surgical technique

List of medieval European scientists
  • Anthemius of Tralles (ca. 474 – ca. 534): a professor of geometry and architecture, authored many influential works on mathematics and was one of the architects of the famed Hagia Sophia, the largest building in the world at its time. His works were among the most important source texts in the Arab world and Western Europe for centuries after.
  • John Philoponus (ca. 490–ca. 570): also known as John the Grammarian, a Christian Byzantine philosopher, launched a revolution in the understanding of physics by critiquing and correcting the earlier works of Aristotle. In the process he proposed important concepts such as a rudimentary notion of inertia and the invariant acceleration of falling objects. Although his works were repressed at various times in the Byzantine Empire, because of religious controversy, they would nevertheless become important to the understanding of physics throughout Europe and the Arab world.
  • Paul of Aegina (ca. 625–ca. 690): considered by some to be the greatest Christian Byzantine surgeon, developed many novel surgical techniques and authored the medical encyclopedia Medical Compendium in Seven Books. The book on surgery in particular was the definitive treatise in Europe and the Islamic world for hundreds of years.
  • The Venerable Bede (ca. 672–735): a Christian monk of the monasteries of Wearmouth and Jarrow who wrote a work On the Nature of Things, several books on the mathematical / astronomical subject of computus, the most influential entitled On the Reckoning of Time. He made original discoveries concerning the nature of the tides and his works on computus became required elements of the training of clergy, and thus greatly influenced early medieval knowledge of the natural world.
  • Rabanus Maurus (c. 780 – 856): a Christian monk and teacher, later archbishop of Mainz, who wrote a treatise on Computus and the encyclopedic work De universo. His teaching earned him the accolade of "Praeceptor Germaniae," or "the teacher of Germany."
  • Abbas Ibn Firnas (810 – 887): a polymath and inventor in Muslim Spain, made contributions in a variety of fields and is most known for his contributions to glass-making and aviation. He developed novel ways of manufacturing and using glass. He broke his back at an unsuccessful attempt at flying a primitive hang glider in 875.
  • Pope Sylvester II (c. 946–1003): a Christian scholar, teacher, mathematician, and later pope, reintroduced the abacus and armillary sphere to Western Europe after they had been lost for centuries following the Greco-Roman era. He was also responsible in part for the spread of the Hindu-Arabic numeral system in Western Europe.
  • Maslamah al-Majriti (died 1008): a mathematician, astronomer, and chemist in Muslim Spain, made contributions in many areas, from new techniques for surveying to updating and improving the astronomical tables of al-Khwarizmi and inventing a process for producing mercury oxide.[citation needed] He is most famous, though, for having helped transmit knowledge of mathematics and astronomy to Muslim Spain and Christian Western Europe.
  • Abulcasis (936-1013): a physician and scientist in Muslim Spain, is considered to be the father of modern surgery. He wrote numerous medical texts, developed many innovative surgical instruments, and developed a variety of new surgical techniques and practices. His texts were considered the definitive works on surgery in Europe until the Renaissance.
  • Constantine the African (c. 1020&–1087): a Christian native of Carthage, is best known for his translating of ancient Greek and Roman medical texts from Arabic into Latin while working at the Schola Medica Salernitana in Salerno, Italy. Among the works he translated were those of Hippocrates and Galen.
  • Arzachel (1028–1087): the foremost astronomer of the early second millennium, lived in Muslim Spain and greatly expanded the understanding and accuracy of planetary models and terrestrial measurements used for navigation. He developed key technologies including the equatorium and universal latitude-independent astrolabe.
  • Avempace (died 1138): a famous physicist from Muslim Spain who had an important influence on later physicists such as Galileo. He was the first to theorize the concept of a reaction force for every force exerted.
  • Adelard of Bath (c. 1080 – c. 1152): was a 12th-century English scholar, known for his work in astronomy, astrology, philosophy and mathematics.
