tail bones

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2

Remy - Ratatouille Ham Potato Leek Soup

“Boneapetit!” - Remy

WHAT YOU’LL NEED

  • 3-4 Russet Potatoes (Sliced)
  • 2 Leeks
  • 3 Tpbs Butter
  • 3 ½ Cups Chicken Broth 
  • 1 Large Rat
  • 1 Cup Heavy Cream
  • 1 Large Onion (Finely Diced)
  • 1 Pinch of Chives (Per Bowl)

HOW TO MAKE IT

  1. Melt butter in saucepan on medium heat. Add onions and leeks. Cook until onions are translucent.
  1. Prepare Rat by skinning and gutting. Remove head, tail, and bones. then dice into cubes, sauteing the chunks in separate pan with oil. Season with Salt and Pepper to taste
  1. Transfer both into large cooking pot along with sliced potatoes. Add in your Chicken Broth.
  1. Using Potato masher, mash potatoes until desired consistency and texture. Then add in your Heavy Cream. Feel free to add more cream if you desire a more creamy soup. Stir well and and let sit for 5 minutes before serving. Top with Chives.

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anonymous asked:

okay, i admit, i know nothing about reptiles, but why does that regrown tail look that way? i'd love to learn more, pls teach me 😅

This is a really great question and I hope you have something really nice to drink, because this might take a while.

alright, so you can probably guess that a lizard’s tail has little tail bones and everything.  But did you ever wonder what happens to those bones after a gecko loses its tail?  Bones are expensive to heal and grow, as anyone who’s ever broken a bone can tell you.  So what does a lizard do instead?  They grow a cartilaginous rod, instead of fussing around with all those little finnicky bones!  Cartilage has many advantages over bone, as it heals much faster and is less costly to regrow (from an energy perspective).


The new tail is structurally different; an original tail is comprised of many short muscle fibers, while the new one is just… pretty much a bunch of long ones, which means less mobility in the tail. It’s like going from links in a chain to just one long link. 


So THIS further means that the tail can’t move very well, forcing it to be shorter.  There’s no evolutionary advantage to a long tail that doesn’t move very well; if anything, this would be a disadvantage.  This doesn’t bother leopard geckos much, since they just use their tails for fat storage.  THIS in turn means turnip-butts.


The truth is, many species of lizards who regrow their tails have some visual distinctions between original tails and regenerated tails.  It’s just a LOT more obvious in leos.


Sources:

http://dev.biologists.org/content/143/16/2946

http://www.devbio.biology.gatech.edu/?page_id=2641

Vulture Culture Problems:

“Okay, if you got it, where would you put it?”
“….the ceiling still has room?”

Torresella Prosecco Extra Dry

Wanna party with me and this awesome prosecco? This one’s more wine-like and champagne-ish than other proseccos. Lots of pears and apples on the nose with a hint of savory notes like Parmesan rind. Pears, apples, almonds, and more Parm rind on the palate. Fine mousse (bubbles) for a prosecco. This made my tail wag!

4/5 bones

$

Glera (Prosecco)

11% abv

Veneto, ITALY

Meta About Andalite Tail Anatomy:


Andalite Tails are made up of a strange combination of tail bones, cartilage, and elephant-trunk-like musculature. The very end of the tail, where the blade connects to the tail, is made up almost entirely of very powerful muscles. The blade is connected to these muscles by microscopic cartilage fibers made of an unknown, extremely durable substance that connects to the primary cartilage rod that is in turn connected to the tip of the tail bones. Andalite tails are approximately twice the length of their hind-quarters.


The lack of bones in the very end of the tail allow the blade to recoil from impacts without causing extreme damage, as well as gives the end a large amount of flexibility. A lot of the fine-tuned and delicate movements are accomplished with these very powerful and specifically-designed muscles. This end of the tail will be called the Blade Trunk, because of its similarity to the Elephant’s trunk and the obvious fact that there’s a huge, sharp horn attached to it. The Blade Trunk makes up about 10 to 15 % of the tail itself. Females tend to have slightly smaller Blade Trunks, though the amount of muscles does not decrease. This makes female Blade Trunks more powerful and flexible than a males, but does not support a large blade like a male.


The cartilage rod allows for recoiling and extreme flexibility without risk of breaking. The middle segment of the tail has a lot of muscles, but these are more for support than impact. These muscles support the circulatory system in the tail, protect it from damage, and they allow this entire section of the tail to function like a whip: it can bend and the elasticity of the cartilage, muscle contractions, and the motion of a tail strike itself cause it to crack forward with unbelievable and devastating speed. The rod is capable of bending at a ninety degree angle in a 5 inch section of tail, making it possible for the tail to coil around itself or objects very effectively, and these coils can squeeze with an impressive amount of force. However, multiple loops drastically reduces blood-flow, and tails have been known to get tangled with objects and other tails in accidents. The cartilage rod section of the tail is called simply the Snap, mostly because I’m not a biologist and have no real idea what I’m talking about. The Snap makes up about 60% of an Andalite’s tail. Almost all tail-related injuries happen to the Snap. Someone who over-develops other aspects of their tail but neglects the muscles in the Snap is very likely to suffer severe injury when using their tails for combat. In fact, some of the best tail-fighters in Andalite history have all made the same claim: the Snap is the MOST important part of a tail-fighter’s anatomy.


