've noticed that in 1640s England a lowercase 'S' if typed as 'f', in publications including Gaule's "Select Cases of Conscience touching Witches and Witchcraft" and Hopkins' response "The Discovery of Witches". why is this?

Excellent question! (and one I often get when posting older printed items)

It’s actually not an f, it’s an ſ or “long s”. The ‘long s’ was used alongside the ‘round s’ (the modern lower case s) until the early 19th century, and is one of several letter forms and “ligatures” which have fallen out of use in modern English.

Generally speaking the long s was used at the beginning and in the middle of words, and as the first s when two s’s occurred in a row. You very rarely see a long s used at the end of a word.

In its printed form the long s does look very much like an f, but either doesn’t have have a cross bar, or only has it on one side. Or at least it’s supposed to, but very often printers would just use the two interchangeably which can get very confusing.

Here’s a printed style long s in the word “Congress” from the beginning of the Bill of Rights…

In its common handwritten form the long s is much more “loopy” and easier to distinguish.

Here are two handwritten long s’s from the Declaration of Independence.

You can see how when two s’s are used together the first one is “long” and the second one is “round”.

I found the whole long s thing weird and impractical UNTIL I actually tried writing a document in 18th century style cursive and suddenly the skies opened up and it made perfect sense. The long s is SO much easier to write than our modern round s, especially when there are two s’s in a row.

I, who am an old fogey who still writes in cursive, will fully admit that the long s has inadvertently ended up sneaking its way into my daily handwriting, especially when I’m taking notes.

The long s can be confusing when you first start out reading old books and documents, but if you keep at it I promise you will get to a point where you don’t even consciously notice it anymore.

Although it can still be occasionally hilarious…

Korean vs Western Age

Originally posted by kpop-kdrama-kvariety

Koreans start as 1 year olds when they’re born.

Every Solar/Lunar New year, you are older by a year (depending on which you follow)

Birthdays don’t really matter as much. It’s just for comparison purposes tbh..

외국인 TLDR;

As you are 1 year old when you are born, and as a new year will inevitably come around before your first birthday, it is impossible to ever catch up to your Korean age. However once a year, on your birthday, you get temporarily closer by one year. So, to put it simply – in a given year, before your birthday, your Korean age is your Western age plus two; after your birthday, it is your Western age plus one.

To calculate your age by the lunar calendar is only slightly more complex; we just need to change “the start of the year” to “the start of the lunar year”. So, go back to the last Lunar New Year and repeat the process. Add two before your birthday, and one afterwards.

Originally posted by yoongles


So let’s say.. your birthday is July 5th, 1993

Western age:

25 years old in 2018

by the time your birthday comes

Korean age:

5th July 1993 = 1 years old

Western age = 24 (2017-1993)

New Year = 1 year older

1 + 24 + 1 = 26 years old

(Even before celebrating your birthday)

5th July 2018 = 26 years old


Before New Year

Current Year - Year you were born + 1 = Age

2017 - 1993 + 1 = 25

After New Year

Before New Year + 1 = 26

It’s a matter of preference. Do you celebrate Solar or Lunar New Year?

Originally posted by hayoomin

신정 Sinjeong (Solar New Year; Usually January 1st of the Gregorian/Western calendar which usually varies by a couple of seconds - think Feb 28th every 4 years) VS 설날 Seollal (Zodiac Year)

In 2018, the New Year according to the Chinese Lunar Calendar will be Feb 16th 2018 following the year of the Dog.

Wiki TLDR;

Korean New Year generally falls on the day of the second new moon after winter solstice, unless there is a very rare intercalary eleventh or twelfth month in the lead-up to the New Year. In such a case, the New Year falls on the day of the third new moon after the solstice; the next occurrence of this will be in 2033.

Korean New Year is generally the same day as Chinese New Year except when new moon occurs between 15:00 UTC (Korean midnight) and 16:00 UTC (Chinese midnight). In such case (on average once every 24 years), new moon happens on the “next day” in Korea compared to China, and Korean New Year will be one day after Chinese New Year.

