systematic reviews

Common Effects of Torture

I’m going to start with an important and underappreciated point: the effects of torture are hard to research.

For a mixture of reasons, including shame and fear of reprisals, many people are uncomfortable admitting that they were tortured. Fewer still have the opportunity or are willing to participate in research. Sample sizes in studies are often ridiculously small, so small that it can be difficult to reach any conclusions.

On top of that, picking a control group can be difficult. If the majority of torture victims are depressed does comparing them to a health or depressed population make more sense? If the majority of torture victims suffered serious head injuries should they be compared to people with mild brain damage?

The research is hard. We’re only just beginning to get a clear picture of the short and long term effects of torture, on individuals and communities. Sometimes clear evidence just isn’t there.

Sometimes, for some techniques, it is. So long as you don’t call it ‘torture’. Information on sleep deprivation, sensory deprivation, starvation, dehydration and extreme temperatures are all available.

What this means is that treatment is often a hit and miss affair. Studies trying to find better ways to treat torture victims often can’t find enough volunteers to get meaningful results.

All of that said, here is a non-exhaustive list of some of the things a character who has survived torture and physically healed might experience.



Suicidal thoughts


Persistent memory problems

Difficulty learning new skills

Difficulty relating to others

Chronic pain

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder 



Long term Personality Change

Social Isolation

Panic attacks 

Much of the research on treating torture survivors focuses on PTSD which appears to be a more common response for torture than for other traumatising events.

It’s worth mentioning that although clear evidence on torturers is even more difficult to come by there’s a growing body of evidence suggesting that torturers are often traumatised by carrying out torture.

Anecdotal evidence suggests torturers develop many of the same psychological symptoms as their victims, including PTSD, depression, addiction, social isolation and long term personality changes.

[Sources, ‘Mental health interventions and priorities for research for adult survivors of torture and systematic violence: a review of the literature’ Torture Journal vol 26 iss 1 2016 W M Weiss et al

‘Why Torture Doesn’t Work: The Neuroscience of Interrogation’ Harvard University Press S O’Mara

‘Dysfunctional Pain Modulation in Torture Survivors: The Mediating Effect of PTSD’ The Journal of Pain vo 18 2017 R Defrin et al

‘Testimonial Therapy: Impact on social participation and emotional wellbeing among Indian survivors of torture and organized violence’ Torture Journal vol 25 iss 2 2015 M M Jorgensen et al]


Note Taking Systems

The Cornell Method

The Cornell method provides a systematic format for condensing and organizing notes without laborious recopying. After writing the notes in the main space, use the left-hand space to label each idea and detail with a key word or “cue.”


Rule your paper with a 2 ½ inch margin on the left leaving a six-inch area on the right in which to make notes. During class, take down information in the six-inch area. When the instructor moves to a new point, skip a few lines. After class, complete phrases and sentences as much as possible. For every significant bit of information, write a cue in the left margin. To review, cover your notes with a card, leaving the cues exposed. Say the cue out loud, then say as much as you can of the material underneath the card. When you have said as much as you can, move the card and see if what you said matches what is written. If you can say it, you know it.


Organized and systematic for recording and reviewing notes. Easy format for pulling out major concept and ideas. Simple and efficient. Saves time and effort. “Do-it-right-in-the-first-place” system.



When to Use

In any lecture situation.

The Outlining Method

Dash or indented outlining is usually best except for some science classes such as physics or math.

  1. The information which is most general begins at the left with each more specific group of facts indented with spaces to the right.
  2. The relationships between the different parts is carried out through indenting.
  3. No numbers, letters, or Roman numerals are needed.


Listening and then write in points in an organized pattern based on space indention. Place major points farthest to the left. Indent each more specific point to the right. Levels of importance will be indicated by distance away from the major point. Indention can be as simple as or as complex as labeling the indentations with Roman numerals or decimals. Markings are not necessary as space relationships will indicate the major/minor points.


Well-organized system if done right. Outlining records content as well as relationships. It also reduces editing and is easy to review by turning main points into questions.


Requires more thought in class for accurate organization. This system may not show relationships by sequence when needed. It doesn’t lend to diversity of a review attach for maximum learning and question application. This system cannot be used if the lecture is too fast.

When to Use

The outline format can be used if the lecture is presented in outline organization. This may be either deductive (regular outline) or inductive (reverse outline where minor points start building to a major point). Use this format when there is enough time in the lecture to think about and make organization decisions when they are needed. This format can be most effective when your note taking skills are super sharp and you can handle the outlining regardless of the note taking situation.


  • Extrasensory perception
    • definition: means of perceiving without use of sense organs.
      • three kinds
        • telepathy: sending messages
        • clairvoyance: forecasting the future
        • psychokinesis: perceiving events external to situation
      • current status
        • no current research to support or refute
        • few psychologists say impossible
        • door open to future

The Mapping Method

Mapping is a method that uses comprehension/concentration skills and evolves in a note taking form which relates each fact or idea to every other fact or idea. Mapping is a graphic representation of the content of a lecture. It is a method that maximizes active participation, affords immediate knowledge as to its understanding, and emphasizes critical thinking.


This format helps you to visually track your lecture regardless of conditions. Little thinking is needed and relationships can easily be seen. It is also easy to edit your notes by adding numbers, marks, and color coding. Review will call for you to restructure thought processes which will force you to check understanding. Review by covering lines for memory drill and relationships. Main points can be written on flash or note cards and pieced together into a table or larger structure at a later date.


You may not hear changes in content from major points to facts.

When to Use

Use when the lecture content is heavy and well-organized. May also be used effectively when you have a guest lecturer and have no idea how the lecture is going to be presented.


The Charting Method

If the lecture format is distinct (such as chronological), you may set up your paper by drawing columns and labeling appropriate headings in a table.


