It may be irrational but pi plays an important role in the everyday work of scientists at NASA.
What Is Pi ?
Pi is the ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter. It is also an irrational number, meaning its decimal representation never ends and it never repeats. Pi has been calculated to more than one trillion digits,
Why March 14?
March 14 marks the yearly celebration of the mathematical constant pi.
More than just a number for mathematicians, pi has all sorts of
applications in the real world, including on our missions. And as a holiday that encourages more
than a little creativity – whether it’s making pi-themed pies or
reciting from memory as many of the never-ending decimals of pi as
possible (the record is 70,030 digits).
While 3.14 is often a precise enough approximation,
hence the celebration occurring on March 14, or 3/14 (when written in standard U.S. month/day format), the first known celebration occurred in 1988, and in
2009, the U.S. House of Representatives passed a resolution designating
March 14 as Pi Day and encouraging teachers and students to celebrate
the day with activities that teach students about pi.
5 Ways We Use Pi at NASA
Below are some ways scientists and engineers used pi.
Keeping Spacecraft Chugging Along
Propulsion engineers use pi to determine the volume and surface area of propellant tanks. It’s how they size tanks and determine liquid propellant volume to keep spacecraft going and making new discoveries.
Getting New Perspectives on Saturn
A technique called pi transfer uses the gravity of Titan’s moon, Titan, to alter the orbit of the Cassini spacecraft so it can obtain different perspectives of the ringed planet.
Learning the Composition of Asteroids
Using pi and the asteroid’s mass, scientists can calculate the density of an asteroid and learn what it’s made of–ice, iron, rock, etc.
knowing the circumference, diameter and surface area of a crater can tell scientists a lot about the asteroid or meteor that may have carved it out.
Determining the Size of Exoplanets
Exoplanets are planets that orbit suns other than our own and scientists use pi to search for them. The first step is determining how much the light curve of a planet’s sun dims when a suspected planets passes in front of it.
In astrology, the common association with hard aspects such as squares is that they are inherently negative aspects which will cause great difficulty in ones personality and environment.
The problem here is that in astrology, NOTHING is black and white - there are a lot of grey areas where aspects between planets and also signs have an inherent sense of light and dark, but nothing is strictly ‘good’ or ‘bad’.
It’s often too easy to simply say something is ‘good’ or ‘bad’ than to analyse how these supposedly difficulties energies can make a beneficial compromise.
Each sign and aspect has both positive and negative qualities within them, it’s there inherent potential of how we choose to use these energies that is the key.
Knowing this, there is potential for squares to become a beneficial aspect.
The reason for this is that the nature of a square causes friction to the point that manifestation and/or a release of energy must occur. Two planets in a square aspects will cause a friction of two personality types. The point to remember is that planets in Square often share the same modality - therefore a compromise can be made between two planets if the goal of the modality is taken into account.
Cardinal Square: They share the same need for forward movement and initiation of an idea (♎️), action (♈️), project (♑️) and self-care and security (♋️).
Knowing this, you can find what each planet in Square wishes to accomplish.
♋️/♎️: Initiating a new idea for self-care through interaction with or for others. Emotion vs logical rationalisation of things.
Taking into consideration personal needs and the needs of others. Compromising the need to take action based on logic and rationality and emotional provocation and intuitive action.
♎️/♑️: Initiating a new idea or plan into a practical project. Compromising the need for a goal with working with other people and taking their perspectives into account. Understanding that one can not always be in charge of a situation, and shared responsibility must take place. Compromise needed to achieve a goal.
♈️/♋️: Initiating an action based on emotional provocation. Needing to recognise when one is becoming too aggressive to emotional stimulation. Learning how to care for others through action. Caring for ones own emotional wellbeing and stability. Providing oneself their own sense of security.
♑️/♈️: Initiating an action on a practical goal and project. Leading by power and example. Working for oneself and relying on ones own actions and energy. Sticking to a set path. Taking the role as authority. Doing things in ones own way to benefit the self.
Mutable Square: These signs are inherently changeable and adaptable to their circumstance, often changing and evolving as their perception changes due to new experiences. Mutable squares can be seen as being the easiest signs to integrate, as their natural flexible nature allows a compromise. These signs are about adapting and changing their physical surroundings (♍️), their ideas and perceptions (♊️) , their emotions based on sensory perception (♓️), and the way they take action, extending beyond what they can do and have done (♐️).
