system history

Pluto <3

After a more-than-9-years journey New Horizons is in its closest approach to Pluto, before New Horizons the best image that we had of Pluto was this.

As New Horizons was closer it was sending us new images, with a lot more detail of this icy dwarf planet.

And the next one is an image from 8 days ago…

Slowly we started to get more and more detail of the surface of Pluto.

The Whale’s tail

Pluto’s heart

And also we got amazing shots of Charon, pluto’s largest moon.

And finally today on July 14, 2015 we are flying a probe by Pluto for the first time, is an historic day. And this is the best picture of Pluto that we have ever had with a beautiful love message from pluto to the human kind.

Like part of the problem w like treating trans women like they are mentally ill (and using that as a value judgment) is that it means yr feminism both theoretically and pragmatically sides w the mental health complex of coercion, incarceration, and social control that has been a key component in women’s and gay people’s oppression for centuries but ummm anything to hate trans women I guess

All The Topics to Know for the APUSH Exam (as told by my APUSH teacher)
  • Revolutionary War/Constitution/Articles of Confederation
  • The First Party System: Federalists and Republicans
  • Revolution of 1800
  • Jacksonian Democracy (1824-1840)
    • the Bank War
    • the spoils system
    • Indian Removal Act
  • Antebellum reform movements and the Second Great Awakening
  • Causes of the Civil War and sectional differences
    • political parties (Democrats vs. New Republicans)
    • economics
    • social differences
  • Reconstruction (1863-1877)
    • successes/failures
    • 13th - 15th amendments
      • connections to the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s
  • Industrialization and Big Business/The Gilded Age (1860-1910)
    • vertical and horizontal integration
    • trusts
    • steel, oil, and railroads
    • Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, J.P. Morgan
    • growth of cities
    • immigration
    • changes in politics and political machines
  • The Populist Movement and agrarian discontent
  • The Progressive Era (1890-1920)
    • an effort to deal with the adverse effects of industrial capitalism
    • the Progressive Presidents
  • The Indian Plains Wars (through 1890)
  • Spanish-American War (1898)
  • IMPERIALISM: Philippines, Hawaii, Panama, Cuba, etc.
  • World War I
    • causes/effects
    • the home front
  • The Red Scare
  • The 1920s
    • sources of conflict (economic, political, and social)
    • effects on women, African Americans, and immigrants
  • The 1930s, the Great Depression, and the New Deal
    • Hoover vs. FDR
    • economic, social, and political reforms
  • World War II
    • results, the home front
    • effects on women, African Americans, Native Americans (Navajo codetalkers, etc), Japanese Americans, and Mexican Americans
  • The Cold War
    • foreign policy
      • where and when
    • 1950s
      • conformity, suburbs, Baby Boom, domestication of women, challenges to conformity, expanding economy, consumer culture
      • similarities to the 1920s
    • 1960s
      • civil rights movement (who, what, when, where, why, successes and failures)
      • Lyndon B. Johnson and the Great Society (1963-1968)
        • domestic and foreign issues
    • 1970s
      • Richard Nixon (1968-1973)
        • foreign and domestic policies
        • detente and Vietnam
        • the Southern Strategy and Watergate
    • 1980s
      • Ronald Reagan (1981-1989)
        • foreign and domestic policies
        • tax cuts
        • military spending
        • shrinking of the government
        • the new right
      • George H.W. Bush and the end of the Cold War
  • Bill Clinton and Barack Obama

“By this invention every live part of Mother Earth’s body would be brought into action. Energy will be collected all over the globe in amounts small or large, as it may exist, ranging from a fraction of one to a few horse power or more. Every waterfall can be utilized, every coal field made to produce energy to be transmitted to vast distances, and every place on earth can have power at small cost. One of the minor uses might be the illumination of isolated homes. We could light houses all over the country by means of vacuum tubes operated by high frequency currents. We could keep the clocks of the United States going and give every one exact time; we could turn factories, machine shops and mills, small or large, anywhere, and I believe could also navigate the air.

“One of the most important features of this invention will be the transmission of intelligence. It will convert the entire earth into a huge brain, capable of responding in every one of its parts. By the employment of a number of plants, each of which can transmit signals to all parts of the world, the news of the globe will be flashed to all points. A cheap and simple receiving device, which might be carried in one’s pocket, can be set up anywhere on sea or land, and it will record the world’s news as it occurs, or take such special messages as are intended for it. If you are in the heart of the Sahara your wife can telegraph you from Washington, and if the instrument is properly made you alone will get the message. A single plant of a few horse power could operate hundreds of such instruments, so that the invention has an infinite working capacity and will cheapen the transmission of all kinds of intelligence.”

