t.j lane

3

Facts about TJ Lane

  • His full name is Thomas “T.J”  Michael Lane III
  • He was born on September 19, 1994
  • He is currently 20 years old. 
  • Before the attacks, he was described as, ‘one of the nicest kids you could meet’.
  • It was said that he often had a sad look in his eyes.
  • Torilyn LaCasse, described him when he was in high-school as a loner who was bullied regularly. 
  • Lane reportedly comes from a really broken-down home. Students say he lives with his grandparents, and may have had a violent home life.
  • Other friends of the suspect, however, say they never saw any evidence that Lane had been picked on, and described him as a quiet but very normal teenage boy.
  • Evan Erasmus, one of the first to label Lane as one of the outcast type, said he couldn’t believe the sweet, quiet kid from his school was responsible for the attack.
  • He gave  the finger and smirks as he is sentenced to life for shooting rampage that left three Chardon High School students dead
  • He wore a shirt that read ‘Killer’ across his chest. 
  • He is five-foot-and-ten-inches tall.
  • (Sub-bottom) 
  • On February 27, 2012, at roughly 7:30 a.m., a 17-year-old boy randomly stood up and opened fire in the Chardon High School cafeteria with a .22 caliber gun. The shooter, who was later identified as TJ Lane, managed to take down six students, three of whom later died of their injuries. TJ left the gun at the scene as he fled from the school, only to be apprehended by his car parked not too far away.
  • He has three consecutive life sentences without the possibility of parole. 
  • TJ Lane escaped from prison on September 11, 2014
  • After the shooting on February, students that had communicated or saw T.J around the school were interviewed. One student had said, “He used to sit all by himself at lunch and people would walk by and not notice he was sitting there and just walk by like he doesn’t exist.”

If anyone knows, will you please give me his correct height, some people say 5′8. I’ve heard 5′10. If you know, send me a mesage. And if anything else is wrong send me a message. (: xx

More information will be added later**

Killer Porn

Pornhub should make serial killer porn for all of us hybristophilia bitches. Just get actors who look kinda similar to the murders… Eric Harris fucks tight blonde girl in gym class while teacher is away or Richard Ramirez does hard anal on big boob Burnett girl in a cemetery while she scream papi. Or Dylan Klebold makes love for the first or Ted Bundys screws young librarian for extra credit on project. Or T.j lane has an orgy with 3 other prison inmates and a guard.

Quotes and sayings from serial killers / school shooters

“Murder is not about lust, and it’s not about violence. It’s about possession. You feel the last bit of breath leaving their body. You’re looking into their eyes. The person in that situation is God” - Ted Bundy

“We serial killers are your sons, we are your husbands, we are everywhere.And there will be more of your children dead tomorrow” - Ted Bundy

“Killing with a knife is very personal. You actually are holding it as it goes in, and when death comes, you feel your victim dying through the knife. It’s like sex” - Richard Ramirez

“Looking back onto my life, I know I have made others suffer as much as I have suffered” - Jeffrey Dahmer

“The hands that pulled the trigger that killed your sons, are now masturbates to the memory. Fuck all of you” - T.J. Lane

“I’m sorry I have so much rage, but you put it in me” - Eric Harris

“I think they need to die” - Eric Harris

“Everyone abandoned me” - Dylan Klebold

“I am sorry for only two things. These two things are I am sorry that I have mistreated some few animals in my life-time and I am sorry that I am unable to kill the whole damed human race” - Carl Panzran

“You got to realize; you’re the Devil as much as you’re God” Charles Manson

“We’ve all got the power to kill, but most people are afraid to use it. The ones who aren’t afraid, control life itself” - Richard Ramirez

“I just liked to kill. I wanted to kill” - Ted Bundy

“I want to be a good person. I’m just not” - Ted Bundy

“Well, you gentleman knew you’re getting involved with a pretty strange creature” - Ted Bundy

“A clown can get away with murder” - John Wayne Gacy

“I didn’t want to hurt them, I only wanted to kill them” - David Berkowitz

“People say ‘Ted Bundy didn’t show any emotion, there must be something in there.’ I showed emotion. You know what people said? ‘See, he really can get violent and angry’ “ - Ted Bundy

“These children that come at you with knives, they are your children. You taught them. I didn’t teach them. I just tried to help them stand up” - Charles Manson