♊️/♍️: Changing the way tone does things when new information is presented. Testing the practicality of other ideas and thoughts. Perfecting known ideas and information. Testing the logical of preconceived ideas and information, and changing the way things are originally done.
♍️/♐️: Changing the day-to-day routine by engaging in long distance travel. Making philosophical ideas practical and perfecting them. Expanding and questioning the initial way things are done and creating something new from it. Servitude for a higher belief. Being humorous and playful when giving critical feedback.
♊️/♓️: Thinking about and rationalising an emotional connection to others and the universe. Communicating ones sense of empathy to another. Writing down intuitive feelings and perceptions as possible psychic provocations. Communicating artists thoughts and ideas, perhaps in a form of a story or poetry.
♐️/♓️: Taking action on spiritual receptivity to the universe. Understanding life from a a far higher perspective. Activity teaching higher knowledge and understanding of spirituality and connection to the universe as one. Changing spiritual beliefs based on ones own sensory perception and connection to the universe at large. Healing and charity for those living overseas in unprivileged countries.
Fixed Square: This square is ultimately the most difficult to integrate due to its inherent nature to stay in one place due to stubbornness for change. If these energies can find a particular goal to aim for, these squares can provide the most beneficial results due to the massive power expended once the energy is related to create something great. These energies aim on building upon and maintaining ones sense of material security and resources (♉️), ones sense of self and their individual expression (♌️), their emotional security and inherent emotional power (♏️), and their own original unique and innovative ideas (♒️).
♉️/♌️: Maintaining a sense of security when expressing the self as they truely are. A step-by-step approach to leadership. Expressing ones own inherent and natural beauty. Productivity in creative expression. Expressing the self through creating material objects and products. Using charisma and an extravagant presentation to create profit and wealth.
♌️/♏️: Transforming the way one expresses themselves. Integrating deep emotional connection and passion into creative expression and assertion. Sexual extravagance. Projecting a powerful sense of expression. Pride in ones own transformation. Sharing the spotlight. Passionate and powerful leadership.
♏️/♒️: Deep connection to humanity. Transforming people by the masses. Destroying and transforming the dynamics of society. Passionate connection to unique and innovative thoughts to benefit humanity. Deep passion for change and reform. Sexual innovation and transformation. Healing others. Deep and through scientific analysis, uncovering what is hidden.
♒️/♉️: Innovation and change on the way to create material things. Unique creations for profit. Originality in practicality. Scientific and practical step-by-step approach. Detached and objective evaluation using the 5 senses. Innovative way to building towards material wealth. Originality and innovation in artistic pursuits.
The planets involved in the square aspect will indicate what parts of the personality and sense of action is in tension, the signs on the planets will indicate how they do things. Applying the above formula of the compromise between sign modalities will show how to compromise the parts of the personality in tension.
Example: Mars ♌️ Square Saturn ♉️.Taking creative and powerful action towards approaching a career goal, involving passion to create ones own wealth that will last. Fixating on a long term goal to reach material success by applying ones self to the task, being authentic in their self-expression and creative passion. Consistently applying ones self to create long-term results.
Remember that absolutely nothing in a natal chart is inherently ‘bad’ or ‘good’, they are simply a composition of energetic potentials that can work to your benefit when consciously applying yourself and your actions.
I find it so interesting how differently people see the gods.
Part of it is UPG and such, but also it’s the facets that they show to you.
Like Aphrodite and pink is so common here on Tumblr, but I always see her in sea green and aquamarine, with gold and pearly white on her trim and in her hair. To me, she’s not at all romantic, she’s not even that loving all the time. What she is, is the calm all-encompassing warmth that comes after a particularly bad meltdown, and the fierce, protective look on my best friend’s face as she tells me I’m worth a million of him.
Half of the Athena aesthetics I see focus on libraries and books, glasses perched on noses. So many people focus on her role in your own learning. Spending time researching can be a great offering to her, that’s true, but I feel closest to her when I’m actively teaching someone else, in the moment it clicks for them and you can feel the spark behind their eyes light up. I feel her smiling when my students ask me questions I hadn’t even thought of before.
Hermes is a trickster yes, he’ll mess with you a hundred ways from Sunday if you’re not careful. But he’s also a hand on your shoulder as you cross the street, making sure you’ve looked both ways (which I hadn’t, thank you friend). He’s laughter as you spill your coins everywhere trying to pay for ice cream, and the thrill of mutual understanding through a language barrier.
