tamping rod

… this photo of Phineas Gage, holding the tamping rod that was blasted right through his head (through his left eye socket, as you can see here). This case study was important for many reasons, and both psychologists and physiologists have studied it since he, incredibly, survived the destruction of part of his frontal lobes.  You can read more at the WIkipedia page.  This photo appears there, but I scanned it from a recent National Geographic article.

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The Story of Phineas Gage by Hank Green of Nerdfighteria