ten amendments

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March 4th 1789: First United States Congress

On this day in 1789, the first Congress of the United States met at Federal Hall, 26 Wall Street, New York City. The Congress comprises two houses - the Senate, which at this point had 21 senators, and the House of Representatives, of which there were originally 58 members. The first Congress lasted until March 3rd 1791, spanning the first two years of George Washington’s presidency. The Speaker of the House was Frederick Muhlenberg, and the President of the Senate was, per the Constitution, Vice President John Adams. In the early stages of the American republic, there were no coherent and defined political parties, and Congress was simply divided between those who supported the Washington administration and those who did not, with the supporters holding a majority in each house. The first Congresss’ main accomplishments include passing the first ten amendments to the Constitution - known as the Bill of Rights - establishing the United States Census, creating Washington D.C. as the national capital, establishing the Departments of State, War and Treasury, and creating the Supreme Court through the 1789 Judiciary Act. The first meeting of Congress officially created the government set out in the Constitution, which had been ratified in 1788, and thus marks the day the Constitution was put into effect.

“All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives”
- Article I, Section I, Clause I of the United States Constitution

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Happy Bill of Rights Day! On December 15, 1791, the first ten amendments–now known as the Bill of Rights–were added to the Constitution.

During the 1787–1788 Constitutional ratification process, opponents criticized the Constitution because it lacked a bill of rights. They argued that the Constitution should include one, because without it a strong central government would trample individuals’ liberties and freedoms. In the end, enough states supported the Constitution without amendments that it was ratified without changes.

However, the effort to amend the Constitution carried over into the first Federal elections. Anti-Federalists—those who opposed the Constitution—pushed to elect pro-amendment members to the First Federal Congress.

As the “Father of the Constitution,” Madison had a vested interest in protecting the Constitution from drastic alterations. When the First Congress convened in 1789, James Madison, who originally opposed altering the Constitution, became the leading proponent of a bill of rights, thus allowing him to guide the drafting of new amendments.

That June, Madison proposed a series of amendments to the newly ratified Constitution. Most of Madison’s amendments were rights-related, and he chose to insert them directly into the Constitution’s existing text.

In the summer of 1789 the House of Representatives debated Madison’s proposals and made several changes.

During the debate, Roger Sherman of Connecticut made one notable suggestion: adding the amendments to the end of the Constitution, rather than working them into the existing text. The House agreed and made the change, resulting in the enumerated list of amendments we are familiar with today.

On August 24 the House passed 17 articles of amendment, and then the Senate took up the matter, making several alterations and consolidations of their own.

Ultimately, Congress forwarded to the states 12 articles of amendment. Ten of them—articles 3 through 12—were subsequently ratified and became the Bill of Rights in 1791.

The Bill of Rights is on permanent display at the National Archives in Washington, DC. You can read a full transcript of the all the amendments here: http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/bill_of_rights.html

Text via http://blogs.archives.gov/prologue/?p=13641

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225th Anniversary of the First Congress: We’ll be posting documents and stories highlighting the establishment of the new government under the Constitution through March 2016.

On September 9, 1789, the Senate passed this resolution introduced by Senator Oliver Ellsworth that captured all of the Senate revisions to the House proposed amendments to the U.S. Constitution

On September 25, Congress passed 12 amendments that were sent to the states for approval. Ten of the amendments were ratified by the required three-fourths of the states and became part of the Constitution in 1791. These first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution are known as the Bill of Rights.

Senator Ellsworth’s Draft of Amendments Proposed to the Bill of Rights as Passed by the House, 9/9/1789, Sen 1A-C2, Records of the U.S. Senate

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225th Anniversary of the First Congress: We’ll be posting documents and stories highlighting the establishment of the new government under the Constitution through March 2016.

On June 8, 1789, Representative James Madison introduced a series of proposed amendments to the newly ratified U.S. Constitution. That summer the House of Representatives debated Madison’s proposal, and on August 24 the House passed 17 amendments to be added to the Constitution. Those 17 amendments were then sent to the Senate.

On September 2, the Senate began considering amendments to the Constitutions as proposed and passed in the House. The Senate compiled this document over six days. The Senate’s debate continued for another two days and resulted in additional changes to the amendments not shown on this document.

