• central nervous system 中枢神経系 ちゅうすうしんけいけい
  • peripheral nervous system 末梢神経系 まっしょうしんけいけい
  • stroke 発作 ほっさ
  • Broca’s area ブローカ野 ぶろーかや
  • Broca’s aphasia ブローカ失語症 ぶろーかしつごしょう
  • brain のう
  • spinal cord 脊髄 せきずい
  • meninges 髄膜 ずいまく
  • cerebrospinal fluid 脳脊髄液 のうせきずいえき
  • neural tube 神経管 しんけいかん
  • prosencephalon or forebrain 前脳  ぜんのう
  • mesencephalon or midbrain 中脳 ちゅうのう
  • rhombencephalon or hindbrain 菱脳 りょうのう
  • telencephalon 終脳 しゅうのう
  • diencephalon or interbrain 間脳 かんのう
  • metencephalon 後脳 こうのう
  • myelencephalon 髄脳 ずいのう
  • brain stem 脳幹 のうかん
  • cerebellum 小脳 しょうのう
  • cerebral hemispheres 大脳半球 だいのうはんきゅう
  • cerebrum 大脳 だいのう
  • pons 脳橋 のうきょう or  きょう
  • medulla oblongata 延髄 えんずい
  • thalamus 視床 ししょう
  • epithalamus 視床上部 ししょうじょうぶ
  • hypothalamus 視床下部 ししょうかぶ
  • mammillary body 乳頭体  にゅうとうたい
  • limbic system 大脳辺縁系 だいのうへんえんけい or 辺縁系 へんえんけい
  • reptilian brain 爬虫類脳 はちゅうるいのう
  • cerebral cortex 大脳皮質 だいのうひしつ
  • gyrus  かい
  • sulcus 脳溝 のうこう or  みぞ
  • corpus callosum 脳梁 のうりょう
  • lobe よう
  • frontal lobe 前頭葉 ぜんとうよう
  • occipital lobe 後頭葉 こうとうよう
  • parietal lobe 頭頂葉 とうちょうよう
  • temporal lobe 側頭葉 そくとうよう
  • Wernicke’s area ウェルニッケ野 うぇるにっけや
  • hippocampus 海馬 かいば
  • amygdala 扁桃体 へんとうたい

A Roll of the Die-encephalon

The diencephalon originates embryologically from the same brain vesicle as the telencephalon(cerebrum), the prosencephalon. The diencephalon is the intermediary brain structure between the telencephalon and the mesencephalon(midbrain) and plays an important role in integration of afferent and efferent input from the spinal and cerebellar pathways, as well as regulation of the endocrine system. The diencephalon consists of the thalamic structures: the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the subthalamus, and the epithalamus, each of which plays a distinct role, though I will focus primarily on the thalamus and hypothalamus. The thalamus lies just lateral to the third ventricle and inferior to the fornix and corpus callosum, and contains a variety of interspersed nuclei with distinct functions. In order for cutaneous and visceral stimuli to reach conscious awareness they need to synapse in the Ventral Posteromedial Nucleus (for facial sensation) and the Ventral Posterolateral nucleus (for body sensation) of the thalamus before thalamocortical fibers ascend to the proper cortical areas. Efferents from the corticopontocerebellar pathway (which influences activity of the primary and pre- motor cortices) pass through the contralateral Ventral Intermediate and Ventral Anterior nuclei of the thalamus before ascending through the corona radiata to the motor cortices to coordinate their output. The hypothalamus on the other hand responds to visceral signaling to regulate and initiate the release of hormones. The hypothalamus is closely related to the pituitary gland, which hangs off the hypothalamus posterior to the optic chiasm. Technically only the posterior portion of the pituitary develops from the diencephalon in utero, while the anterior portion forms from Rathke’s pouch, a component of the developing hard palate. Though the anterior portion is not technically part of the diencephalon, dysfunctions of the anterior pituitary, or adenohypophysis, can adversely impact the function of the diencephalon. The anterior pituitary plays an important role in stress response, growth, lactation, and reproduction, and releases human growth hormone to initiate growth. The posterior pituitary, or neurohypophysis, releases oxytocin and vasopressin and is under direct control of the hypothalamus. Tumors of the anterior pituitary can compress the nearby diencephalic structures such as the optic tract as well as some thalamic nuclei. Tumors of the anterior pituitary can also secrete growth hormone which can lead to gigantism as well as expedite the growth of the neoplasm.



Anencephaly is the absence of a major portion of the brain, skull, and scalp that occurs during embryonic development. It is a cephalic disorder that results from a neural tube defect that occurs when the rostral (head) end of the neural tube fails to close, usually between the 23rd and 26th day following conception. it is accepted that children born with this disorder usually only lack a telencephalon, the largest part of the brain consisting mainly of the cerebral hemispheres, including the neocortex, which is responsible for cognition. The remaining structure is usually covered only by a thin layer of membrane— skin, bone, meninges, etc. are all lacking. With very few exceptions,infants with this disorder do not survive longer than a few hours or possibly days after their birth.

#anencephaly #brain #video #instavideo #genetics #child #pediatrics #congenital #pediatrics #neurology #neuroscience #usmle #usmlestep1 #usmlestep2 #doctor #doctordconline #nhs #nurse #nursing #hospital #patient #mbbs #md @doctordconline

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Consists of:

  • Cerebral cortex- Frontal, Parietal, Occipital, temporal lobes.
  • Rhinencephalon- oldest part of fore brain with olfactory and non-olfactory components. Deals with short term memory and emotion.
  • Basal ganglia- deeper grey matter such as the caudate nucleus. Involved in movement and locomotion.
  • Limbic system- llimbic lobe +  Subcortical nuclei. Is involved in maintaining normal behavior.
Light up

“Set around start of s12. Amelia and Owen are kind of together but it’s not public Amelia is teaching the interns to use the brain machine  but they didn’t have a ‘patient’ so Amelia is having her brain scanned and Stephanie is running it and telling the interns what’s happening. After a while of testing, Owen walks in and the ‘happy’ brain activity of Amelia goes crazy high 

Ooook I’m not a doctor and I don’t know if that is correct hahah let me know what you think ;)

“Love. Neuroscience tells us it activates the same parts of the brain as habit-forming addiction. It makes us feel like we can do anything, be anything, Achieve anything. And once we taste it, we want more. “

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