Determine the categories to be covered in the lecture. Set up your paper in advance by columns headed by these categories. As you listen to the lecture, record information (words, phrases, main ideas, etc.) into the appropriate category.


Helps you track conversation and dialogues where you would normally be confused and lose out on relevant content. Reduces amount of writing necessary. Provides easy review mechanism for both memorization of facts and study of comparisons and relationships.


Few disadvantages except learning how to use the system and locating the appropriate categories. You must be able to understand what’s happening in the lecture

When to Use

Test will focus on both facts and relationships. Content is heavy and presented fast. You want to reduce the amount of time you spend editing and reviewing at test time. You want to get an overview of the whole course on one big paper sequence.


The Sentence Method


Write every new thought, fact or topic on a separate line, numbering as you progress.


Slightly more organized than the paragraph. Gets more or all of the information. Thinking to tract content is still limited.


Can’t determine major/minor points from the numbered sequence. Difficult to edit without having to rewrite by clustering points which are related. Difficult to review unless editing cleans up relationship.

When to Use

Use when the lecture is somewhat organized, but heavy with content which comes fast. You can hear the different points, but you don’t know how they fit together. The instructor tends to present in point fashion, but not in grouping such as “three related points.”

Three Examples:

Example 1:

A revolution is any occurrence that affects other aspects of life, such as economic life, social life, and so forth. Therefore revolutions cause change. (See page 29 to 30 in your text about this.)

Sample Notes:

Revolution - occurrence that affects other aspects of life: e.g., econ., socl., etc. C.f. text, pp. 29-30

Example 2:

Melville did not try to represent life as it really was. The language of Ahab, Starbuck, and Ishmael, for instance, was not that of real life.

Sample Notes:

Mel didn’t repr. life as was; e.g., lang. of Ahab, etc. not of real life.

Example 3:

At first, Freud tried conventional, physical methods of treatment such as giving baths, massages, rest cures, and similar aids. But when these failed, he tried techniques of hypnosis that he had seen used by Jean-Martin Charcot. Finally, he borrowed an idea from Jean Breuer and used direct verbal communication to get an unhypnotized patient to reveal unconscious thoughts.

Sample Notes:

Freud 1st – used phys. trtment; e.g., baths, etc. This fld. 2nd – used hypnosis (fr. Charcot) Finally – used dirct vrb. commun. (fr. Breuer) - got unhynop, patnt to reveal uncons. thoughts.

Cornell Method for Taking Notes

The Cornell Method

The Cornell method provides a systematic format for condensing and organizing notes without laborious recopying. After writing the notes in the main space, use the left-hand space to label each idea and detail with a key word or “cue.”

Keep reading

anonymous asked:

What counts as hearing voices in your head? Do you have to physically hear them? I'm wondering if i'm overreacting :/

Hello, you’ll be interested in these asks which go over the subject: one, two.

Related: I’m in the process of reading “understanding auditory verbal hallucinations: a systematic review of current evidence” published in Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica in 2015. If there’s anything that stands out, I’ll post the excerpts here ^^
- Mod Alex

Go with the flow: Yoga for PMS relief

After tracking your cycle for a few months, you may discover that you don’t actually experience premenstrual syndrome or symptoms on a monthly basis. But if you do, you know it. And when it strikes, all hell can break loose.

To cope with PMS, your first instinct might be to curl up in bed and hibernate for days. While rest is important, movement and stimulation could be much more effective for fast relief.

Sometimes the best cures are also the simplest (and the oldest!). Yoga is splendid way to get active whether you’re at home, outdoors or in a studio.

Yoga has been shown to be effective in both easing cramps and shortening how long cramps last (1, 2).

Yoga may help to ease your cramps in a few different ways. First, certain poses help to stretch the areas where you feel premenstrual pain. Research shows that stretching your abdomen, pelvis and groin can lessen the intensity of cramps (3).

Practicing yoga increases blood flow in your body (4), which may also help to ease cramps. Some people who experience cramps have less uterine blood flow on the first day of their cycles (5). This may make their cramps more intense. The warming effect of yoga may also lessen cramp intensity - just like a heating pad…without the pad (6, 7).

Yoga might also ease painful cramps by helping you de-stress.

Why? Turns out when you’re less stressed, your uterus may actually contract less intensely (3). The soothing combination of movement and breath has been shown to ease the feelings of stress and anxiety that some people experience as premenstrual symptoms (8, 9).

Yoga can lower the amount of certain stress hormones produced in your body (10, 11) One of these hormones is cortisol. 

Cortisol is known as the “stress hormone” and is intimately connected to the pain some people experience before their period (12).

Yoga may also help in regulating reproductive hormones that contribute to premenstrual symptoms (13). Research shows that levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and prolactin may all be affected by a consistent yoga practice (13). Balancing these, and other hormones might help to lessen cycles irregularities, and ease painful cramping (13, 14).

Lastly, exercise and movement simply distract you from your cramps. Yoga brings focus to other parts of the body and gives the mind something else to pay attention to (15).