“You don’t understand me. You are not expected to. You are not capable. I am beyond your experience. I am beyond good and evil. I will be avenged. Lucifer dwells in all of us…. I don’t believe in the hypocritical, moralistic dogma of this so-called civilized society…. You maggots make me sick! Hypocrites one and all…. I don’t need to hear all of society’s rationalizations. I’ve heard them all before…legions of the night, night breed, repeat not the errors of the night prowler and show no mercy” - Richard Ramirez

“Guilt? It’s this mechanism we use to control people. It’s an illusion. It’s a kind of social control mechanism and it’s very unhealthy. It does terrible things to our bodies, and there are much better way to control our behavior than that rather extraordinarily use of guilt” - Ted Bundy

“You learn what you need to kill and take care of the details. It’s like changing a tire. The first time you’re careful. By the thirtieth time, you can’t remember where you left the lug wrench” - Ted Bundy

“I don’t wanna die. I’m not gonna lie to you. I admit that I’m not asking for clemency. I’m not asking for forgiveness. I’m not asking for sympathy. I know they’re gonna kill me sooner or later. You don’t need to worry about that, but there’s a lot of crimes I can solve if the state can just see fit to make me live two or three years longer. I mean look, I’m not like other people. I know I can’t feel sympathy for other people but I’m still human“ - Ted Bundy

“I don’t feel guilty for anything. I feel sorry for people who feel guilt” - Ted Bundy

“What’s one less person on the face of the earth anyway?” - Ted Bundy

“You are going to kill me and that will protect society from me. But out there are many, many more people who are addicted to pornography and you are doing nothing about that” - Ted Bundy

“I would cook it and look at the pictures and masturbate” - Jeffrey Dahmer

“I don’t care if I live or die. Go ahead and kill me” - Jeffrey Dahmer

“I love to kill people. I love to watch them die. I would shoot them in the head and they would wiggle and squirm all over the place, and then just stop. Or I would cut them with a knife and watch their faces turn real white. I love all that blood” - Richard Ramirez

“One time, I told this lady to give me all her money. She said no. So I cut her and pulled her eyes out. I would do someone in and then take a camera and set the timer so I could set them up next to me and take our picture together” - Richard Ramirez

“Yes, I do have remorse, but I’m not even sure myself whether it is as profound as it should be. I’ve always wondered myself why I don’t feel more remorse” - Jeffrey Dahmer

Chardon High School shooting

The Chardon High School shooting occurred on February 27, 2012, at Chardon High School in Chardon, Ohio, United States. Three male students died within two days following the incident. Two other students were hospitalized, one of whom sustained several serious injuries requiring extensive rehabilitation, and other suffered a minor injury. The seriously injured victim has since been declared permanently paralyzed. A sixth student sustained a superficial wound. 

While rumors of a warning of the event having been posted on the internet circulated, student witnesses identified the shooter as Thomas “T.J.” Lane III, a 17-year-old juvenile. Although police were initially hesitant to publicly identify the juvenile after he was apprehended, by the evening of February 28, authorities confirmed that the suspect was Lane. 

The weapon Lane used in the shooting was a .22 caliber handgun. At an initial court hearing, the prosecutor revealed that he admitted to shooting 10 rounds of ammunition from the gun during the shooting, which began in the school cafeteria at approximately 7:30 am, shortly after school began. Although Lane told police that he did not know the victims and that they were chosen randomly, witnesses stated that it appeared he targeted a specific student and the group he was sitting with in the cafeteria. 

After the shooting occurred, Lane reportedly left the building. Witnesses stated he was chased from the building by a teacher, and was arrested a short time later outside the school. Lane was ultimately indicted on three counts of aggravated murder, two counts of aggravated attempted murder, and one count of felonious assault. He was initially detained as a juvenile pending further court action. 

Reaction to the event prompted a statement from Ohio Governor, John Kasich. Several prayer vigils were held and a fund for the victims was established. Thousands of people attended one of the vigils, at which the Governor spoke, the night after the attack. President Barack Obama gave his condolences to the school principal in a telephone call following the incident. Analysis of the crime and comparisons to similar attacks began immediately following the shooting. 

In May 2012, a judge determined that Lane was competent to stand trial. Later that month the decision was made to charge Lane as an adult. He pleaded guilty and received three life sentences on March 19, 2013. 

