tenant farming


Interior of Tithe Barn, near Bath, England por Richard Majlinder
Por Flickr:
The Tithe Barn was built in the early 14th century as part of the medieval farmstead belonging to Shaftesbury Abbey. Its function was to store the produce of the farm, and of the farms of the manor. Tenant farms contributed a tithe, meaning a tenth of their produce. King Ethelred gave the Manor of Bradford, including the monastery founded by St Aldhelm, to the Abbess of Shaftesbury in 1001. The barn is now owned and maintained by English Heritage.

Inarizaki pinch server, No.13 2nd year wing-spiker, Kosaku Yuuto 小作 裕 渡, 181 cm. As per the Inarizaki naming trend, his surname, Kosaku, is related to the god of foxes, Inari, in that Kosaku literally means ‘tenant farming’ and the farmers obviously pray to the god of agriculture and fertility, Inari. The kanji in ‘Kosaku’ mean ‘small’ and ‘to make’ or ‘harvest’ or ‘work (of art)’ respectively, while the kanji in ‘Yuuto’ mean ‘fertile’ and ‘to ferry’ or ‘to cross over’ respectively.

Source: Public raws for Chapter 260

The Skull of Broome
Pencil/digital, 9x12

At Higher Farm, opposite the church, is a “Screaming Skull” which according to a tradition current in the 18th century belonged to Theophilus Broome, who died in 1670 and “…requested that his head might be taken off before his burial, and be preserved at the farm-house near the church ….The tenants of the house have often endeavored to commit [the skull] to the bowels of the earth, but have been as often deterred by horrid noises, portentive of sad displeasure.”

It’s said that Broome was a Royalist during the English Civil War, but defected to the Parliamentarians after witnessing horrors perpetrated on civilians in the name of the king. In particular, he despised the Royalist habit of severing the heads of victims and spiking them on rails as trophies. On his deathbed, Broome made a plea to his sister that his head should be separated from his body and secreted away in the farmhouse, so that even if his body were exhumed, no head could be taken or presumably violated as a trophy.

A manuscript account from the Farm dating from 1829 contains statements from various parishioners confirming the tradition. It is “…remembered when the Scull was brought down stairs, and put in the Cupboard.” A farm tenant “…bought a new Spade, and went to his Relation … who said ‘Now Uncle Doctor, let us go and bury the Scull, when we have had a crust of bread and cheese,’ he said no he would not; but after some time he went, but with an ill will, to bury it in the Churchyard. The Spade broke off at the first spit, and so they took it back again, he thought it presumptuous to attempt it, as the Man had begged that some part might be buried there and the rest in some other places.” This tenant, an Ann Dunman, had also heard that “Brome was a great Warrior, and begged that his body might be laid in three Counties” - a theme also found in the lives of saints, and undoubtedly arising from the fact that their corpses were frequently dismembered for relics.

Translation of the Roman novel character introductions

The Story of Morning and Night

Hiver Laurant
He is “you” and he is “me”. There is no meaning to his name, but that’s exactly what makes it so special. He is one who journeys across horizons.

Young lady of violet. A girl who seems to rule over the passing night of death. Her existence is the result of someone’s intentions, yet the same could be said of all creation.

Young lady of hortensia. A girl who seems to rule over the coming morning of birth. Even if her existence is the result of someone’s intentions, the girl shall smile. 

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Namen - Names in Germany

Personal names in Germany consist of one or several given names (Vornamen) and a surname (Nachname, Familienname) The Vorname is usually gender-specific and cited in the order of first name + surname, unless it occurs in a list of surnames (“Bach, Johann Sebastian”). Women traditionally adopted their husband’s name and might retain their maiden name by hyphenation (= Doppelname). Recent legislation motivated by gender equality allow either or both parts of a married couple to choose the surname they want to use and sometimes, the man takes the woman’s last name. Most surnames are derived from occupations or geographical locations, less often from bodily attributes as it often happens in other countries. They became heritable with the beginning of central demographic records in the early modern period. Job designations are the most common form of family names in Germany. Examples:

Schmidt (smith), Müller (miller), Meier (farm administrator; tenant), Schulz (constable), Fischer (fisherman), Schneider (tailor), Maurer (mason), Bauer (farmer), Metzger/Fleischer (butcher), Töpfer (potter), Kutscher (carriage driver), Klingemann (weapons smith). Names referring to nobility such as Kaiser (emperor), König (king), Graf (count) are also common - but the name bearers were usually only minor functionaries in the services of nobility.