Happy 23rd Birthday Tae Tae~ You’re gonna be 24 by 1st Jan / Lunar New Year so.. Happy Advanced Birthday again?

the masculine expression of the signs activates on the basis of knowing the light without mystery. look at aries hollering toward the horizon with absolute certainty tomorrow exists and gemini seeking out every external pursuit to satiate their curiosity. leo knows their own brilliance and overtly displays their creative energy, libra’s own personal condition makes living without people at all difficult, while sagittarius uses the physical world in their search for answers. aquarius knows the knowledge will puncture their psyche soon and their very duty relates to dispersing this light 

in the feminine signs this process is hidden and secretive, what happens is rarely seen. think of taurus absolving away from the world and into the soul of themselves producing art, or pisces undertaking intense spiritual processes through her own body. cancer dreams the disciple’s dream by herself, virgo serves others from the hiding place of the shadow, all of scorpio’s activity occurs in invisible places, capricorn internalises the duties they have inherited and work hard on themselves to create their own reality and undertaking this privately 

I was playing an Elder Scrolls game the first time I noticed and appreciated deep, permeating lore in the world of a story. Walking up to a bookshelf, reading a portion of a fake book by a fictional author…that inspired me. Since then, I have noticed and appreciated it in other places, too. I have also infused some of that tangible history into my own stories. I love it. And I spend a lot of time wondering why I waited so long to start fusing the history of my worlds with the present-day story. 

That doesn’t mean my stories are fixated on the past. They are about the here and now and also the future, but we have an inescapable link to our history. It’s what gives culture flavor and depth. Shouldn’t my fictional worlds have that same treatment?

I sometimes find that when my current story is in freeze-mode thanks to writer’s block, delving back into my world’s history (relevant to the story or not) can help loosen my creative juices and get them flowing again. 


  • In what form are these histories recorded? Poetry? Prose? Encyclopedic? On parchment, stone table, digital, or oral? How has this style affect the alteration of the stories over the generations?
  • How has language evolved/merged/died/evolved over the eras? How has that affected the recording of history and how it’s understood in the present day?
  • “To the victor go the spoils.” Different cultures often remember different versions of the same history.  Who is telling this story, and what other perspectives are out there?
  • Very rarely is anything written purely for informative reasons.  What was/is the intention behind this particular recording of history? How is the historian trying to influence their audience’s opinions on politics, religion, culture, etc?
  • Has the history or mythology of a smaller civilization been absorbed by a larger or more powerful civilization?  What changes occurred in the process?


  • What authors are renowned in this world, both historically and presently? What of their works are the best known? Why have they stood out/stood the test of time?
  • How trusted are historians? How does this affect how people view their history?
  • What great war heroes might the average person be familiar with? What about their story (whether victory or loss) made them go down in history? Has their depiction changed with time?
  • What world leaders are most remembered? Why? Is there division in how they are viewed among people in the present day?
  • What other artists have achieved fame? Painters? Singers? Poets? Sculptors? Why has their work stood out from others?


  • What are the oldest stories? How ubiquitous are they in the world? (Think the Great Flood, Paradise Lost, Atlantis, Dragons, and Vampires)
  • What stories would your characters have heard as children? What would they have studied in school?
  • What characters of legend are ambiguous in their fact/fiction status?
  • What creation stories exist in this world? How much do people care? How much do they understand? What kind of division, if any, exists over the story?
  • Some tales are universal in a given culture, and some are local.  Is your folklore something everyone is familiar with, or something passed on exclusively in a specific region or community?
  • Myths often function as ways of explaining natural events.  What is the “true” origin of the story?  Does anyone suspect the truth? Does it matter?