–Nikola Tesla

“A Talk With Nikola Tesla.” By Frank G. Carpenter. The State, December 18, 1904.

Like I don’t talk abt this very much but I don’t think it’s at all coincidental that Raymond and Daly are both from a conservative catholic academic background, and their claims abt biomedical transition are based on portraying a set of doctors (such as hirschfield and Benjamin) multiple of who were Jewish as forming a secret society of rich elites to undermine and destroy society (sometimes obfuscating and making it sound like they were nazis)

@American highschoolers who enjoy history, I know that your school most likely teaches you exclusively United States history (like mine did) but please do explore the history of other regions and time periods, especially medieval history

pls pls pls. It is so interesting and 100% worth it, and it’ll help your understanding of history as an academic field immensely


Royal charter of King Erekle II

The royal style of King Heraclius II of Georgia

“წყალობითა მღუთისათა ჩვენ იესიან დავითიან სოლომანიან ბაგრატოვანმან ძემან ცხებულის მეფის თეიმურაზისამან მეორე ირაკლი მეფემან საქართველოისამან ქართლისა კახეთისა…“

By the mercy of God, we of Jesse, David, Solomon, Bagrationi, son of anointed King Teimuraz, me, Erekle the Second, King of Georgia, Kartli, Kakheti…”

ghan ([ɣɑn])

Artemis:  It’s the twenty-sixth letter of the Georgian alphabet. Its name is ghan ([ɣɑn]) and it is preceded by ქ and followed by ყ. Also the number 700 in Georgian numerals. Is often used as a love or heart symbol online. (wiki)

A Brief History of the Metric System

For the majority of recorded human history, units like the weight of a grain or the length of a hand weren’t exact and varied from place to place. And different regions didn’t just use varying measurements. They had completely different number systems as well.

Fast forward to the French Revolution: The leaders of the Revolution didn’t just overthrow the monarchy - they sought to completely transform society according to the rational principles of the Enlightenment. When the new government took power, the Academy of Sciences convened to reform the system of measurements.

Old standards based on arbitrary authority or local traditions were replaced with mathematical and natural relationships. For example, the meter, from the Greek word for measure, was defined as 1/10,000,000 between the Equator and North Pole. And the new metric system was, in the words of the Marquis de Condorcet, "For all people, for all time.“

Standardizing measurements had political advantages for the Revolutionaries as well. Nobles could no longer manipulate local units to extract more rent from commoners, while the government could collect taxes more efficiently.

Some European countries reverted to old measurements upon independence. Others realized the value of standardization in an age of international trade. After Portugal and the Netherlands switched to metric voluntarily, other nations followed, with colonial empires spreading the system around the world.

As France’s main rival, Britain had resisted revolutionary ideas and retained its traditional units. But over the next two centuries, the British Empire slowly transitioned, first approving the metric system as an optional alternative before gradually making it official. However, this switch came too late for thirteen former colonies that had already gained independence. 

The United States of America stuck with the English units of its colonial past and today remains one of only three countries which haven’t fully embraced the metric system. Despite constant initiatives for metrication, many Americans consider units like feet and pounds more intuitive. And ironically, some regard the once revolutionary metric system as a symbol of global conformity.

Nevertheless, the metric system is almost universally used in science and medicine, and it continues to evolve according to its original principles. For a long time, standard units were actually defined by carefully maintained physical prototypes. But thanks to improving technology and precision, these objects with limited access and unreliable longevity are now being replaced with standards based on universal constants, like the speed of light.

Consistent measurements are such an integral part of our daily lives that it’s hard to appreciate what a major accomplishment for humanity they’ve been. And just as it arose from a political revolution, the metric system remains crucial for the scientific revolutions to come.

From the TED-Ed Lesson Why the metric system matters - Matt Anticole

Animation by Globizco

If you’re an art major of some kind always remember one thing: if a professor or whoever tries to tell you your art is “not art”, just bring up Marcel Duchamp to make a point. Duchamp literally took a urinal, turned it upside down, and named it “Fountain”. He basically made a point to critics that someone can take something that’s already a readymade and claim it is artwork. So in other words, I can take a poland spring bottle, sign my name on it, and say “this is my artwork.” My point is screw what professors or critics say, as long as you love your art and think it’s important then that is all that should matter