Here are a few suggestions for poses you can try next time you’re feeling the pinch of premenstrual cramps:

Bow pose: Stretches and stimulates the abdomen; also applies abdominal pressure, which may be soothing to some people

Camel pose: Stretches and stimulates the abdomen

Legs-up-the-wall: Helps in moving blood from the legs to the abdomen

Child’s pose: Stretches the back, which may help relieve cramps in the back of the lower lumbar

Keep reading


Common Raven (C. corax)

Genus Name: Corvus

Name Meaning: Raven or Crow

First Described: 1758

Described By: Linnaeus

Cape Crow (C. capensis

ClassificationDinosauria, Saurischia, Eusaurischia, Theropoda, Neotheropoda, Averostra, Tetanurae, Orionides, Avetheropoda, Coelurosauria, Tyrannoraptora, Maniraptoriformes, Maniraptora, Pennaraptora, Paraves, Eumaniraptora, Averaptora, Avialae, Euavialae, Avebrevicauda, Pygostylia, Ornithothoraces, Euornithes, Ornithuromorpha, Ornithurae, Neornithes, Neognathae, Neoaves, Passerea, Telluraves, Australaves, Eufalconimorphae, Psittacopasserae, Passeriformes, Passeri, Corvida, Corvoidea, Corvidae, True Crows

American Crow (C. brachyrhynchos

Referred Species: C. albus, C. albicollis, C. bennetti, C. brachyrhynchos, C. capensis, C. caurinus, C. cornix, C. corone, C. corax, C. coronoides, C. crassirostris, C. cryptoleucus, C. dauuricus, C. edithae, C. enca, C. florensis, C. frugilegus, C. fuscicapillus, C. hawaiiensis, C. imparatus, C. insularis, C. jamaicensis, C. kubaryi, C. leucognaphalus, C. macrorhynchos, C. meeki, C. mellori, C. monedula, C. moneduloides, C. nasicus, C. orru, C. ossifragus, C. palmarum, C. rhipidurus, C. ruficollis, C. sinaloae, C. splendens, C. tasmanicus, C. torquatus, C. tristis, C. typicus, C. unicolor, C. validus, C. violaceus, C. woodfordi, C. galushai (extinct), C. larteti (extinct), C. praecorax (extinct), C. simionescui (extinct), C. hungaricus (extinct), C. moravicus (extinct), C. pliocaenus (extinct), C. antecorax (extinct), C. betfianus (extinct), C. fossilis (extinct), C. neomexicanus (extinct), C. antipodum (extinct), C. impluviatus (extinct), C. moriorum (extinct), C. pumilis (extinct), C. viriosus (extinct)

Northwestern Crow (C. caurinus

Corvus is a huge genus of Neornithean dinosaurs that evolved around 17 million years ago, in the Burdigalian age of the Miocene epoch of the Neogene period. The group evolved in Central Asia, originally, but now has extended to almost all major landmasses, except for South America. A group of crows is called a flock or a murder, though I formally propose combining them into a Murder Flock. There are around 60 species both extinct and extant of the animal, around a third of the members of the group Corvidae, but they all do share some common features. 

Torresian Crow (C. orru

Corvus are usually all black or with some white and grey feathers, depending on the species. They’re usually quite large and stout, with strong beaks and legs, and have limited sexual dimorphism. They gather in large, communal roosts between 200 and tens of thousands of individuals. They usually gather during the nonbreeding months, especially winter, near large food centers. They make a wide variety of calls and vocalizations and even respond to calls of other species, which is a learned behavior depending on region. Though they have complex vocalization, it is unclear what these vocalizations mean, and there is no real clear understanding of Corvus language. 

Chihuahuan Raven (C. cryptoleucus

Corvus is the smartest genus of dinosaur, and certain species top the avian IQ scale. Many species of Corvus engage in play, an activity characteristic of high intelligence. They often can be seen sliding down snowbanks, engaging in games with other species, and performing spectacular displays in the air. They even can make toys, breaking off twigs to play with socially. Wild Hooded Crows have learned to use bread crumbs for bait-fishing, and many crows engage in mid-air jousting to establish pecking order. They engage in sports and games, tool use, and they hide and store food across seasons. They even have Episodic-like memory, encoding and retrieving information about what, where, and when events occurred. 

Tamaulipas Crow (C. imparatus

The New Caledonian Crow manufactures and uses tools in its daily search for food, mainly by plucking, smoothening and bending twigs and grass stems to procure food. Crows in Queensland have learned to eat cane toads by flipping the toxic amphibian onto its back and stabbing the throat in the thinner part of the skin, allowing access to nontoxic food in the frog itself, and they use their long beaks to get all of this food. Some species have Nidopallium, a region of the bird brain used for executive functions and higher tasks, similar in size and functionality as the neocortex in chimp and humans. 

Pied Crow (C. albus)

Crows can distinguish individual humans by recognizing their facial features. They are also capable of displacement, aka communicating about things that are happening in a different space or time from where they are. The smartest and type species of Corvus, the Common Raven, may be the second smartest species of animal in the world, only following humans - debate reigns due to differences between the Avian and Mammalian brains, and the difficulty in measuring absolute intelligence levels. Crows are capable of solving problems through invention rather than trial and error, and are also capable of deceiving other crows - while that may seem morally wrong to us, lying is an excellent measure of intelligence of animals, as the animal has to pretend that something else is happening than reality. I’m just saying, we don’t know what they’re saying, and they’re really smart - they’re plotting against us. 

White-Necked Raven (C. albicollis

Crows are an omnivorous type of dinosaur, with a very diverse diet. They eat other birds, fruits, nuts, mollusks, earthworms, seeds, frogs, eggs, nestlings, mice, and carrion. Scarecrows in crop fields supposedly work to stop crows from damaging and scavenging in the fields, though they actually often eat insects that are attracted to the crops and perhaps Scarecrow use does more harm than good. They are found in major cities across the world, and are very good at utilizing human-made habitats for their own survival. Because they’re geniuses. And plotting to take us over. 

Rook (C. frugilegus

Crows on the whole reach sexual maturity at 3 years old for females and 5 years for males. They lay between 3 and 9 eggs, which take 20 to 40 days to hatch. Many species of crow mate for life, and young from previous years help nesting pairs protect and feed the new hatchlings. These complex social groups, thus, oftentimes resemble our own. However, in urban environments nestlings face real threats from human-made materials being used in nests, and stunted growth due to poor nutrition. Some crows live up to the age of 20, and the oldest known crow in the wild was nearly 30. However, in captivity, the oldest crow died at 59. 