  • When your people think “war,” what do they envision? What historical instance of war might be responsible for that mental image?
  • What great natural disasters still linger in the history books? What impact did they have on the world, both historically in in the modern day?
  • What are the great social movements of this world’s history? How long did their effect last? What were the defining positions of the two opposing sides?
  • What historical events are still memorialized in some way (holidays, festivals, monuments, etc) and how has the perception of that event changed over time?

Check out the rest of the Brainstorming Series!
Magic Systems, Part One
Magic Systems, Part Two
New Species
New Worlds
New Cultures
New Civilizations
Politics and Government
Map Making
Belief Systems & Religion
Guilds, Factions & Groups
War & Conflict
Science & Technology 
Wildlife & Ecosystems


But I want a woman.

The Black Cat

Summary: In which Dan Howell is gay, homeless, and also part cat, and Phil Lester is the nicest stranger ever.

Word Count: a whooping 9.3k!!!

Includes: an actual story, and of course, neko smut

this fic is for my best friend @ominousdan!!! it’s cayla’s birthday and without her birth nobody would be getting to see nine thousand words of neko!dan so please go follow her and tell her happy birthday in thanks (ily cayla i hope you love this and also me)

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Wings / Gabriel

A/N: he’s probably my favorite angel beside Cas

Warnings: implied smut, fluff, embarrassed Gabe 

Originally posted by lucifersagents

Months ago, Sam and Dean came back to the bunker from a case with an arch-angel. You had immediately noticed the large golden wings that extended from his back and dragged across the floor. No one mentioned them or even acknowledged them so you kept quiet. But over time, you noticed his wings reflected his mood. When he was happy they glowed and shone a bit brighter, mad and scared both meant ruffled and duller feathers, ect. ect.

Today you and him were sitting in the library when suddenly his wings got brighter. 

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Motives to Kill

What Compels Killers to Kill?

Chronically Aggressive Individuals

  • Easily frustrated, limited or poor impulse control
  • Frequently express anger or hostility
  • Resents authority, defiant with supervisors.
  • May express hostility through “passive-aggressive” behavior
  • Believes violence and/or aggression are legitimate responses to various interpersonal problems in life (i.e., if someone provokes you, you fight back)
  • Although they might never admit it, pleasure or reinforcement is derived from the expression of anger (i.e., it feels good to blow someone off; it makes you feel alive; it gives you a sense of power)
  • Often display the characteristics of a “stimulus seeker” - they engage in bold, fearless, or reckless behavior and are prone towards substance abuse
  • Most typically, violence occurs in a situational context: an offense, fight, or disagreement
  • Sometimes just get carried away in a particular situation (domestic violence, child battering)
  • Less likely to engage in acts of unexpected “explosive” violence

The Over-Controlled Hostility Type

  • Rarely display or express anger - they don’t cuss or yell, and may be offended by such
  • Emotionally rigid and inflexible: appear to be polite, serious, and sober, rarely “loose” or jocular
  • Cognitively rigid and inflexible: very strict about interpreting rules; usually go for the letter, rather than the spirit of the law
  • Morally righteous and upstanding: see themselves as “good people”
  • Often judgmental: see others as “not such good people”
  • Non-assertive or passive; their passivity causes others to take advantage of them
  • Anger builds up like in a pressure cooker, before they explode
  • After the violence, people say that they never expected it, “he always seemed like such a nice guy; he was always so quiet”

The Hurt and Resentful

  • Feel that people walk on them and that they are never treated fairly
  • When they are passed over, there is always someone else to blame
  • Things are easier for everyone else: other people get more and have more advantages.
  • They do not accept criticism well
  • In response to reprimands, they develop grudges, which are sometimes deeply held
  • They are often whiners and complainers, as a matter of attitude
  • They wallow in their victimization and are psychologically impotent
  • Violence occurs because they hold grudges and are “impotent” to deal with their anger in other ways

The Traumatized

  • Aggression occurs in response to a single, massive assault on their identity
  • Something happens that is potently offensive, absolutely intolerable, and which strips them of all sense of personal power
  • The essence of their existence (or their manhood) will be destroyed if they do not respond
  • Violence is predictable & preventable

The Obsessive

  • Immature and narcissistic individuals who demand or crave attention and affection
  • Absolutely cannot stand to be deprived of desired gratifications, like a baby who cries because mother removes the breast
  • When deprived of love, they continue crying: repeated phone calls, following the object of their obsession, etc.
  • As frustration continues, they escalate: “dead flowers”, punctured tires, suicide gestures
  • Violence because: “if I can’t have her, nobody can.” … or: “if she won’t have me, she won’t have anything.”