On September 11, 2014, Lane, along with two other inmates, escaped from Allen Correctional Institution in Lima, Ohio. He was recaptured the following day. 

Details: The shooting began at approximately 7:30 am, in the Chardon High School cafeteria. A student witness said that the shooting began in the cafeteria before first period while students were eating breakfast. According to reports, a boy stood up and began shooting, causing chaos. 

A surveillance video showed that Lane shot four male students in the cafeteria with a .22 caliber handgun. As he fled, Lane shot a female student, and was then chased out of the school by a teacher, football coach Frank Hall. Lane was arrested outside the school near his car on Woodin Road. 

Initially, five students were hospitalized, three of whom later died. Two students, Joy Rickers and Nick Walczak, were taken to local Hillcrest Hospital, while Daniel Parmertor, Russell King, and Demetrius Hewlin were flown by helicopter to MetroHealth Medical Center in Cleveland. A sixth student, Nate Mueller, was superficially injured when a bullet grazed his right ear. 

Fatalities: At noon on February 27, 2012, Chardon Police Chief Tim McKenna announced in a news conference that one of the victims had died. The first deceased student was identified as Daniel Parmertor, a 16-year-old high school junior, by a spokeswoman for Cleveland’s MetroHealth Medical Center. His family issued a statement requesting that their privacy be respected. When Lane opened fire, Parmertor was in the cafeteria waiting for a bus to the Auburn Career Center vocational school in nearby Concord Township, where he studied computer science. 

At 12:42 am the next day, a second student, Russell King, Jr., 17, was pronounced brain dead at MetroHealth Medical Center. King, a junior, studied alternative energy technologies. He was enrolled at both Chardon High School and at the Auburn Career Center. King’s family released a statement thanking the public for support and offering sympathy to the families of the other victims. They also said that his organs would be donated as he had wished. A witness, Nate Mueller, said that King had recently started dating Lane’s former girlfriend. Other student witnesses said that it appeared as if Lane was specifically aiming for King, indicating that he was the first to be shot. The students stated that King had previously threatened to beat Lane up. They told reporters that Lane had taken up weightlifting with the intention of fighting King. 

On February 28, 2012, it was reported that Demetrius Hewlin, the third student who was transferred to MetroHealth, had died. His family also expressed their sorrow for their loss in a statement to the press. Friends of Hewlin said that he liked to work out and wanted to be on the football team. Hewlin’s mother, Phyllis Ferguson, in an interview with ABC News said of her son, “He wasn’t a morning person and he was late for school. But that one day he wasn’t late. We were running a little late, but we weren’t late enough. But it’s okay. It’s in God’s hands. Let His will be done.” When questioned about what she would say to the assailant, she said that she would forgive him, because most school shooters did not know what they were doing. She explained that her son’s organs would be donated and that one of the recipients was a child who was within days of death without a transplant. 

Other victims: One of the two injured students who had been transferred to Hillcrest Hospital, 17-year-old Nick Walczak, was shot several times, and one bullet lodged in his cheek. He was also shot in the arm, neck and back. As he entered rehabilitation a week later, in “fair condition”, there were questions about whether he would be able to walk again. His mother said that he was going to require therapy on his spine to restore the feeling in his legs. Joy Rickers, 18, was released from Hillcrest Hospital on February 28. Nate Mueller, who was not hospitalized, was nicked in his right ear by a bullet. Mueller and Walczak, students of Auburn Career Center, were waiting with Parmertor and King for the bus that would transfer them to their school on the morning of the shooting. 

Teacher actions: After the shooting, students referred to two teachers, Frank Hall and Joseph Ricci, as heroes. The Daily Beast reported that news of the men’s “courageous actions” spread when students expressed thanks on Twitter; the reports indicated that Hall had charged the shooter despite the shooter pointing his gun at the coach. A student told reporters that Hall frequently spoke of how much he cared for the students, a feeling which was shown by his actions. 

Meanwhile, Joe Ricci had just started his math class when he heard shots and ordered his students to “lockdown”. According to a student witness, when Ricci heard moaning outside his classroom, he put on a bulletproof vest, opened the door, dragged a wounded student, Nick Walczak, into the classroom and administered first aid. Walczak’s family credits Ricci with saving his life. A student described the teachers as “two of the greatest leaders in our school.” 