I’ve always vaguely believed that gods show themselves as what you need the most at the time, but it wasn’t until I started paying attention that I really understood what that really meant.
ok so im just gonna dump that magical boy vigilante nct/exo thing right here and its not really a whole thing yet,,,more like SOME ideas,,,,,yeah
-so my main idea was that nct members are the prodigy of exo members
-meaning suho’s water power is passed down to taeyong,,,, and suho teaches him how to control it also they both have a magical like tattoo that activates their powers and i was thinking the symbol of a water lily would work well like on their wrists or something
-doyoung is chanyeol’s prodigy and their symbol is the phoenix which is tattooed on their back and whenever they’re like talking they both always do the little trick where they set a flame on the tip of their finger to scare some of the other members gkfldjfs
-baekhyun trying to get taeil to be more open and use the light power that glows around their heads like a halo to do silly things but taeil is like,,, shouldnt i save my powers??? to like save people??? and baekhyun is like please have some fun u child and taeil is like,,,, you’re not that much older than me,,,,, anyway they’re cute their tattoo is a small sun that glows on their forehead when their power is activated
-kyungsoo teaches haechan how to control his strength but tbh kyungsoo doesn’t even have to do much haechan is pretty naturally gifted at it except that everytime he pats someone on the back they practically go flying across the room ,,,,their symbol is the roots of a tree that wrap around their leg
-kais teleportation gets passed onto sicheng and they’re both so laid back that kai just kinda levitates a bit and tells sicheng to do his own thing which one hundred percent means teleporting behind taeil to shock him but also hanging upside down and feeling the nice breeze,,,,,their symbol is two moons overlapping behind their ear
-sehun has yuta and their wind powers are used mostly for weather control but also they’re two big children who like making mini tornados and just sending them around to wreck the other members rooms or training their symbol is the compass on their ankle
-xiumins frost is handed down to mark who doesn’t really get the appeal until xiumin shows him that he could basically freeze an entire lake over just by touching it klfdf also that one time mark touched the back of doyoung’s hair and ended up forming icicles on the back of his neck,,,, that when they fell almost gave doyoung a heart attack. the tattoo is the snowflake on their hip
-lay’s healing is something jaehyun at first isn’t all that interested but because his hands are big lay shows him how he can focus his power into the palm and heal any kind of wound or sickness and jaehyun thinks that’s really cool,,,,,but he gets annoyed when the members bug him to heal every little scratch lol their symbol is the caduceus on their palm
-chen teaches johnny about thunder power and is really cheeky because he’s like tEcHnically we can also control electricity and chen is like look activate ur power and touch taeyong so johnny does and taeyong is like OW u zapped me and johnny grins like ok this,,,,,this is a good power. their symbol is the lightning bolt on the side of the neck
-bonus tao teaching ten how to time warp and basically travel across dimensions and ten always freezing him mid sentence just to have tao break it and be like ten focus you are my disciple and ten is like sure uhuh do u think i can go back an hour and eat that ice cream again- ,,, their symbol is the hourglass tattooed on their forearm
-they all train on the beaches of hawaii,,,,,,taeyong and suho near the water with flowers in their hair,,,,,,kai and sicheng levitating above the sand,,,,almost up near the clouds,,,,,,,baekhyun and taeil at the top of a beautiful mountain peak,,,,,chen and johnny on the boardwalk
-everyone is in loose fighting shirts,,,,flowers,,,,their familiars are sea creatures or the many pretty island birds,,,,,, butterflies that appear around lay and jaehyun,,,
-idk but im thinking there’s a reason a group of bandits is after you like,,,maybe you hold the key to these super powers in a locket you wear and the bandits have stolen it but need your fingerprint to open it and therefore you have to choose one of the above members and prodigy to protect you
-and i get it this is corny but listen it’d,,,,make a good story @sm do u see this contact me for more ideas
Congratulations! You have been chosen by an ENFJ to be an
important person in their life. Your ENFJ comes in color coordinated and
aesthetically pleasing packaging perfectly suited to both your and their needs.