Collared Crow (C. torquatus

Though crows on the whole are not typically endangered or even threatened, there are many species that are rarer in the wild and threatened. The Hawaiian crow, or ‘alala, is extinct in the wild; conservation efforts in order to increase numbers of this species have not been widely successful. This sharp decline and wild extinction of this species can probably be attributed to, sadly, human causes, as the delicate and isolated ecosystem of Hawai’i was greatly negatively affected by invasive species (both purposeful and accidental) brought over due to human expansion into the region. 

Carrion Crow (C. corone

Given their high levels of intelligence, most species of the bird are adaptable and opportunistic despite human activity. They cause damage to crops and property, dig around through human trash, and very few cheap control methods are available. Hunting of the species is allowed in the United States, though their general intelligence and wariness makes it a difficult activity. To limit crow invasiveness and presence, scare tactics usually work best; trapping is less successful. Crows also may, however, prove useful to humans - an idea presented by Joshua Klein based on crow foraging behavior suggests that crows could be trained to pick up human garbage, deliver it to a vending machine of sorts, which would then give the crow a reward for cleaning up after our mess. While I don’t think we need to involve crows in human capitalism and should clean up our own messes, I doubt the crows would care about the easily available food. 

Little Crow (C. bennetti

Though the group Corvidae originated in Australia, Corvus and other closely related species had already migrated up to Asia by the time Corvus had diverged. However, their evolutionary relationships remain unclear; geographic region and close-relatedness might not actually be correlated, and many species are very similar in appearance. A thorough systematic review of the genus is, therefore, necessary to determine their evolutionary history. Crows are very common in the fossil record of Europe, however, it is unclear how extinct crows are evolutionarily related to modern species. 

Western Jackdaw (C. monedula

There are many species of Corvus, and thus I will go through a brief overview of all of them. C. albus, or the Pied Crow, is an African crow species that is not endangered. It has a length of approximately 46 to 52 centimeters and live in pairs or small family groups, feeding on insects and other small animals. They have characteristic white patches of feathers on the chest and belly. They may be a modern link between Eurasian crows and the Common raven. White necked ravens, on the other hand, or C. albicollis, also are unthreatened and live in Africa. They are only about 50 to 54 cm long, but is one of the larger raven species, and they have a very large distinctive beak and a small patch of white feathers on the back of the neck. They obtain most of their food from the ground and mostly engage in scavenging. 

Thick-billed raven (C. crassirostris

Little crows, C. bennetti, live in Australia and are not endangered; they are only about 38 to 45 cm long with small bills, eating mostly food from the ground and nesting in small, loose colonies. The American Crow, C. brachyrhynchos, is a very common crow that, however, is highly susceptible to West Nile Virus. They live almost entirely in the United States, and there are four subspecies depending on location. They have iridescent black feathers all over the body, and live about 7-8 years in the wild, though in captivity they may live up to 30 years. They are ominvorous, and live in monogamous cooperative breeding families, with mated pairs staying together for many years while offspring help take care of the new young. 

Brown-Necked Raven (C. ruficollis

The Cape crow, C. capensis, is a not endangered crow from Africa, eating grains and other seeds and nesting near the tops of trees. They also can be seen eating small animals such as frogs. It is about 48 to 50 cm long. The Northwestern Crow (C. caurinus) is a very similar bird to the American crow, though it lives primarily in Northwestern Canada. It eats mainly stranded fish, shellfish, crabs and mussels, but they build typically solitary nests. It is about 33 to 41 cm long. The Hooded Crow, C. cornix, lives in Europe and Western Asia, as well as in Egypt. It has extensive white feathers all over the body and is approximately 48 to 52 cm long, eating an omnivorous diet. They nest near the ground, incubated by mated pairs, and is not endangered. 

Fish Crow (C. ossifragus

The Carrion Crow, C. corone, is also not endangered, native to Western Europe and Eastern Asia. It has a black plumage with green and purple sheens, about 48 to 52 cm long, smaller than the Common Raven; it is a very noisy bird, eating many types of carrion and adapting well to urban environments. They build nests in tall trees as well as cliffs and buildings, with older offsprings helping new hatchlings. The Common raven,C. corax, ultimately the most famous type of crow, is also not endangered. It lives extensively in the Northern Hemisphere and is the heaviest Passerine bird, at about 63 cm long. They coexist well with humans and often are kept as pets. They are the second smartest animal after humans (probably), and have large and heavy beaks. They travel in mated pairs while younger birds form flocks, and are omnivorous and highly opportunistic. Juveniles court other birds at a very young age but do not bond for two to three years, and need to gather a territory before breeding. They often steal and store shiny objects, and juveniles are particularly curious.

Little Raven (C. mellori

The Australian raven, C. coronoides, is also not endangered, and has prominent throat hackles (very thick feathers on the throat) that distinguish it from the Australian Crow. It lives in Australia in open woodland and transitional habitats and is an omnivorous animal, with very white irises in the adults. Juvenile Australian Ravens leave their parents and join flocks at 4 to 5 months of age, with adults forming breeding pairs, beginning at three years of age. They are, in general, 53 cm long. The Thick-billed raven, C. crassirostris, is a raven from the Horn of Africa. Its about 64 cm long and has a very large and distinctive bill, feeding on an omnivorous diet. It is not endangered. The Chihuahuan raven is also not endangered (C. cryptoleucus), living in southern United States and Mexico. It’s about 44 to 51 cm long and feeds on grains, insects and invertebrates, building nests in trees, shrubs, and buildings. 

House Crow (C. splendens

The Daurian Jackdaw, C. dauuricus, is not endangered and lives in Eastern Asia. It is about 32 cm long and is a very social species, eating grains, insects, berries, carrion, and nesting in trees. The Somali Crow, C. edithae, is about 44 to 46 cm long, living in Eastern Africa and building bulky nests on trees and telegraph poles. The slender-billed crow, C. enca, is not endangered and lives in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the PHilippines, nesting in tropical and subtropical moist lowland forests and mangroves. 