  • Avenzoar (1091–1161): from Muslim Spain, introduced an experimental method in surgery, employing animal testing in order to experiment with surgical procedures before applying them to human patients.[4] He also performed the earliest dissections and postmortem autopsies on both humans as well as animals.
  • Robert Grosseteste (1168–1253): Bishop of Lincoln, was the central character of the English intellectual movement in the first half of the 13th century and is considered the founder of scientific thought in Oxford. He had a great interest in the natural world and wrote texts on the mathematical sciences of optics, astronomy and geometry. In his commentaries on Aristotle's scientific works, he affirmed that experiments should be used in order to verify a theory, testing its consequences. Roger Bacon was influenced by his work on optics and astronomy.
  • Albert the Great (1193–1280): Doctor Universalis, was one of the most prominent representatives of the philosophical tradition emerging from the Dominican Order. He is one of the thirty-three Saints of the Roman Catholic Church honored with the title of Doctor of the Church. He became famous for his vast knowledge and for his defence of the pacific coexistence between science and religion. Albert was an essential figure in introducing Greek and Islamic science into the medieval universities, although not without hesitation with regard to particular Aristotelian theses. In one of his most famous sayings he asserted: "Science does not consist in ratifying what others say, but of searching for the causes of phenomena." Thomas Aquinas was his most famous pupil.
  • John of Sacrobosco (c. 1195 – c. 1256): was a scholar, monk, and astronomer (probably English, but possibly Irish or Scottish) who taught at the University of Paris and wrote an authoritative and influential mediaeval astronomy text, the Tractatus de Sphaera; the Algorismus, which introduced calculations with Hindu-Arabic numerals into the European university curriculum; the Compotus ecclesiasticis on Easter reckoning; and the Tractatus de quadrante on the construction and use of the astronomical quadrant.
  • Jordanus de Nemore (late 12th, early 13th century): was one of the major pure mathematicians of the Middle Ages. He wrote treatises on mechanics ("the science of weights"), on basic and advanced arithmetic, on algebra, on geometry, and on the mathematics of stereographic projection.
  • Villard de Honnecourt (fl. 13th century): a French engineer and architect who made sketches of mechanical devices such as automatons and perhaps drew a picture of an early escapement mechanism for clockworks.
  • Roger Bacon (1214–94): Doctor Admirabilis, joined the Franciscan Order around 1240 where, influenced by Grosseteste, Alhacen and others, he dedicated himself to studies where he implemented the observation of nature and experimentation as the foundation of natural knowledge. Bacon wrote in such areas as mechanics, astronomy, geography and, most of all, optics. The optical research of Grosseteste and Bacon established optics as an area of study at the medieval university and formed the basis for a continuous tradition of research into optics that went all the way up to the beginning of the 17th century and the foundation of modern optics by Kepler.[8]
  • Ibn al-Baitar (died 1248): a botanist and pharmacist in Muslim Spain, researched over 1400 types of plants, foods, and drugs and compiled pharmaceutical and medical encyclopedias documenting his research. These were used in the Islamic world and Europe until the 19th century.
  • Theodoric Borgognoni (1205-1296): was an Italian Dominican friar and Bishop of Cervia who promoted the uses of both antiseptics and anaesthetics in surgery. His written work had a deep impact on Henri de Mondeville, who studied under him while living in Italy and later became the court physician for King Philip IV of France.
  • William of Saliceto (1210-1277): was an Italian surgeon of Lombardy who advanced medical knowledge and even challenged the work of the renowned Greco-Roman surgeon Galen (129-216 AD) by arguing that allowing pus to form in wounds was detrimental to the health of he patient.
  • Thomas Aquinas (1227–74): Doctor Angelicus, was an Italian theologian and friar in the Dominican Order. As his mentor Albert the Great, he is a Catholic Saint and Doctor of the Church. In addition to his extensive commentaries on Aristotle's scientific treatises, he was also said to have written an important alchemical treatise titled Aurora Consurgens. However, his most lasting contribution to the scientific development of the period was his role in the incorporation of Aristotelianism into the Scholastic tradition.