Although your ENFJ does not need to be cared for in the traditional sense, here
are a few tips to ensure the most harmonious interactions with your newfound
Your ENFJ comes with:
Ten (10) color coordinated outfits
Twelve (12) small fluffy animals of your ENFJ’s
One (1) large box tea assortment
One (1) soapbox for speechmaking purposes
One (1) electronic device for constant
communication with others
One (1) newspaper subscription (most likely
electronic) for staying up-to-date on current events and world affairs
Two (2) bookshelves filled with various types of
One (1) etiquette manual. Your ENFJ has never
read it, nor have they ever felt the need to, but it has been included for your
One (1) burning life purpose that will Make the
World a Better Place.
Custom upgrades: Your ENFJ will have some sort
of creative hobby. Musical instruments, microphones, art implements, writing
implements, and/or athletic equipment may also be included.
Your ENFJ comes preprogrammed with the following traits;
Fe: Your ENFJ has
an innate sense of how interpersonal affairs function and how one should
navigate them. Keenly concerned with the state of others, both loved ones and
humanity as a whole, your ENFJ strives to do what is best for others and
maintain peace in their relationships. Your ENFJ will motivate, encourage, compliment,
support, and comfort other people. Open communication is very important to your
ENFJ, and trust is paramount.
Ni: Not only does
your ENFJ care immensely about others, but they know exactly how to improve
their lives. ENFJ units come with a preinstalled “life purpose” program that
presses upon them a deep burden to improve the state of the world in some way
that is uniquely suited to their individual talents and abilities. Usually,
this improvement can be directly connected to other people in some way. Do not
try to argue the life purpose with your ENFJ. They have reflected upon it
deeply and are certain that this is in fact what they want to do with their
Se: Your ENFJ is
aware of the world around them and its various sensory details. They are action-oriented
and will take initiative to implement their plans for a better future.
Generally, they will have good reflexes and appreciate pleasant and organizes
surroundings. Decent at multitasking. Sometimes they will take too much upon
themselves, which can lead to burnout.
Ti: This function
acts as a filter for Fe and ensures that your ENFJ’s words and actions are
logically consistent, accurate, and appropriate. Depending on the particular
ENFJ that has chosen you, the Ti filter may function properly to balance Fe, or
it may malfunction and either be overly manifested in critical attitudes or be
entirely absent and lead to irrational behavior.
1. Activate electronic device and place in your
2. Make your ENFJ a cup of tea (preferably herbal).
3. Wait for the electronic device to register
attempted communication from others.
4. Allow your ENFJ to drink tea and communicate
with others until fully charged.
5. If step 4 does not work, initiate a form of
physical contact, such as hugging or cuddling, with your ENFJ.
6. If for some reason your ENFJ is averse to
physical contact, repeat step 4 but with the small fluffy animals arranged
(default): Your ENFJ will want to befriend everyone they encounter. They
will ask thoughtful and personalized questions to get to know the other person
and want to establish a positive relationship with them.
Mom Mode (default):
Your ENFJ is very concerned about others
and whether or not they are taking care of themselves. Can often be found
inquiring whether others have eaten, hydrated, slept enough, finished that
thing they were procrastinating, are wearing weather appropriate clothing, have
taken relevant medications, etc. Your ENFJ will do this regardless of whether
the other person is younger or old enough to be their own mother.
(default): Your ENFJ enjoys learning about the world, and sharing that
knowledge even more so. They can often be found recounting an interesting
article they read the other day or a cool discovery in a field that they like. Can
be triggered by the phrase “I don’t understand…”. Your ENFJ will explain things
in a way that you will understand. ENFJs are also prone to turning a difficult
situation into a Teaching Moment.
Activated when someone is going through a difficult situation. Self-taught
psychologists, ENFJ units innately understand how people work and will
generally know how to be more helpful. Your ENFJ will validate and affirm the
hurting individual and usually leave them feeling better. Warning: your ENFJ
may give advice more than is necessary if relying too heavily on Fe and not
enough on Ni.
Activated under stress. ENFJs have a habit of taking on more than they can
carry, and it eventually takes a toll. Your ENFJ will insist that they are fine.
Their eyes will glaze over and twitch if you question them about their
activities. Asking them how they plan to sustain this schedule will probably
induce tears. Beware. Your ENFJ has entered full delusion.