Shooter: Thomas Michael “T.J.” Lane III was identified by authorities as the suspect late on February 27. The authorities were reluctant to release his name, since he was still a juvenile, but CBS News reported that by early afternoon law enforcement officials had surrounded a house belonging to Lane. According to Melanie Jones, writing for International Business Times, reports on the possibility of Lane’s involvement led to great press interest, which the police initially deflected. 

The authorities searched the home of the suspect’s paternal grandparents in Chardon Township. Lane did not live there but would frequently visit on weekends. The residence, along with other properties owned by the Lane family, were searched extensively on the day of the shooting. A nearby forest, which neighbors said the Lane children used for target practice, was also combed. 

At the time of the shooting, Lane was not taking classes at Chardon High School, but at Lake Academy, an alternative school in nearby Willouby. The school, which is also known as the Lake County Educational Service Center, served 55 students in February 2012. They were referred there from public schools in the region because of academic or behavioral needs. Students who complete their educations at Lake Academy graduate with their classmates at the sending schools. 

Witnesses said Lane appeared to be targeting students who were sitting together at one table. Four of the five victims who were sitting at that table were students at the Auburn Career Center. The bus that Lane took from Chardon to Lake Academy was the same one that the Auburn students took, but his stop was farther on the route. Lane also knew some of the victims from middle school. 

There were rumors that there had been a warning about the shooting posted on Twitter. News agencies published excerpts from the Facebook profile of a boy named “T.J. Lane”. The profile did not give a location but several of the user’s friends were listed as being from Chardon. One entry in particular, dated December 30, 2011, caught attention, especially the last line, which read: “Die, all of you.” According to a comment posted by Lane on January 20, 2012, he wrote the text in class. 

Reactions of friends: A friend of Lane described him as “just a very normal teenage boy”. She also told CNN that she was in “complete shock” from the incident, and that Lane often had a sad look in his eyes, but came across as completely normal. Another friend said that Lane was regularly teased at school, which made Lane “put a wall around himself” and refuse to divulge personal information. A third student told reporters that Lane had come from “a really broken-down home”, and was a quiet person who could be nice to others if he felt comfortable with them. 

Students at Lake Academy denied that he had been bullied. They described him as friendly and nice, but not very talkative. 

The weapon: After Lane’s arrest, law enforcement determined that the gun used in the shooting was purchased legally. Authorities said Lane had stolen the .22-caliber handgun from his uncle. The press reported that it was a Ruger MK III Target .22 caliber semi-automatic handgun. However, a neighbor who was close to the family said that it was a target revolver that belonged to the boy’s grandfather. When asked how it was possible to fire as many as ten or more rounds from a revolver in quick succession, the neighbor had no explanation and eventually admitted that the revolver theory was probably not true after all. Reports were that the shooter dropped the gun as he fled from the scene. It was found inside the school and recovered by police. Lane also admitted to taking a knife into Chardon High School. 

Suspect’s prior offenses: On February 29, 2012, Tim Grendell, the juvenile court judge presiding over Lane’s case, allowed the release of the suspect’s juvenile records to the press. According to his records, Lane was arrested twice in December 2009. The first time, Lane restrained his uncle while his cousin hit him. The other case involved Lane hitting another boy in the face. To the second charge, Lane pled to a count of disorderly conduct. 

Trial: On February 28, 2012, at 3:50 pm, a detention hearing was held for the suspect at Geauga County Juvenile Court in Chardon. According to the LA Times, in the United States teenage suspects are generally treated as juveniles until prosecutors decide to charge them as adults. Judge Timothy J. Grendell began the proceeding by asking the media not to take photographs of the defendant until it was determined whether or not he would be tried as an adult. He immediately ruled that the defendant would remain in custody. At the prosecutor’s request, the judge directed that the attorneys involved in the case refrain from speaking to the media regarding the proceeding. He then outlined conditions under which the media could participate, including not taking any facial photographs of the defendant or his family. After hearing the prosecutor’s argument for continuing the detention and receiving no objection, the judge ruled that detention, at the Portage-Geauga Juvenile Detention Center in Ravenna, Ohio, should continue for 15 days. The issues of arraignment and possible transfer to adult court were put off to future dates. The judge stated that the prosecution had until March 1, 2012, to file charges.