  • Arnaldus de Villa Nova (1235-1313): was an alchemist, astrologer, and physician from the Crown of Aragon who translated various Arabic medical texts, including those of Avicenna, and performed optical experiments with camera obscura.
  • John Duns Scotus (1266–1308): Doctor Subtilis, was a member of the Franciscan Order, philosopher and theologian. Emerging from the academic environment of the University of Oxford. where the presence of Grosseteste and Bacon was still palpable, he had a different view on the relationship between reason and faith as that of Thomas Aquinas. For Duns Scotus, the truths of faith could not be comprehended through the use of reason. Philosophy, hence, should not be a servant to theology, but act independently. He was the mentor of one of the greatest names of philosophy in the Middle Ages: William of Ockham.
  • Mondino de Liuzzi (c. 1270-1326): was an Italian physician, surgeon, and anatomist from Bologna who was one of the first in Medieval Europe to advocate for the public dissection of cadavers for advancing the field of anatomy. This followed a long-held Christian ban on dissections performed by the Alexandrian school in the late Roman Empire.
  • William of Ockham (1285–1350): Doctor Invincibilis, was an English Franciscan friar, philosopher, logician and theologian. Ockham defended the principle of parsimony, which could already be seen in the works of his mentor Duns Scotus. His principle later became known as Occam's Razor and states that if there are various equally valid explanations for a fact, then the simplest one should be chosen. This became a foundation of what would come to be known as the scientific method and one of the pillars of reductionism in science. Ockham probably died of the Black Plague. Jean Buridan and Nicole Oresme were his followers.
  • Jacopo Dondi dell'Orologio (1290-1359): was an Italian doctor, clockmaker, and astronomer from Padua who wrote on a number of scientific subjects such as pharmacology, surgery, astrology, and natural sciences. He also designed an astronomical clock.
  • Richard of Wallingford (1292-1336): an English abbot, mathematician, astronomer, and horologist who designed an astronomical clock as well as an equatorium to calculate the lunar, solar and planetary longitudes, as well as predict eclipses.
  • Jean Buridan (1300–58): was a French philosopher and priest. Although he was one of the most famous and influent philosophers of the late Middle Ages, his work today is not renowned by people other than philosophers and historians. One of his most significant contributions to science was the development of the theory of impetus, that explained the movement of projectiles and objects in free-fall. This theory gave way to the dynamics of Galileo Galilei and for Isaac Newton's famous principle of Inertia.
  • Guy de Chauliac (1300-1368): was a French physician and surgeon who wrote the Chirurgia magna, a widely read publication throughout medieval Europe that became one of the standard textbooks for medical knowledge for the next three centuries. During the Black Death he clearly distinguished Bubonic Plague and Pneumonic Plague as separate diseases, that they were contagious from person to person, and offered advice such as quarantine to avoid their spread in the population. He also served as the personal physician for three successive popes of the Avignon Papacy.
  • John Arderne (1307-1392): was an English physician and surgeon who invented his own anesthetic that combined hemlock, henbane, and opium. In his writings, he also described how to properly excise and remove the abscess caused by anal fistula.
  • Nicole Oresme (c. 1323–82): was one of the most original thinkers of the 14th century. A theologian and bishop of Lisieux, he wrote influential treatises in both Latin and French on mathematics, physics, astronomy, and economics. In addition to these contributions, Oresme strongly opposed astrology and speculated about the possibility of a plurality of worlds.
  • Giovanni Dondi dell'Orologio (c. 1330-1388): was a clockmaker from Padua, Italy who designed the astarium, an astronomical clock and planetarium that utilized the escapement mechanism that had been recently invented in Europe. He also attempted to describe the mechanics of the solar system with mathematical precision.
Chamber of Secrets - Part 20