Hooded Crow (C. cornix

The Flores Crow, C. florensis, lives in Indonesia and is threatened. It lives in tropical dry forests and lowland moist forests, and its habitat is sadly threatened by human activity, leading to its endangerment. The Rook, C. frugilegus, is not endangered and lives in Europe and Asia. It’s about 45 to 47 cm long, with a distinctive blue and purple sheen to its feathers, which are very dense and silky. It eats mainly earthworms and insect larvae, nesting in colonial rookeries. Young birds collect into large flocks in the fall, and has been documented using tools - a rook near a tub of water with a worm at the top of the water that it could not reach figured out that to raise the water level, all it had to do was stick pebbles in the water. Nature is amazing. 

Hawaiian Crow (C. hawaiiensis

The Brown-headed crow, C. fuscicapillus, is a near-threatened bird from Indonesia that lives in moist lowland forests and mangrove forests. As such, it is near threatened due to habitat loss. The Hawaiian crow, C. hawaiiensis, or ‘alalā, is extinct in the wild. It is about 48 to 50 cm long with rounded wings and a thick bill. It has strong flying abilities and is resourceful, and probably has been made extinct due to introduced diseases from human movement into Hawai’i, such as avian malaria and fowlpox. It is omnivorous and a generalist, and its disappearance has had a major impact on the Hawaiian ecosystem, with many plants relying on it for seed dispersal. Restoration programs and breeding efforts have been unsuccessful, with low clutch size and many infections and diseases. Hopefully, new avenues will be tested to try and restore this species, given its importance to the Hawaiian ecology. 

White-necked Crow (C. leucognaphalus) (it is, I swear…)

The Tamaulipas Crow, C. imparatus, is found in northeastern Mexico and Texas. It is not endangered and is about 34 to 38 cm long, with dark bluish plumage and a slender bill. It feeds on insects and fruits and berries, building nests in trees and large bushes. The Bismark Crow, C. insularis, is not endangered and lives in New Britain, Papua New Guinea. The Jamaican Crow, C. jamaicensis, is about 35 to 38 cm long and not endangered; it lies solely in Jamaica and is sooty grey in color, feeding on fruit and invertebrates and living in pairs and small groups, nesting in tall trees. The Mariana Crow, C. kubaryi, is critically endangered. About 38 cm long, it lives in Guam and Rota, inhabiting second growth and mature forests, eating many times of plants and animals. Its decline, sadly, can be attributed to the human introduced brown tree snake. 

Australian Raven (C. coronoides

The white necked crow C. leucognaphalus is about 42 to 46 cm long, and is vulnerable in its conservation status. It lives in the Caribbean, specifically Hispaniola. It is black with a bluish purple gloss, and has a dark grey patch of skin behind the eye. It eats large amounts of fruit and builds nests solitarily. The Jungle Crow, C. macrorhynchos, is an Asian species of crow that is not endangered and actually is considered a nuisance. It has a very large beak, and is about 46 to 59 cm in size, with glossy black wings. It is very versatile in its diet and has food cashing behavior. it makes nests out of platforms of twigs, and they are gregarious with many thousands of birds at roost sites. Breeding pairs may defend their territory during the day, but at night they roost with the group, and they have dominance hierarchies in the group based on the recognition of individuals. 

Daurian Jackdaw (C. dauuricus

The Bougainville Crow, C. meeki, is a non-endangered crow from Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. It is a heavy crow, 41 cm long, with a huge black bill and living in lowland forests and montane forests. The Little Raven, C. mellori, is a non-endangered raven from Australia. Only about 48 to 50 cm long, it has all black plumage and forms large flocks, roaming over large areas looking for food. It has harsh vocalizations and eat mainly insects and invertebrates, using tools to find more food. They nest in loose colonies of up to fifteen pairs, living in communal groups mostly above the ground. The Cuban Crow, C. nasicus, is a non endangered crow from the Caribbean, about 40 to 42 cm long living in Cuba and the Isla de la Juventud. It has a long, deep bill and eats fruit and insects, with a strange liquid bubbling song. 

Fan-Tailed Raven (C. rhipidurus

The Western Jackdaw, C. monedula, is a very common jackdawfrom Europe and Asia. It is an omnivorous and opportunistic feeder, eating many plants and invertebrates and waste from urban areas. It’s approximately 34 to 39 cm long, the second smallest member of Corvus, with shiny black and purpleish plumage. They show interest in shiny objects like jewellery, and are extremely gregarious, with communal roosting during the autumn. They form monogamous pairs, and have a linear hierarchical group structure, with mated pairs occupying the same rank in the hierarchy and higher ranked birds dominating the lower ones, establishing dominance via pecking orders. They have social displays such as supplanting, fighting, and threat displays as well, and they preen their mated partners on the head and neck. They feed mainly on the ground in open areas and mate for life, laying eggs in colonies. 

Flores Crow (C. florensis

The New Caledonian Crow, C. moneduloides, is an all black crow from new Caledonia, and not endangered. It has a distinctive call, like waa-waa or qua-qua. It is about 40 cm long and eats a wide range of food, using small trigs to dig out insects and larvae. They make many types of tools including leaves to probe out insects from crevices, and they show cultural evolution in tool manufacture like primates, passing on innovations to other members of the group. It also can make new tools from materials it did not encounter in the wild. They also have meta-tool use, using one tool on another tool to make a task easier, and rival primates in this ability; many birds can solve complex problems on the first try. They use tools to investigate dangerous objects and also can use mirrors to see things that they cannot see in the direct line of site, though they cannot recognize themselves. The Torresian Crow, C. orru, is also not endangered and lives in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, about 48 to 53 cm long and living in a wide variety of habitats. They are very aggressive, stealing food from other birds, eating just about anything and nesting in high trees. 