After the hearing, prosecutor David Joyce indicated that he would attempt to try Lane as an adult and file three counts of aggravated murder, among other charges, for the incident. It was revealed at the hearing that Lane admitted to shooting 10 rounds of ammunition during the incident. He also told the police that he did not know the victims and that they were selected randomly. However, a witness who said he knew the shooter indicated that Lane knew several of the victims. 

Outside defense attorneys observing the hearing questioned whether Lane’s attorney was protecting his client’s rights. First, a concern was raised that Lane’s attorney agreed with the judge that the gag order would not go into effect until after the press conference that prosecutor Joyce held following the hearing. One lawyer explained that this exception to the order gave the prosecution the opportunity to announce the defendant’s confession publicly, thus influencing the jury pool. A second concern regarded Joyce’s statement at the conference that Lane “is someone who’s not well.” Ian Friedman, a criminal attorney and past president of the Ohio Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers said that such things are generally said by defense attorneys. Another attorney said that in this case, he would file a motion which would ensure that the juvenile’s mental health would be evaluated before the case was brought to the adult court. As of March 1, 2012, Lane’s defense had filed no motions. 

On March 1, 2012, prosecutors formally charged Lane with three counts of aggravated murder, two counts of aggravated attempted murder, and one count of felonious assault. Lane did not enter a plea when he was arraigned on March 6. Two additional defense attorneys were assigned to the case in March, and the judge postponed the decision to try Lane as an adult until after a competency evaluation was completed. On April 9, Lane again appeared before Judge Grendell who set the date for a competency hearing May 2. He also scheduled a hearing for May 12 to determine whether the defendant would be tried as an adult. 

The competency evaluation might have been requested by either the prosecution or the defense. It was speculated by one observing attorney that the judge might have made the decision himself. According to Ohio law, “a child may be found competent only if able to grasp the seriousness of the charges, if able to understand the court proceedings, if able to aid in the defense and if able to understand potential consequences. The law says a child with mental illness or an intellectual or developmental disability may not be found competent.” 

The competency hearing was held on May 2, 2012. Testimony was given by psychiatrist Dr. Phillip Resnick. Resnick testified that Lane was mentally ill. He said the defendant was suffering from psychosis that caused hallucinations and loss of contact with reality, but “does not interfere with Lane’s ability to understand the charges against him.” Judge Grendell determined at this hearing that Lane was competent to stand trial. 

In June 2012, it was determined that Lane would be tried as an adult. He was indicted on the six charges that were filed earlier in March: three counts of aggravated murder, two counts of attempted murder and one count of felonious assault. On June 8, he pleaded not guilty to those charges. His bail was set at $1 million, and he was scheduled to be transferred from the juvenile detention center to county jail on June 18. However, on June 20, a motion was filed with the Geauga County Court of Common Pleas stating that if someone were to pay a $120 fee, he could remain in the Portage-Geauga County Juvenile Detention Center. On February 26, 2013, Lane pleaded guilty to the charges for which he had been indicted. 

On March 19, 2013, Lane was sentenced to three life sentences in prison without parole. After entering the courtroom, he took off his dress shirt to reveal a white T-shirt underneath which had the word “KILLER” handwritten across the front. He smiled and smirked during the hearing. After being sentenced, Lane said to the victims’ families and the courtroom, “This hand that pulled the trigger that killed your sons now masturbates to the memory. Fuck all of you,” while giving the middle finger. 

Students return to school: On March 2, 2012, the students entering the building received a warm welcoming. A student from West Geauga High School, her mother, and neighbor organized the “Line Up At Chardon” event via Facebook. They welcomed the students of Chardon high school back into the school building with a giant sign that says “I’ll Stand By You” referencing the song by The Pretenders. More than 100 children from the surrounding school districts, including West Geauga, came to show support. Also, the students of Chardon High School and their parents attended a “walk through” of the school. The senior class officers organized a procession from Chardon Square to the school that morning. The organizers invited participation in the three-quarter-mile walk on Facebook; the day before the activity, over 225 students had shown interest in participating. 

Classes resumed the next day. The cafeteria, where the shooting took place, was repainted and reorganized. The table where most of the victims were sitting at the time of the attack remained in place, however, as “a counterpoint to the way the other tables are arranged”. The table was covered with flowers and stuffed animals. 