The Paranoid

  • Jealous Type: Delusionally believes their lover is unfaithful
  • Persecuted Type: Delusionally believes that people are out to get him
  • Typically engage in behaviors which make their paranoid beliefs come true
  • Delusions may reach the point at which the person is grossly out of contact with reality (may be insane).

The Insane

  • Rare: does not understand the nature and quality of their actions.
  • More typical: fundamental misperceptions of reality, incapable of rational behavior, delusional beliefs deprive them of the ability to know that their behavior is wrong, beliefs and perceptions are incongruent with reality.
  • Twisted, psychotic beliefs about what is right, what is wrong, and what is necessary.

The Just Plain Bad & Angry

  • A combination of most of the above (except for insane): angry, hostile, jealous, resentful, impotent, and disturbed individuals, who are socially isolated, socially inadequate, and who feel worthless
  • May be seeking attention
  • May be seeking revenge
Nesta Hates Mistletoe

Holiday Fic Collection #2 - Nessian

Requested by @until-theveryend and @my-ships-will-never-be-sank and anonymous

4: “If you hang one more piece of mistletoe, so help me -” 10: “If you think some plant is going to dictate who I kiss, you are sorely mistaken.” 17: “I lit the fire because I want to make sure Santa knows who’s boss when he comes down that chimney.”

Originally posted by mouerx

If Nesta never sees another piece of mistletoe, it will be too soon. She has always found the tradition of kissing under the mistletoe to be idiotic and unnecessary, but Velaris—as with everything—takes it way overboard. A little plant hangs in practically every doorway since December 1st, trapping complete strangers who then are forced to share an awkward kiss on the cheek. Of course, the citizens of the star city embrace the activity whole-heartedly, making Nesta even more confused and a little disgusted. Don’t these people know how unsanitary that is? 

She went shopping with Feyre and Rhysand this morning and had to stop herself from throwing up every time they walked through a door and decided it was their duty to follow through on the custom. Nesta had to check before she entered any store, making sure she wasn’t about to get caught in some awful circumstance with a faerie she doesn’t even know the name of. 

However, even if she doesn’t like that particular tradition during the holidays, Nesta loves everything else about Christmas—especially the presents. 

Keep reading

Day 8 - Signs of the Last Day
  1. The very first sign, is The Prophet’s ﷺ death. Which had occurred about 1400 years ago. How close must we be now?
  2. There will be competition between who can build the tallest building. The Prophet ﷺ predicted that 6 of the tallest buildings in the world will be in Dubai.
  3. He mentions that the mosques will begin to look like Palaces. The Prophet ﷺ ordered simplicity in the houses of Allah. However, they are now more extravagant and luxurious, built with expensive marble tiles and gold domes.
  4. The Prophet ﷺ said that trust will disappear. Trust will be so rare, that one will be able to give the name of one trust worthy person along with details of their exact location.
  5. There will be an increase in killing, called “Harj.” The one who is being killed, will not know why he is being killed. The one who is killing will not know why he is killing. A rise in terror.
  6. The use of Ribah (Interest) will become more common. The Prophet ﷺ said that everyone will be affected and controlled by the use of Ribah. Ribah is absolutely forbidden in Islam, however it has become a second nature to our lives.
  7. There will be an increase in literacy, but a decrease in knowledge. More people will know how to read, but they will read about useless information. No one will seek knowledge about Islam and only ignorant people will remain. “Speakers will be many, but the scholars will be few.”
  8. There will be an increase in musical instruments and muslims will make it lawful.
  9. Sexual promiscuity will become more common. And because of this, there will be diseases that people have never heard of before. 
  10. There will be shouting in the mosques.
  11. The worst and most ignorant people will become the world’s leaders.
  12. A man will obey his wife and disobey his mother. He will listen to this friends rather his father.
  13. Men will wear gold and silk. They will make it lawful, even though The Prophet ﷺ made it unlawful.
  14. People will abandon Islam for a minuscule gain. Holding onto Islam will feel like grasping hot coal. 
Persian vs Arabic Orthographies

