Medical Science On The Modernity Period Around The World
The post-18th century modernity period, typically referring to an historical era, roughly defined as a post-traditional or post-medieval period beginning Renaissance (ca. 14th-17th Centuries), characterized by a move from feudalism (or agrarianism) toward capitalism, industrialization, secularization, rationalization, the nation-state and its constituent institutions and forms of surveillance (Barker 2005, 444), brought more groundbreaking researchers from Europe.
From Germany, a federal parliamentary republic in west-central Europe, and Austria, the following doctors made notable contributions: Rudolf Virchow, a German doctor, anthropologist, pathologist, prehistorian, biologist and politician, known for his advancement of public health; Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, a German physicist, who, on November 8, 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in wavelength range today known as X-rays or Röntgen rays, an achievement that earned him the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901; Karl Landsteiner, an Austrian biologist and physician; and Otto Loewi, a German born pharmacologist whose discovery of acetylcholine helped enhance medical therapy.
In the United Kingdom, the following are considered important: Alexander Fleming, a Scottish biologist, pharmacologist and botanist; Sir Joseph Lister, Bt., a British surgeon and a pioneer of antiseptic surgery, who promoted the idea of sterile surgery while working at their Glasgow Royal Infirmary; Francis Crick, an English molecular biologist, biophysicist, and neuroscientist, and most noted for being a co-discoverer of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953 together with James D. Watson; and Florence Nightingale, a celebrated English social reformer and statistician, and the founder of modern nursing.
A doctor from the country of Spain, now a sovereign state and a member of the European union located in southwestern Europe, on the Iberian peninsula, Santiago Ramón y Cajal, a pathologist, histologist, neuroscientist, and Nobel laureate, is considered the father of modern neuroscience, or the study of the nervous system.
From New Zealand and Australia came Maurice Wilkins, a New Zealand-born English physicist and molecular biologist, and Nobel laureate whose research contributed to the scientific understanding of phosphorescence, isotope separation, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction, and to the development of radar; Howard Florey, an Australian pharmacologist and pathologist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945 with Sir Ernst Boris Chain and Sir Alexander Fleming for his role in the making of penicillin; and Frank Macfarlane Burnet, usually known as “Macfarlane” or “Mac Burnet,” an Australian virologist best known for his contributions to immunology.
With their respective countries, the following also did significant work:
The United States: William Williams Keen, the first brain surgeon in the United States; William Coley, an American bone surgeon and cancer researcher, pioneer of cancer immunotherapy; and James D. Watson, an American molecular biologist, geneticist, and zoologist, best known as a co-discoverer of the structure of DNA in 1953 with Francis Crick.
Italy: Salvador Luria, an Italian microbiologist.
Switzerland: Alexandre Yersin, a Swiss and French physician and bacteriologist.
Japan: Kitasato Shibasaburō, a Japanese physician and bacteriologist during the prewar period.
France: Jean-Martin Charcot, a French neurologist and professor of anatomical pathology; Claude Bernard, a French physiologist; and Paul Broca, a French physician surgeon, anatomist, and anthropologist; etc.
And the others: Nikolai Korotkov, a Russian surgeon, a pioneer of 20th century vascular surgery, and the inventor of auscultatory technique for blood pressure measurement; Sir William Osler, a Canadian physician; and Harvey Cushing, an American neurosurgeon and a pioneer of brain surgery, and the first to describe Cushings’ syndrome.