On September 25, Congress passed 12 amendments that were sent to the states for approval. Ten of the amendments were ratified by the required three-fourths of the states and became part of the Constitution in 1791. These first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution are known as the Bill of Rights.

Notes Recording Senate Consideration of House Proposed Articles of Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, 9/2/1789, SEN1A-C2, Records of the U.S. Senate

Rules For New Pentaholics New Revised Edition

Since the original was a bit dated and this fandom is still getting bigger:

I. They are Pentatonix, the acappella group, who won the Sing Off and brought thee all together on Tumblr. Thou shalt not have any other bands before them.

II. Thou shalt not ask who is gay and who is not for it has already been made very clear.

III. Thou shalt not refer to them as “The Pentatonix” for the fandom will not take them guiltless who misname them.

IV. Remember the Superfruit Tuesday and to keep it holy. Six days thou shalt labor and make all thy gifs, but Tuesday is the day of Superfruit. In it, thou shalt not do work: thou, nor thy friend, nor thy enemy, nor thy acquaintance, nor thy stranger who is within the fandom.

V. Honor thy band members and thy band members’ friends/partners/family.

VI. Thou shalt not leak fetus pictures from Facebook for it is an invasion of their privacy.

VII. Thou shalt not forget about Kevin for he plays just as much of an important role as the other members.

VIII. Thou shalt not force ships on the band members in real life and respect their private life.

IX. Thou shalt not spell Kirstin’s name wrong for she is a princess who deserves nothing but utmost respect.

X. Thou shalt not comment on Mitch’s weight for it is his body and none of thy business.

The Bill of Rights is the collective name for the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution, which limit the power of the U.S. federal government. These limitations serve to protect the natural rights of liberty and property including freedoms of religion, speech, a free press, free assembly, and free association, as well as the right to keep and bear arms.

They were introduced by James Madison to the 1st United States Congress as a series of legislative articles, were adopted by the House of Representatives on August 21, 1789, formally proposed by joint resolution of Congress on September 25, 1789, and came into effect as Constitutional Amendments on December 15, 1791, through the process of ratification by three-fourths of the States.

Originally, the Bill of Rights included legal protection for land-owning white men only, excluding African Americans and women. It took additional Constitutional Amendments and numerous Supreme Court cases to extend the same rights to all U.S. citizens.

The Bill of Rights plays a key role in American law and government, and remains a vital symbol of the freedoms and culture of the nation. One of the first fourteen copies of the Bill of Rights is on public display at the National Archives in Washington, D.C..

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Bill_of_Rights

We are still not civilized...

The First Amendment says: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
It was adopted on December 15, 1791, as one of the ten amendments that constitute the Bill of Rights. Centuries later we still live in epoch of dinosaurs where “strong” oppresses  "weak" and oppressed are living in fear. Remember Ferguson - cops brutally assaulted people outraged  by murder of Mike Brown. And it happened during the protests against police brutality! You can demand justice until hell freezes over but be ready to get a bash on the bonce! Pigs violate our rights. The amendment doesn’t work.

Okay so in America, we have this thing called the Bill of Rights, which is ten amendments to our constitution that protect us from the government. The one I want to talk about today is the second amendment, which is the right to bear arms.

A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed. It says we have the right to bear arms. It does not say we cannot regulate said arms. Edit: so it has come to my attention that what I said was incorrect. Something about infringement. You’re still not technically infringing on the right to bear arms if you regulate it. Like, no assault rifles or semi-automatic. What I mean by regulate is have people evaluated, have there be a process. So those people who got in my face about this, happy?
Governor Christie -- a former U.S. Attorney -- doesn’t remember that the first ten amendments to the Constitution were all passed together as the Bill of Rights, not in chronological order.

Six days until “Amending America” opens!

The Bill of Rights that is on permanent display here is the Joint Resolution passed by Congress on September 25, 1789, proposing twelve–not ten–amendments. 

The first article, concerning the ratio of constituents to each congressional representative, was never ratified by the states; the second article listed, concerning congressional pay, was ratified in 1992 as the Twenty-seventh Amendment.

Amendment VI

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defense.