In 2015 I became a first-generation college graduate, to no fanfare. I’m not positive my mother knew that it happened, because I was ashamed of myself and because I had a habit of keeping every bit of me from her. My mother was trained as a massage therapist and had a handful of community college credits. She saved her transcripts her whole life because she was very proud of her perfect grades.

In 2015 I got married. He will also be a first generation college grad, if he graduates from college. His mom went to nursing school in the sixties, when it was still a six-week training and she had to wear a skirt. His father was third-generation Buick, right on the line out of high school. I used to say they were the same, our moms, except that my mother didn’t know how to be a person, didn’t know how to make the right choices on the rare occasion she was given a choice. Grew up poor, had a complex about it, married the wrong man, left the wrong man and suffered as a single mother. His mother had a trade, and a high school education, and she found a man she could stay with, a second husband, who had a job. Two incomes means everything! It means some women don’t have to work themselves into an early death. My mom never let another man near me. And, you know, honestly, his mother was never bored doing the same thing her whole life. My mother wanted a lot. She was a libra.

They really weren’t the same. Both of our mothers came from very poor families, but my mother came from a special kind of poor family. Lucas’s grandfather was hard-working, an immigrant. My mother’s grandfather was a child railroad worker who grew into a “son of a bitch.” His son, my grandfather–and it’s weird to call him that because I never have–grew up on a tenant farm. He grew into a “son of a bitch,” too, a union man until he decided to be a full-time drunk, until he decided to be a full-time dead drunk. An abusive father, a chain of abusive fathers, is an economic legacy. 

My mother grew up not understanding the difference between moms who don’t work because women don’t work and moms who don’t work because they have Polio–what a wild thing that gets wiped out of the discussion of “women at home.” Grandpa found his wife in Alabama on his way out or back in from the war in the Pacific. She wanted out of Alabama because she was disabled and a family shame, he wanted out of Genesee County because he didn’t want to be white trash anymore. They settled in Pontiac, which is where I was born, from where my mother ran because she didn’t wanna be white trash anymore either. My mom was an orphan by the age of fifteen. It’s a special type of poverty.

I don’t like the way we talk about Millennials and their parents. I don’t like that my peers cite independence–cold distance–from their parents as an achievement while at the same time accepting rent checks. I don’t like that these Millennial activists would shame those of us who had to care for sick, poor parents, those of us who would want to stay near them for reasons that are about class and culture, things they don’t understand. Those of us whose parents had nobody else to rely on. And I don’t like thinkpieces that conflate these things–Millennials only live with their parents because they are spoiled, parents buying groceries for their grown kids who take care of them is the same kind of “informal assistance” as fronting five-digit tuition bills or investing in trust funds. What is the value in this? More stomping around the poor Millennials, disabled and poor Boomers, more nonsense periodizing, more ways ultimately to undermine a welfare state, more ways to invisibilize labor, more ways to mandate single mothers out of existence.

Lucas’s family is wonderful to us, and they’re kind of like a four-leaf clover–his dad isn’t abusive, or deadbeat, or an addict, the first adult man I knew like that, I think!–and an anachronism, the last Buick City lineworker with a pension. In 2015 my mother died and I got married, passed fully into a history that wasn’t mine and money that isn’t mine. It’s dysphoric, being so lucky, having help with our broken Subaru, knowing I’ll never be homeless. I’ll never be homeless as long as I’m married to him, isn’t that wild? What’s more, and more important, is that I never have to worry about my mother being homeless, I never have to drain my “savings” for her again–at least not now that her remains are taken care of. (I did have to drain my savings for that, and I am saving up someday for a headstone, and also honestly to turn some of her ashes into fake diamonds, which is her destiny.)

The funny thing is that it’s another kind of loss, to be safe. I should be grateful, and I am, but I feel confused and lost and invisible.

My family on my mothers side were sharecroppers back in the 30’s here in Alabama. It was just after the stock market crash, and most Americans were in dire straits.  Many poor white, as well as black Americans, turned to the sharecropping system which was mostly focused on cotton. It was the only crop that could generate cash for the croppers, landowners, merchants and the tax collector.
Sharecropping agreements were made fairly for the most part, as a form of tenant farming or sharefarming that has a variable rental payment, paid in arrears. There are three different types of contracts.
1. Workers can rent plots of land from the owner for a certain sum and keep the whole crop.
2. Workers work on the land and earn a fixed wage from the land owner but keep some of the crop.
3. No money changes hands but the worker and land owner each keep a share of the crop.

People today have no concept of just how hard life was back then. We take for granted all of the comforts that are available to even the homeless and poor currently. Back during this time there was no one to turn to in most cases, especially if you lived in rural areas of the country. My Grandmother used to tell of the winter when the family survived starvation, by eating their mule.