(gif is mine)

Pairing: Bucky x Reader

Summary: After the Avenger’s falling out, you were put in charge of putting Bucky together. Under King T’Challa’s orders, you were given a month’s time to create a new arm while simultaneously figure out how to get the triggering memories of his past out of his mind. As the time goes by, you found yourself confiding in him, despite his frozen state.

A/N: OooOOOooOOOOOhhhhh~  

Series Masterlist

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Ho Cho’s technique.

This surgical technique is used to control bleeding due to postpartum hemorrhage, this simple stitch offers additional safety to less experienced surgeons since the ureters and great vessels are not at risk, it controls postpartum hemorrhage by attachment and compression of the hemorrhage site of the endometrium or myometrium.

Mafia!/Criminal! AU Character Info(Part 1)

(( I’ve decided to set it up so that the characters are split up into two different underground groups, one being based in Japan (part 1) and the second in Russia (part 2). The first group is led by Yuuri, and contains most of the characters from Asian countries (except Leo, idk he just fits in). Also, all of the characters have been aged up by about 7 years. )) 

Find part 2 of the Mafia!/Criminal! AU here

·      Yuuri Katsuki, Age: 30

The boss. He appears to be softhearted and easily devastated in the face of failure, quiet, kind, and easily embarrassed, in order to gain sympathy and trust from others. In reality, his gentle façade hides a more cold and stoic personality. He’s still the leader of a mafia, and was trained to be ruthless. He will not tolerate insubordination, and will have anyone who opposes him “dealt with”. He’s not fond of doing his own dirty work, but will take matters into his own hands if need be.

·      Phichit Chulanont, Age: 27

The right hand man, hacker, and informant. Phichit is kind and cheerful, and he’s almost always seen smiling. Behind his smile lies a dangerous level of perceptiveness and intelligence, which he utilizes to gain information for Yuuri. He’s wickedly sharp at technology, and a hacker through-and-through. He works as the brains of the operation, gathering data on anyone and everyone that appears to be a threat. Phichit isn’t one for doing Yuuri’s dirty work, but is skilled at gathering information and spying in the field. His charisma and charm make it easy for him to gather data, and it also makes him incredibly dangerous.

·      Leo de la Iglesia, Age: 26

The mafia’s supplier. Leo is often laidback and easygoing, despite having one of the most dangerous jobs in the gang. However, he’s incredibly serious about his job as a supplier, and will go to extreme lengths to complete his job. He’s in charge of obtaining and trafficking anything that Yuuri tells him to, whether it is firearms, weapons, illegal drugs, or even people. In the field, there are many opportunities for the situation to go awry, so Leo is skilled at adapting and thinking quickly. In certain situations, he won’t hesitate to use his weapons to get things back under control.

·      Guang Hong Ji, Age: 24

The underground doctor. Guang Hong is rather mysterious, leaving most people wondering how someone like him could ever get involved in the underground mafia. He’s very gentle and kind, and an incredibly skilled doctor. He’s perfected many surgical techniques, and can often perform operations without leaving any trace of a scar. He also has a more intense and serious side, which only ever appears when he’s working.

·      Seung Gil Lee, Age: 26

The sniper. Seung Gil is another mysterious character in Yuuri’s mafia. He is rather quiet and “air-headed” when he’s not in the field, and prefers to keep to himself. While working, however, he’s acutely focused and highly dangerous. He uses his analytical and mathematical way of thinking to advantage in order to perfect his shots. He’s appears to be rather indifferent about his work, only truly caring about if he hits his target or not. It’s rumored that he has a softer and more emotional side to him, but, when confronted with the accusation, he will quickly and blatantly state that he does not.

·      Otabek Altin, Age: 25

The bodyguard. Otabek is Yuuri’s reliable and stoic bodyguard. He’s incredibly loyal to his boss, and will go to any length to protect him. Otabek is trained in multiple methods of martial arts, and is highly skilled at handling weaponry, no matter what it may be. He’s cool and collected, even in the most dire situations, which makes him perfect for doing most of Yuuri’s dirty work. Otabek is usually the one who “deals with” those who oppose his Boss, and he’s rather indifferent about it. At first, he was incredibly bothered by the request, but eventually he simply grew to see it as a precaution that needed to be taken to protect Yuuri and the entire operation.