Slender-billed Crow (C. enca

The fish crow, C. ossifragus, is not endangered and lives in the Eastern United States. About 36 to 41 cm long, they have a very silky smooth plumage, with dark brown eyes and feeding mainly on crustaceans, crabs, shrimps, and stranded fish. They build nests in high trees and are somewhat resistant to West Nile. The palm crow, C. palmarum, is a small crow that’s near threatened in Hispaniola and Cuba; it is, however, almost extinct in Cuba. The Fan-tailed raven, C. rhipidurus, is not endangered in Eastern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, about 47 to 51 cm long with a thick bill, short tail and large wings. It eats lots of insects and invertebrates as well as fruit. The brown-necked raven, C. ruficollis, lives in the entirety of North Africa as well as the Middle East and Iran, living on carrion, snakes, locusts, and grasshoppers. It is fairly fearless and will often steal food from humans, nesting like common ravens. 

Jungle Crow (C. macrorhynchos

The Sinaloa Crow, C. sinaloae, lives in Western Mexico and is not endangered. It has purple, glossy plumage and takes food from the ground and trees, nesting in tall coconut palms. The House Crow, C. splendens, is not endangered and is about 40 cm long, a relatively slim crow living in the Indian subcontinent and portions of Africa. It lives on small reptiles, insects, and human garbage, nesting in trees and telephone towers, often living near human created habitats. The Forest Raven, C. tasmanicus, is not endangered and lives in Tasmania and Australia. It lives in many habitats but is restricted to forests in Australia proper, and is about 50 to 53 cm long. They are territorial, omnivorous, and forage in pairs or groups of up to 10 birds. They form monogamous pairs in tall trees, and often feed on roadkill. 

Forest Raven (C. tasmanicus

The Collared Crow, C. torquatus, is near threatened and lives in China, about 52 to 55 cm long, feeding mainly on the ground on things such as insects, mollusks and other invertebrates, as well as rice. The Grey Crow, C. tristis, is non threatened, about 42 to 45 cm long and living mainly in New Guinea, feeding on the ground and in trees. The Piping Crow, C. typicus, lives in Indonesia and is nonthreatened. The Banggai Crow is critically endangered, living in Indonesia, with only about 500 individuals remaining. The Long-billed crow, C. validus, is near threatened and lives in Moluccas, with glossy plumage and a long bill. The Violet Crow, C. violaceus, is a crow from Seram. The White-billed crow, C. woodfordi, is a non endangered crow about 40 to 41 cm long, with very glossy black plumage and found in the Solomon Islands, feeding on insects and fruits and remaining hidden in the canopy. 

Sinaloa Crow (C. sinaloae

Though there are many extinct species of Corvus, only four are well described. The Puerto Rican Crow, C. pumilis, lived on Puerto Rican and the US Virgin Islands. It is only known from an almost fossilized ulna. The Chatham Raven, C. moriorum, lived in New Zealand and was probably a fruit eater. The High-billed crow, C. impluviatus, was a crow on Maui and Hawai’i that was pushed to extinction due to humans and human brought pests like rats. Finally, the New Zealand raven, C. antipodum, was a raven in New Zealand that went extinct in the 16th century, and they had long,b road bills that were not very arged like the Hawaiian crow. 


All images come from Wikipedia and are used under a Creative Commons license 

Text based on all pages linked here and the main Corvus page

Shout out goes to @saladcreamisthebestcream​!

“This systematic review and meta-analysis was designed to investigate whether maternal psychological stress and recent life events are associated with an increased risk of miscarriage. A literature search was conducted to identify studies reporting miscarriage in women with and without history of exposure to psychological stress (the only exposure considered). The search produced 1978 studies; 8 studies were suitable for analysis. A meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model with effect sizes weighted by the sampling variance. The risk of miscarriage was significantly higher in women with a history of exposure to psychological stress (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.19–1.70). These findings remained after controlling for study type (cohort and nested case-control study OR 1.33 95% CI 1.14–1.54), exposure types (work stress OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.10–1.47), types of controls included (live birth OR 2.82 95% CI: 1.64–4.86). We found no evidence that publication bias or study heterogeneity significantly influenced the results. Our finding provides the most robust evidence to date, that prior psychological stress is harmful to women in early pregnancy.“ - The association between psychological stress and miscarriage: A systematic review and meta-analysis, an article by Fan Qu, Yan Wu, Yu-Hang Zhu, John Barry, Tao Ding, Gianluca Baio, Ruth Muscat, Brenda K. Todd, Fang-Fang Wang & Paul J Hardiman published online in Nature in May of 2017. 

By the way, this is just a quote from the article’s introduction. I took a look at the results section to check the statistical validity of the data and the positive correlation between psychological stress and miscarriage has a p-value of less than 0.001 which very obviously indicates that the data is statistically significant. It’s a meta-analysis which means it’s an accumulation of many data sets, not just an analysis of a singular data set. If you’re so inclined, you can definitely read about the errors and drawbacks of the experimental methodology as well, but you can’t use statistical significance as a counterargument to this point at the very least. 

anonymous asked:

Are there any spiders in Ohio or Illinois that can hurt me? My arachnophobia is more a 'what if it bites me and my arm rots off' phobia; I'm cool around spiders I know can't hurt me, esp ones behind glass, but I don't know what can hurt me so I'm afraid of all free roaming spiders

There are really only four known groups of spiders with medically significant venom- the rest can’t do much worse than a bee sting. (Of course, some individuals can have allergic reactions to spider venom, just like bee stings.)

These four groups are: the widows (Latrodectus sp.), the brown spiders (Loxosceles sp.), the Australian funnel web spiders (Atraxus sp.), and the Brazilian wandering spiders (Phoneutria sp.).