2014 escape from prison: At 7:38 pm on September 11, 2014, Lane escaped from Allen Correctional Institution in Lima, Ohio, along with two other inmates. The three inmates escaped using a makeshift ladder to scale a fence during recreation hours. Thirty-three-year-old Lindsey Bruce was quickly captured afterwards. Lane and the other inmate, identified as 45-year-old Clifford Opperud of Calisle, Ohio who was serving a 12-year sentence for aggravated robbery, aggravated burglary, and kidnapping, remained at large. Police conducted searches at a wooded area and a residential neighborhood near the prison, and considered him and Opperud as “potentially armed and dangerous”. Nearby residents were advised to lock their doors and stay inside their homes. Dina Parmertor, Daniel Parmertor’s mother, reacted to the escape, saying, “I’m disgusted that it happened. I’m extremely scared and panic stricken. I can’t believe it.” 

At 1:20 am the following day, Lane was captured near the woods, followed by Opperud over three hours later. Chardon High School was closed that same day and counselors were made available to students and staff. Later in the day, Lane, Opperud, and Bruce were transferred to the super-maximum security Ohio State Penitentiary in March 2016, Lane is being held in the Southern Ohio Correctional Facility in Lucasville, OH. 

Sadness

That sadness you feel when you know you will never meet TJ Lane, when you know you will never be able to hold him in your arms and make him smile. That sadness you feel when you have seen every image and video of Eric and Dylan and those are the only things you ever have left of them, those little memories from years ago from bad quality cameras. The ones I love I can never have. Alone. -X < My nickname pronounced (ex)

Thomas ‘T.J.’ Lane

‘In a quaint lonely town, sits a man with a frown. No. job. No family. No crown.’

Date: Feb 27, 2012

Age: 17

School: Chardon High School, Chardon, OH

Killed: 3

Wounded: 3

Outcome: Surrendered. Prison.

T.J. Lane’s parents, Thomas Lane and Sara Nolan, never married. They had a tumultuous relationship in which both were charged with domestic violence. According to Mr Lane, Ms Nolan bit and punched him, was ‘unable to control herself with respect to the use of alcohol’, and engaged ‘in violent, dangerous conduct.’ Ms Nolan’s behaviour was bad enough that she was jailed. She however, was not as violent as T.J. Lane’s father.

Mr Lane has multiple, violent episodes that are difficult to sort out. He was charged with resisting arrest for fighting with an officer who intervened in a domestic altercation and was later imprisoned for beating and kidnapping a woman. This may have been the attack in which he ‘held his wife’s head under running water, then bashed it into the wall, hard enough to leave a dent in the drywall.’ In 1997, Mr Lane was charged with pushing a woman around and threatening to kill her. Five years later Mr Lane was imprisoned after he ‘verbally abused and physically attacked another woman over a period of nine hours in the presence of three young children.’ He was charged with attempted murder and felonious assault. If T.J. Lane was one of the three children present during this episode, he would have been seven years old. It is no surprise that ‘more than once, police or courts warned [Mr Lane] to stay away from the boy and his mother.’ Because of the family chaos, Lane was largely brought up by his grandparents, apparently living with his mother’s parents and visiting his father’s parents on weekends.

Though at first Lane was said to have been an outcast who was bullied, multiple people who knew him said that this was not true. He reportedly had friends and was not picked on and was said by many to be a nice young man who was easy to talk to.

If the attack was not revenge for bullying, why did he shoot people? Though initial reports said he did not know the victims, it was later reported that he had known some since middle school and was even Facebook friends with them. The best guess as to a motive was that one of the victims was dating Lane’s former gilrfriend. Lane walked over to the table where this boy was sitting and opened fire on him and his buddies. This may have been a crime of envy and resentment. These themes appear in a poem Lane wrote two months before his attack:

He was better than the rest, all those he detests, within their castles, so vain. Selfish and conceited. They couldn’t care less about the peasants they mistreated. They were in their own world, it was a joyous one too.

Lane clearly felt left out of the joyous world that the others seemed to live in, and he was bitterly angry about it. His poem ends on a threatening note:

Now! Feel death, not just mocking you. Not just stalking you but inside of you. Wriggle and writhe. Feel smaller beneath my night…Die, all of you.

From ‘School Shooters, understanding high school, college and adult perpetrators’ by Peter Langman