tailing pond

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Earlier this month, two dams retaining tons of iron-mining waste near the Brazilian town of Bento Rodrigues burst, releasing 60 million cubic metres of thick, red toxic mud that flattened buildings and trees, smothered the small town, and left twelve dead. The wave of toxic sludge—tested and found to contain high levels of mercury and arsenic, according to a BBC report—then moved downstream, into the Rio Doce, and spent two weeks making its way several hundred miles downstream, finally reaching the Atlantic Ocean. According to Reuters: “Scientists say the sediment, which may contain chemicals used by the mine to reduce iron ore impurities, could alter the course of streams as they harden, reduce oxygen levels in the water and diminish the fertility of riverbanks and farmland where floodwater passed.”

From here

Photos by Ricardo Moraes / Reuters

Minimum Tank Size

Here are some minimum tank sizes for common “starter” fish. 

Fancy Goldfish-20 gallons for the first fish and 10 more for each additional.

Comet Goldfish (and other single tailed)-Ponds work best, but a conservative tank size is 40 gallons. these are often considered “beginner” fish but they most certainly aren’t. 

Mollies- 10-20 gallons at the least

Tetras- 5 gallons is the bare minimum

Guppies- 4 gallon for a single fish with an additional gallon for each additional fish

Bettas- 3 gallon minimum, and it better be heated and filtered!

Keep this list going! These are the fish I personally know of, there are others out there that other people know much more about!

Also if you disagree with tank sizes shoot me a message or reblog on here with your reasoning and I’ll take it into consideration/change these numbers

Lazy Day (Open RP)

//Anyone can reply! 

Infernum finally got a day off after six years of nonstop back-breaking labor with his kingdom. He had helped remodel the castle along with attend regular royal duties. He hardly got so much as an hour of sleep those three long years.

But now, he was free from them for a few days and was taking advantage of it. The demon was snoozing quietly on a flat rock next to a pond. His tail hung off the side and his wings were spread out, soaking up the sun’s heat.
  He lifted his head slightly when he heard a twig snap, and since Infernum hadn’t had a break in so long, he was in no mood to be interrupted.

“What the fuck are you doing here.”

It didn’t seem like a question, more so of a demand. He gazed at the intruder with bored eyes, still bleary from sleep. The tip of his soft tail twitched in annoyance.

youtube

Meet Hayley Todesco, The 17-year-old Google Science Fair Winner developing sustainable technologies

Hayley became deeply interested in the environment after watching Al Gore’s documentary “An Inconvenient Truth.” Her project uses a sustainable and efficient method to break down pollutant substances and toxins found in tailing ponds water in her hometown, a hub of the oil sands industry.

reuters.com
Brazil mining flood could devastate environment for years
The collapse of two dams at a Brazilian mine has cut off drinking water for quarter of a million people and saturated waterways downstream with dense orange sediment that could wreck the ecosystem for years to come.

General view from above of a dam owned by Vale SA and BHP Billiton Ltd that burst, in Mariana, Brazil, November 10, 2015.  

The collapse of two dams at a Brazilian mine has cut off drinking water for quarter of a million people and saturated waterways downstream with dense orange sediment that could wreck the ecosystem for years to come.

Nine people were killed, 19 are still listed as missing and 500 people were displaced from their homes when the dams burst at an iron ore mine in southeastern Brazil on Nov. 5.

The sheer volume of water disgorged by the dams and laden with mineral waste across nearly 500 km is staggering: 60 million cubic meters, the equivalent of 25,000 Olympic swimming pools or the volume carried by about 187 oil tankers.

President Dilma Rousseff compared the damage to the 2010 oil spill by BP PLC in the Gulf of Mexico and Environment Minister Izabella Teixeira called it an “environmental catastrophe.”

Scientists say the sediment, which may contain chemicals used by the mine to reduce iron ore impurities, could alter the course of streams as they harden, reduce oxygen levels in the water and diminish the fertility of riverbanks and farmland where floodwater passed.

Samarco Mineração SA, a joint venture between mining giants Vale SA and BHP Billiton and owner of the mine, has repeatedly said the mud is not toxic.

But biologists and environmental experts disagree. Local authorities have ordered families rescued from the flood to wash thoroughly and dispose of clothes that came in contact with the mud.

“It’s already clear wildlife is being killed by this mud,” said Klemens Laschesfki, professor of geosciences at the Federal University of Minas Gerais. “To say the mud is not a health risk is overly simplistic.”

As the heavy mud hardens, Laschesfki says, it will make farming difficult. And so much silt will settle along the bottom of the Rio Doce and the tributaries that carried the mud there that the very course of watershed could change.  

“Many regions will never be the same,” he says.

Researchers are testing the river water and results should be published over the coming weeks, giving a better idea of the contents of the mining waste.

One cause for concern is that compounds known as ether amines could have been used at the mine to separate silica from the iron ore, in order to produce a better quality product.

According to mining industry research and scientific literature published in recent years, the compounds are commonly used at Brazilian mines, including Samarco’s.

At least some of the compounds, according to the website of Air Products, a company that produces them, “are not readily biodegradable and have high toxicity to aquatic organisms.” They can also raise PH levels to a point that is environmentally harmful.

“There will be serious problems using the water from the river now,” says Pedro Antonio Molinas, a water resources engineer and mining industry consultant familiar with the region.

Samarco did not respond to questions about whether it used the compounds or whether they were in the so-called tailings pond whose contents burst through the broken dams. 

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