Black widows are found across the U.S. and in parts of Africa, Europe, and Asia. Despite their reputation, most black widow bites are harmless. Many are dry, with no venom injected, and about 75% of those that do contain venom only produce localized pain with no other symptoms.

Occasionally, more severe symptoms do develop in the form of latrodectism. This can cause symptoms such as generalized pain, headache, nausea, sweating, and racing heart. Most of these symptoms resolve within a week and for more severe cases, an antivenom is available. There has only been one death recorded from a black widow bite in US in the last 50 years, and it was an elderly man. Several thousand people in the US get bitten by black widows every year without suffering any major ill effects.

The brown spiders include the brown recluse spider, famed for its necrotizing bite. However, as with the black widow, the deadliness of this spider has been greatly exaggerated. Like the black widow, brown spiders are found worldwide. Also like the black widow, their bites are often venom-free, and even envenomated bites produce nothing more than mild irritation.

Here’s a map of where brown spiders are found in the US:

The brown recluse is very rare in Ohio specifically, so you don’t have much to worry about.

Bites with high concentrations of brown recluse venom can produce a necrotic skin lesion that is slow to heal. About 66% of these lesions heal on their own without complications. Those that do not may require skin grafts or corrective surgery. A systemic response, which is the response that may become fatal, occurs in about 1% of bite victims. In the last decade there have been two recorded fatalities from brown recluse bites, and both were young children. And as a matter of fact, there are no confirmed reports of a necrotizing bite leading to amputation.

Interestingly enough, there are lots of reports of brown recluse “bites” from states where there are no brown recluse spiders. Spiders often get blamed for symptoms that come from everything from lyme disease to lymphoma. My state is not within the brown recluse range and I’ve still heard stories from a number of people who insist they were bitten by the spider.

Australian funnel web spiders are found, obviously, in Australia- specifically along the eastern coast.  While it is suggested that these spiders are more likely to give “wet” bites than the others on this list, there have been no recorded fatalities from their bites in Australia since 1981!

Brazilian wandering spiders are found in parts of Central and South America and are the most venomous spider on this list. This venom, among other things, may give you a lasting erection, which is why some pharmaceutical companies are researching it for use in erectile dysfunction drugs. These spiders are the famed “banana spiders” because they have been found on shipments of bananas outside of South/Central America; however, there are only seven actual recorded cases of this happening. Only about 2.3% of wandering spider bites are medically significant, and again, there have been very few deaths attributed to them.

Spiders, by and large, do not pose a threat to you anywhere in the world.

Further reading: The Spider Myths Site.


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 Hey, Tumblr! My Capstone engineering group is working on a vagal nerve stimulation device for chronic pain and fibromyalgia and I would really appreciate it if I could interview some of you guys about fibromyalgia, chronic pain and your experiences! It would also be super awesome if I could interview anyone out there who has used a device called a P-STIM or Neuro-Stim System (NSS). If that sounds familiar but you’re not sure, it’s a device that looks like this. 

Of course, I will be respectful of your privacy and any health issues you have and I will not give out any information of yours, except our conversation or a transcript of our conversation. 

Our group is working on improving the above device so that it would not only be cheaper but easier to use. Vagal nerve stimulation has been proven to improve chronic pain (See sources 1, 2, 3, 4) and helping us improve this device in terms of usability, comfort and price might help us make vagal nerve stimulation devices a more readily available treatment. 

Thank you for your time! I hope to hear from you guys soon!

(1) Chao Hsing Yeh, Yi Chien Chiang, Samuel L. Hoffman, et al., “Efficacy of Auricular Therapy for Pain Management: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2014, Article ID 934670, 14 pages, 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/934670

(2) Usichenko, Taras, et al. “Preliminary findings of cerebral responses on transcutaneous vagal nerve stimulation on experimental heat pain.” Brain imaging and behavior (2016): 1-8.

(3)Chakravarthy, Krishnan, et al. “Review of the uses of vagal nerve stimulation in chronic pain management.” Current pain and headache reports 19.12 (2015): 1-9.

(4) Roberts, Arthur, and Chris Brown. “Decrease in VAS Score Following Placement of a Percutaneous Peri-Auricular Peripheral Nerve Field Stimulator.” Clinical Medicine and Diagnostics 5.2 (2015): 17-21.

tl;dr: Message me and help me out in creating a new device for chronic pain spoonies!

anonymous asked:

No it's not proven to be healthy to mutilate a child. @.@ condoms and showers prevent infection and STIs. Not genital mutilation. Dumb shit.

Evidence supports that male circumcision reduces the risk of HIV infection among heterosexual men in sub-Saharan Africa.[10][11] The WHO recommends considering circumcision as part of a comprehensive HIV program in areas with high rates of HIV.[12] For men who have sex with men the evidence of an HIV benefit is less clear.[13][14] Its use to prevent HIV in the developed world is unclear.[15] Circumcision is associated with reduced rates of cancer causing forms of HPV[16][17] and risk of both UTIs and penile cancer.[5] Routine circumcision, however, is not justified for the prevention of those conditions.[2][18] Studies of its potential protective effects against other sexually transmitted infections have been unclear. A 2010 review of literature worldwide found circumcisions performed by medical providers to have a median complication rate of 1.5% for newborns and 6% for older children, with few cases of severe complications.[19] Bleeding, infection and the removal of either too much or too little foreskin are the most common complications cited.[19][20] Complication rates are greater when the procedure is performed by an inexperienced operator, in unsterile conditions, or when the child is at an older age.[19] Circumcision does not appear to have a negative impact on sexual function.[21][22]A 2014 review found that the benefits of circumcising an infant outweigh the risks of doing so by at least 100 to 1.[23]