The base of the tail is made up of a NUMBER of vertebrae of actual bone. The biggest muscles in the tail are located in this area, and it is the muscles here that allow the tail to achieve its immense speed and power. Each of the vertebrae has muscles connecting it to the next one as well as muscles that attach directly from each vertebrae to a large bony plate at the base of the spine/back end of the hind quarters. This multiple muscular attachment allows the tail to be pulled forward very quickly, and combined with the rapid clenching of the muscles connecting each vertebrae the tail can launch forward at impressive speeds. The base of the tail makes up the remaining 25 to 30% of the tail’s length, and is known as the Tail Mount. The muscles in the tail mount are usually bigger in males than females.


A striking tail is an immensely complicated maneuver anatomically speaking. As such, improper form can result in serious injury to the tail. When the signal is sent to the tail, the muscles in the haunches fire off first, pulling on the vertebrae of the Tail Mount. This causes the entire tail to rotate forward, and the rapid acceleration of the end of the tail stump causes a wave-like motion to occur in the Snap. The Snap moves forward, often creating the distinctive “FWAP” sound-effect as the ripple travels along its length. While the Snap is moving forward, the muscles connecting individual vertebrae pull the vertebrae of the Tail Mount into a sharp arc, adding more force to the moving Snap.


By now, the Andalite has maneuvered their body into position to avoid the blade. For a forward, over-head strike they’ve ducked down slightly and tilted their head, for an around-the-body sideways strike they’ve rotated their upper body and moved their hind-quarters into position, etc etc.


When the blade nears its target, the mostly-relaxed Blade Trunk moves and tightens, pulling the blade into position moments before impact. This added movement increases the power of a tail strike almost as much as the Tail Mount’s massive muscular movements, and the Blade Trunk keeps the blade from turning when it comes into contact with a surface.


By now, the Snap has used up its momentum, transferred it into the Blade Trunk, and all that force is placed on the impact surface (usually the cutting edge of the blade). The amount of force is more than enough to slice through steel mesh, remove limbs in one swipe from most Earth animals, and in some rare cases can even slice through several inches of steel (see Gafinilan, with his ridiculous mass of muscle).

Most of the destructive capabilities of the Andalite Tail can be replicated among humans with martial weapons, though the materials used in Earth weaponry are no where close to the material found in Andalite Tail Blades. Most of the bones in an Andalite are made from calcium and other minerals, similar to human bones. However, their spines, tail vertebrae, and the cartilage rod in the Snap is made from an unknown material. This material has unparalleled strength and flexibility. When sharpened, this material creates a blade unlike anything on Earth.


It is the quality of the tail blade itself that gives the Andalite its deadly edge. If an identical tail was equipped with an identically-shaped blade made of Earth metals, it would not be possible for it to cut the way it does (though it would still be a very, very dangerous weapon).


Meta About Speed:


Andalite Tail Speed, while impressive, is not actually unheard of among Earth animals. Snakes routinely strike faster, and a striking Andalite was unable to hit a circling, full-speed Cheetah. Unfortunately, I do not know how tall Visser Three is or how long his tail is, so I can’t come up with actual numbers here. I may be a math major and know what formulas I could use to figure this out, but I’m also not a physics major so I’m not the BEST person to figure this part out.


But lets just make some assumptions, using what limited meta I’ve got here and the Acavatica’s body type for Alloran, a Red Deer:


Alloran’s Hind Quarters are 180 cm (70 inches) long. Thus, his tail is a total of 360 cm (140 inches long). From hoof to “shoulder”, Alloran’s hind-quarters are 100 cm (40 in) tall. The cheetah is about 50 cm (20 in) away from Alloran when he tries to slice down at the cheetah’s head. The cheetah is 70 cm (28 in) at the shoulder. We’ll assume Alloran’s tail is at a ready position, the tail forming a perfect half-circle with circumference 360 cm (the length of this tail, including his tail blade). This arc has a diameter of 230 cm (90 in). This puts his tail blade about 347 cm (136 in) away from hitting the Cheetah. He fires off his tail blade and he misses the cheetah. Assuming he isn’t trying to adjust his strike mid attack (which using my meta would be extremely painful, potentially crippling, and dangerous to do) that means that the strike took more than the time it took for the cheetah to travel a distance equal to the length of its of body while moving at full speed.


A Cheetah’s top speed is 112 km/hr, but in cm/second that is 112 * 1 hr/3600 seconds * 100,000 cm/cm = 3,111 cm/second. The cheetah is 112 cm in length. To clear this distance, it would take the Cheetah 0.036 seconds. This means that an Andalite’s tail blade maximum speed is less than 347 cm in 0.036 seconds, or 347 km/hr.


All this is very, very rough. This does not take into account mass, force, other parts of the tail moving through the air as well, the shape the tail takes as it moves through the air, etc. its also based entirely off of headcanons about size, shape, and tail-to-body ratio. For all we know, Alloran has a SUPER long tail or a super stubby one. we’ve no idea. So pardon the math. If anyone has better ideas, I’d love to hear them and discuss them!! Also, I don’t know the power and speed needed to cut through steel. If anyone knows how fast these tail blades would need to be going to do that, please let me know.


So, maximum speed is less than 347 km/hr.

Working Title: Honeymoon (1/?)

Rating: G

Pairing: Sans/Grillby

Summary: Some fluff about Sans and Grillby’s honeymoon.  It takes place in this series.

A/N:  This actually happens well before the other story in this series I’m working on.  It immediately follows this fic.  

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