Mode: Activated under severe stress. Your ENFJ has become so overwhelmed
that they are shutting down. Characterized by refusal to socialize, a marked
reduction in activities, and unusual silence in their presence. Symptoms also
include grumpiness, calmness, an insistence that they are “just tired” or that “it’s
been a long week”, and increased need for sleep. Seek help for your ENFJ if
they start to claim that they don’t need others.
Mode: If your ENFJ gains pleasure from controlling others or getting them
to do things according to their will which others may not have chosen on their
own, they are unhealthy. Perform a diagnostic check to ensure that all
functions are in working order. Detoxification of Fe or Ni may be necessary.
NF: The easiest
for your ENFJ to communicate with due to their naturally flowing and
symbol-laden speech. Your ENFJ will appreciate their idealism and encourage
them to follow their dreams.
NT: Slightly more
challenging due to the strict rationalism present in NTs, but can get along on
a conceptual basis if their ideas are complementary. Your ENFJ secretly admires
NTs but knows that they can never admit it to one.
SJ: Can be somewhat
difficult to communicate with due to the concrete and direct style these types
employ, but your ENFJ will love them all the same and appreciate their loyalty.
SP: Your ENFJ
will be fascinated by SPs and how they can do things so easily, and will want
to hang out with them all the time. Do not let the SPs talk your ENFJ into skydiving.
They’ll claim they can handle it until they start screaming halfway out of the
Your ENFJ will claim that they have transcended basic human
needs such as food. Your ENFJ is a liar
who will get very cranky if they forget to eat. A glazed over expression,
extended silence, or general withdrawnness can often be attributed to hunger.
Feed regularly. Chocolate non-optional.
ENFJs are generally fastidious about personal hygiene and
have established a personal style of clothing/accessories/makeup. May
occasionally leave the house without an accessory or mismatched shoes. If they
are busy, help them by organizing the outfit they have chosen and ensuring that
every component is there.
Your ENFJ will eschew sleep, as it limits time that could be
spent socializing and doing things.
Remind your ENFJ what happened the last time they slept less than 6 hours and
that sleeping now will help them function better tomorrow.
Frequently Asked Questions
Is my ENFJ really
Generally, yes. ENFJs look for the bright side in every
situation, and tend to genuinely enjoy the things they claim to enjoy. Lack of affinity
for something will be signaled by a neutral yet diplomatic statement.
Does my ENFJ actually like me if they claim to love
You bet. ENFJs are very particular about being authentic in
their remarks, and will tend to give praise specifically tailored to an individual.
They will not tell you you’re a great athlete if you’re not. That being said, ENFJs
look for the good in everyone and usually manage to find it. So yes, they do
But if my ENFJ lives to care for others, they surely must
not need care?
That’s where you’re wrong. Although ENFJs derive the most
pleasure from caring for others, they need affirmation and appreciation to keep
going and feel like their efforts aren’t in vain. Be sure to regularly tell
your ENFJ how much you appreciate what they do for you. You might find yourself
with a pleasant surprise if you do.
My ENFJ isn’t being very nice.
ENFJs are emotional, caring beings. They are not always
nice. They try to be, but sometimes they snap. It’s only because they’ve been
trying to keep it inside. Encourage your ENFJ to talk about negative feelings
openly (this may take some persuasion, as ENFJs like to ignore negative
feelings and pretend they don’t exist) to prevent such an explosion.
This scene in S6 finale is such an
important and understated moment. There is an air of gravity and of changes
forthcoming, with the first one happening shortly afterwards with Jon becoming
KITN. Jon is visibly emotional here. To me it’s like by touching these chairs
Jon is touching all of the generations of the Starks who occupied them once. He
is connecting to and leaning on them. Jon is remembering his dead. I
envision that he may be thinking ‘Robb and Rickon should be
here, not me’ and ‘I miss you, Father.’ He is tightly clasping the chair in the middle where Ned used to
sit - he is holding on into his father in this moment of big changes. I think here it probably truly hit him how historically monumental it was that Sansa and he won Winterfell back for the Starks, and how now they have even bigger responsibilities and obstacles ahead. Though it may had been one of his childhood dreams,
he never really expected it would be the two of them doing this, but the winds
of winter brought Sansa and Jon together and placed the future of the Starks into their
The bright light shining through and Jon facing forward highlight
the critical role that Jon is to play for the future generations of Starks. I
suspect that this is also the moment where Jon is starting to switch gears and to
fully focus on the Great War. That is why Melisandre (who is rarely seen in
S6) is there as well, to remind him that the Long Night is coming. This is
another fight he has to win – not for his own sake, but for the sake of his
family, for a chance of a future for the Starks. So that the Great Hall of
Winterfell could hold feasts once again.