Neonatal circumcision is generally safe when done by an experienced practitioner.[64] The most common acute complications are bleeding, infection and the removal of either too much or too little foreskin.[5][20] These complications occur in approximately 0.12% of procedures, and constitute the vast majority of all acute circumcision complications in the United States.[20] Minor complications are reported to occur in three percent of procedures.[64] A specific complication rate is difficult to determine due to scant data on complications and inconsistencies in their classification.[5] Complication rates are greater when the procedure is performed by an inexperienced operator, in unsterile conditions, or when the child is at an older age.[19] Significant acute complications happen rarely,[5][19] occurring in about 1 in 500 newborn procedures in the United States.[5] Severe to catastrophic complications are sufficiently rare that they are reported only as individual case reports.[5] According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, circumcision related deaths in the U.S. are so rare as to obviate the need to track them as a cause of death. In their 2010 mortality study, no circumcision related deaths were found.[65] Other possible complications include buried penis, chordee, phimosis, skin bridges, urethral fistulas, and meatal stenosis.[66] These complications may be avoided with proper technique, and are most often treatable without requiring a hospital visit.[66] The circumcision procedure may carry the risks of heightened pain response for newborns and dissatisfaction with the result.[33]

Sexual effects

Circumcision does not appear to decrease the sensitivity of the penis, harm sexual function or reduce sexual satisfaction.[21][67] A 2013 systematic review and meta-analysis found that circumcision did not appear to adversely affect sexual desire, pain with intercourse, premature ejaculation, time to ejaculation, erectile dysfunction or difficulties with orgasm.[68] Another 2013 systematic review found that the highest-quality studies reported no adverse effects of circumcision on sexual function, sensitivity, sensation or satisfaction.[22] A 2014 literature review found that there are significant gaps in the current literature on male and female sexual health that need to be addressed for the literature to be applicable to North American populations.[69] A 2010 Royal Australasian College of Physicians viewpoint mentions that the effects of circumcision on sexual sensation are not clear.[70] The Royal Dutch Medical Association’s 2010 viewpoint mentions that “complications in the area of sexuality” have been reported.[71]

So uh you were saying? If the benefits outweigh the risks why is it so wrong? (The cutting of skin isn’t mutilation. Mutilation or maiming is an act of physical injury that degrades the appearance or function of any living body. Cutting foreskin doesn’t degrade the appearance or the function, it does change the appearance but so do tattoos and scars.)

anonymous asked:

Is there really no way to reverse arterial plaque buildup? Even with lifestyle changes, you're stuck with whatever plaque you had?

It’s not impossible to decrease arterial cholesterol plaques, but for most patients, it’s very difficult. Most pharmacologic treatments are aimed at slowing or stopping plaque progression and at stabilizing current plaques. When arteries narrow slowly, the heart generally grows new ones around it so blood supply doesn’t suffer. Most heart attacks come when plaques in arteries rupture. Then a blood clot builds around the rupture spot and blocks blood flow acutely. 

So if we stabilize the clots and prevent them from getting bigger, we can prevent heart attacks.

But back to shrinking plaques: that comes from pretty radical lifestyle changes in most peoples’ cases. Exercise and high dietary (not supplemental) fiber intake will both lower bad cholesterol levels. And we’ve learned that fat isn’t necessarily a bad thing when it comes to heart health. Studies have shown that saturated fat from whole foods (like dairy and unprocessed meats) decreases risk of cardiovascular disease, whereas saturated fat intake from processed foods increases it. Overall, the Mediterranean diet, which is full of omega-3 fats and “good” carbs has been shown to be the best for decreasing cardiovascular events and cardiovascular deaths. So yeah, with strenuous lifestyle change, damage can be reversed. But remember that the best option is preventing plaques from starting by living a healthy lifestyle early on.


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Fish oil makes people act normal. Soybean oil makes people act mean. Possibly.

Public Nutrition (Masters), Emory University Rollins School of Public Health

Thesis Title: The Role of Essential Fatty Acids in Aggression, Antisocial Behaviors, and Crime: A Systematic Review.

snt3dpd  asked:

maybe you should read some actual science before spouting off nonsense about how being overweight isn't unhealthy. I suggest starting with 'Clinical practice guidelines for the management of overweight and obesity in adults, adolescents and children in Australia - Systematic Review. Melbourne: National Health and Medical Research Council.'

I have, newest studies suggest it isn’t weight at all and in fact sedentary lifestyle. Keep up. Even reading the synopsis for the very thing you linked it doesn’t say that excess weight causes anything, it says it is more likely to correlate. 

  • Sedentary Behavior: Emerging Evidence for a New Health Risk 
  • Stand Up Australia Sedentary behaviour in workers 
  • Objectively Measured Sedentary Time, Physical Activity, and Metabolic Risk The Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study
  • Physiological and health implications of a sedentary lifestyle 

Also there are some pretty fun studies about how fat shaming people actually leads to obesity! You should check those out and then learn to be less of an asshole uwu!

The goat ate my soap!

That’s what kids might tell their mom when she asks them to wash up before a meal. And they’re not kidding. There’s even a website from a sanitation group in Malawi with the title: “How to prevent goats from eating soap.”

No soap is a big problem. The chemicals in soap help break down oils on your hand that can harbor microbes. According to studies in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Review and Tropical Medicine and International Health, hand-washing with soap could prevent about 1 out of every 3 episodes of diarrheal illness and nearly 1 out of 6 episodes of respiratory infections like pneumonia.

Goats are only one of the reasons that the percentage of people who wash up in the developing world is as low as 19 percent in some countries. In honor of Global Handwashing Day, which was Thursday, here’s a look at things that stand in the way of washing — and possible solutions.

Goats Who Eat Soap Are The Enemy Of Global Handwashing Day

Photo: Anna Ridout/Oxfam/Flickr