Persian and Arabic may both use the Arabic script, but their written forms are quite different from each other. In this post I’m going to try and talk about the big differences so that people can both learn to distinguish them from each other and learn some cool facts.

The New Letters

Arabic is kind of weird in that it doesn’t have the sounds “p” or “g”, meaning its alphabet naturally doesn’t have any letters corresponding to those sounds. Persian, however, has both, so the letters پ pe and گ gâf were created to represent p and g respectively. There are also 2 other new letters, ژ zhe and چ che, representing the sounds “zh” (like the “si” in “vision”) and “ch”.

Different Pronunciation

For its lack of sounds as common as “p” and “g”, Arabic also has a lot of pretty weird sounds: some of which include the “th”s in “thick” and “this” (which you may think are perfectly normal because of English but are actually quite rare worldwide) and a set of weird throaty “emphatic consonants”. Naturally these weird sounds have their own letters: the two “th”s are written as ث and ذ and there are lots of emphatic letters which I don’t feel like going over now. But Persian has neither the “th”s nor emphatics. The logical solution would be to get rid of these letters entirely, but no, Persian decided to write the these weird sounds in Arabic loanwords but just pronounce them with their closest Persian counterparts. Thus ث and ذ are pronounced as “s” and “z”, and emphatics are pronounced as non-emphatic: س and ص are both “s”, ز ض ظ are all “z”, ت ط are both “t”, and ه ح are both “h”. Also, the infamous ع ‘ayn which any Arabic learner will complain to you about is simply pronounced as a glottal stop in Persian. One more thing to note: the letter و, named “waw” and pronounced as “w” in Arabic, is now “vâv” and pronounced as “v”.

Differing Letter Forms

Arabic has grammatical gender, and with that there is the very common suffix -a to mark feminine gender, written with a form of the letter tā’ called tā’ marbūṭa ”tied tā’”, which looks like ة (the letter ه hā’ “h” with 2 dots). Persian doesn’t have grammatical gender and thus has no need for tā’ marbūṭa. In Arabic loanwords which have tā marbūṭa, it is either loaned in as a final -ه e (اسطوره osture vs  أسطورة usṭūra “myth”) or -at (دولت dowlat vs دولة dawla “state”). 

There are 2 word-final forms of letters that are very similar looking to each other in Arabic: ي, final yā’ “y”, and ى, actually a form of ا alif called alif maqṣūra which is pronounced as long ā. Persian, however, doesn’t actually dot its yā’ (or rather “ye”), making the two identical. The thing is, alif maqsure is VERY rare in Persian, only really commonly occuring in some proper names such as عیسی ‘isâ “Jesus” or مرتضی mortezâ “Morteza”. 

Arabic’s letter for k, ‌ك kāf, looks kind of like the letter ل lām “l” with a doodad inside of it in the isolated and final forms, but looks like this: كـ elsewhere. In Persian, it has the isolated and final forms ک کـ, giving it a much more consistent aesthetic across the board. The letter for g, گ gâf, also naturally follows this convention.