This is a bittersweet moment. It hammers the point that the
world is changing and that the past is gone for good, and all the dead with it.
Yet they will always be there with Jon, in his memories, in his words and
behavior, every time he looks around Winterfell and at Sansa, and at Arya
and Bran when he sees them again.
Future is always rooted in the past, which brings me back to
the very first Winterfell scene of the series. It is meaningful that Jon is the one actively teaching Bran to shoot while Robb is standing close
by and looking on proudly. Robb, who reinstated Northern independence after 300 years of
forced southern rule and left behind invaluable legacy, sadly is not there anymore
to see through the future of the North and of House Stark. But Sansa and Jon, later joined by Arya and Bran, still are. It is an arduous task, as it is a great responsibility, and Jon
knows it. So if someone thinks that Jon will ever sideline it, or sacrifice it
in favor of his own desires or even his honor, then maybe they don’t fully
understand his character or the story overall. In other words, if Jon were to
put getting boogie above his attachment to the Starks or the North, then there would be very little point to the
Remember what Jon said to Bran in that very first scene? Go on, Father’s watching. Aye, father is always watching, and there is no doubt that Jon will always remember that. Whose words does Jon recite when Sansa tells him that winter, and all the hardships that come with it, is finally here? Their father’s words. Who does Jon go to right before leaving for the south? To his father down in the Winterfell crypts. Whose memory does Jon talk about when granting forgiveness to Theon? Father’s memory. Ned is always on Jon’s mind, and that can mean only one thing – the Starks and their future will always be Jon’s priority. And he will get boogie with the Night King himself if that would keep them safe.
I’m racing time to write this blogpost before midnight strikes.
Today was the peak of my active self. I had to tutor a student in the morning, she was late so I took advantage of the time by writing up some lesson plans. I then had a quick lunch then preped for teaching math at the institute. This time I was ready for the challenges facing me; unlike last week. Once I was done I had to get ready to go to my friend’s house for a catchup.
I just decided to chill now, and the tiredness feels satisfying a bit.
I’m excited to relax tomorrow morning before my next group of students at 4.
Also, my watch’s battery died so I switched to this new watch that my friend gave me (knowing that I study math). I’m really loving the watch even though the size of the circle is bigger than what I’m used to.
BSD Characters and Their Real Prototypes Armed Detective Agency:
1. Atsushi Nakajima — author of short stories. Mainly wrote about Ancient China. One of his most famous works is ‘Notes about Mountain Moon’ (Beast beneath the moonlight)
2. Dazai Osamu — one of the most famous Japanese writers of the early 1920s. The prose author. One of his last works is 'Confession of an Inferior Man’ (No longer human)
3. Doppo Kunikida — was a military correspondent. Was engaged in teaching activity. The romantic poet. Wrote lyrical essays. Famous works are 'Special Edition’ and 'The Piteous Death’ (Lone Poet)
4. Ranpo Edogawa — Japanese writer and critic, who is considered as the founder of modern Japanese detective genre. Was a great admirer of Edgar Allan Poe. One of his first works is 'Copper Coin’ (Super Deduction)
5. Kyoka Izumi — the romantic writer, was the founder of genre of social prose. Was pious and superstitious. Known for his story about supernatural forces 'Piligrimage to Koya’ (Demon Snow)
6. Junichiro Tanizaki — playwright. He tried to combine Japanese literature tastes with Western decadent prose. Created images of fatal women. Known for his stories 'The Devil’ and 'Naomi’ (Light Snow)
7. Akiko Yosano — Japanese poet, literature critic and prose writer. Was the theoretic of the tanka poetry and shintaishi. Author of the colletctions 'Tangled Hair’ and 'Little Fan’ (Thou Shalt Not Die)
8. Kenji Miyazawa — Japanese poet and author of children’s literature. He was a zelaous adept of Buddhist Lotus Sutra, which meaning he tried to convey in his works. Known for his work 'Be not defeated by the Rain’ (Undefeated by the Rain)
9. Yukichi Fukuzawa — Japanese writer, philosopher and translator. The first President of Tokyo Academy. Known for his book 'The state of affairs in the West’ (All Men are Equal)