So Arabic has this thing called hamza that represents the glottal stop (a pause, like the sound in “uh-oh” represented by the hyphen). It can go on top of the letters yā’ and wāw ی و and give you ئ ؤ, representing a glottal stop proceeded or followed by the vowel sounds “i” and “u” (سئل su’ila “he was asked”, سؤال su’āl “question”), or it can go either on top of OR below alif ا. The only letter with a hamza that can occur at the beginning of a word is alif, which gives it the burden of representing all 3 short vowels. A hamza on top means an “a” or “u” (أول ‘awwal “first”, أسطورة ‘usṭūra “myth”) and a hamza on the bottom means it’s an “i” (إستقلال ‘istiqlāl “independence”). Hamza can also come at the end of a word not attached to anything, such as سوداء sawdā’ “black (feminine)”. 

So I spent all that time explaining how hamza works in Arabic to deliver this shocking news: the hamza is actually not very common in Persian. The only real place you see it is in the middle of words on ئ and ؤ: otherwise it’s either optional or actually discouraged by the Persian Language Academy.


Now this is where the most drastic differences come in. Note I’ll mainly be talking about Modern Iranian Persian, which is an important detail because the vowels can vary pretty heavily across dialects.

Arabic has six vowels: a i u ā ī ū, with the ones with the line on top simply being longer versions of the first 3. Iranian Persian has… well, also 6 vowels, but they’re a e o â i u (a being the “a” in “cat”). In Arabic, due to how the vowel system works, there’s a pretty clean division of how vowels are written: short vowels are optionally indicated through diacritics, long vowels are indicated through consonant placeholders. As you can see, Persian doesn’t really have short and long vowels in the same way Arabic does, but we’re going to shoehorn the vowels into these now-arbitrary categories to make things simpler to understand.

Short vowels: a e o 
Long vowels: â i u 

The short vowels are indicated with diacritics:

اَ اِ اُ

While the long vowels are indicated through ا (glottal stop), ی “y”, and و “v”. The two diphthongs, ey and ow, are indicated through ی and و too. So this matches up pretty cleanly with the Arabic system, actually; In Arabic, those diacritics represent “a”, “i”, and “u”. This makes reading Arabic loanwords in Persian quite easy, because you can just read the short vowels as “a e o” and the long vowels as “â i u”. For example:

Arabic حُروف ḥurūf “letters”
Persian حُروف horuf “letters”

Persian writes vowels initially by just throwing the vowel diacritics on top of ا alef, very similar to Arabic and its stuff with Hamza:

اَسب asb “horse”
اِمروز emruz “today”
اُتاق otâq “room”

The vowels â i u are simply represented by آ (alef with a tilde-like diacritic), ای (alef + ye), and او (alef + vâv) respectively, which is quite close to what Arabic does with ā ī ū (but Arabic is cool and adds hamzas).

Word-final vowels are where things get a bit different though. In Arabic, short vowels are just indicated with diacritics at the end of words and the long vowels… let’s just say Arabic has a bit of a complex relationship with word-final long vowels. In Persian, though, all vowels must be indicated word-finally somehow. And here’s how it happens:

1. The most common short vowel at the end of a word is “e”, indicated by ه. Next up is “o”, indicated by و, and finally the very rare “a”, indicated also by ه.

2. Long vowels are indicated with ا، ی، و just like they are in the middle of words. 

Like I said though, I’m talking about Iranian Persian. Afghan Persian actually has 2 more vowels: ē ō, longer versions of “e” and “o”. These are also indicated with ی and و. In Iranian Persian these two vowels have merged with i and u, resulting in the words شیر shēr “lion” and شیر shir “milk” both being pronounced “shir”. 


This section is mainly for fun, but what the hell. A lot of Arabic calligraphy gradually drifted towards a style called naskh, which is also how Arabic is displayed in basically every modern computer font. 

Iran, however, developed a distinctive style called nastaliq. Besides being used very commonly for Persian poetry, this is also the standard way of writing Urdu! For example, here’s an Urdu newspaper. 

Well, that’s about all I have to say! I may have forgotten some stuff, but to me this seems like a pretty comprehensive list as I read over it. I hope you learned some stuff!