·      Kenjirou Minami, Age: 24

The hustler. Kenjirou is usually perceived as having a bright and innocently naive personality. However, he’s actually incredibly cunning and clever, which is why he works as the mafia’s hustler. He’s one hell of a gambler, and he can beat anyone under the table. He’s skilled at using his charisma and innocence to scam others of information and money. He’ll play the innocent and naïve card to get his target to let down their guard. Kenjirou is a truly dangerous player who shouldn’t be underestimated.

anonymous asked:

So I have a fantasy society with very roughly 1830s technology. I'm fine with that, and I know how their medicine works. The thing is they're in contact with a much more modern society that's convinced them to start trials runs of aseptic technique and anesthesia instead of relying on the will of the gods to keep surgery patients alive. I need to know what can be done without an electrical grid, and what equipment can and can't fit through a five foot diameter magical portal.

This is VERY cool. I like this ask. You get a star.

Originally posted by imnotcoolenough4you

So there are a few ways you could run some anesthesia between worlds.

Things that require no power, ever, except possibly to make:

  • Disposable materials including scalpels
  • Antiseptics
  • Drapes
  • Actual literal doctors to do the training
  • Concepts like germ theory, surgical time-outs, etc.
  • Diagrams, textbooks, charts, journals, data
  • Airway equipment (laryngoscopes, ET tubes, etc.)
  • IV supplies
  • Medications (not those that need refrigerated though)
  • Non-powered beds for positioning

Things that require power but can be run on batteries:

  • Cardiac monitors / defibrillators
  • Ventilators
  • IV Pumps

Things that can power things that require power but can be run on batteries:

  • Batteries

Things that would be nice but require power:

  • Anesthesia machine
  • Powered beds

They’ll want to do surgery in a room with a high window that faces the sun (light is a Big Deal™ during surgery). They’ll also want that room to be clean (and easy-TO-clean), equipment for washing hands, and more.

Also remember that it’s not just tools and technology that your advanced society brings with them. Surgical techniques have improved A LOT. They’ll have a great deal to teach.

Just don’t forget that this kind of thing can breed some significant arrogance in the more modern side, too, and not everyone is willing to meet people where they are. I can see a HUGE fight going on over something as simple as handwashing.

Best of luck withy our story!!

xoxo, Aunt Scripty


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On 'Cultural Appropriation' and why it's not evil

Dear Tumblr,

I see quite a few posts here about ‘cultural appropriation’ and how it’s just the worst thing you’ve ever seen. I’m here to explain to you why it isn’t bad. 

Culture is meant to be shared. Without sharing ideas, foods, religious ideas, clothing, morals and so forth between communities and cultures, we cannot advance as a species. If Japan didn’t share it’s technology with the rest of the world, we’d be sunk. If Sweden decided not to share their surgical techniques, thousands of people would be dead or on short time. If other countries didn’t share their foods, we wouldn’t have delicious restaurants on every corner! 

Of course, that’s just the logical response, and Tumblr runs primarily on emotions, so I’ll provide those too. 

Any one of you who have read my previous works or my About are saying “What do you know, Lea?! You’re a stupid whitey, you don’t even have a dog in this fight!”

Actually, I do. Yes, I am white, in that I check the Caucasian box on surveys and government forms and in that’s what it says on my birth certificate, but honestly, I don’t have to be. I’m an 8th Native American, and I’ve been encouraged and asked several times to join the Nation. 

Normally that wouldn’t be important, but in this discussion I think it is, if only to stave off wave after wave of 'You’re white you dont matter’.

Some of the major complaints I see on here revolve around the following things: Clothing, Music, and Hairstyles. Superficial, non-important things that have somehow become sacred in the minds of Tumblr users (which is a direct reminder that most Tumblrites are 13-17 years old, and female). 

Lets start with Clothing. More specifically, lets start with Kimonos and Hairsticks. What I see on here a lot is reblogs of that post of the girl with the forks in her hair. You know the one. 



Seriously though, you know the one I mean, the girl who’s complaining about how stupid people look with 'chopsticks’ in their hair. 

But you see…

These are Hair Sticks. Hair sticks look a LOT like chop sticks.

Sometimes you can’t tell whats a chopstick and what’s a hair stick (the above are hairsticks, though). 

These could be either one.

And that’s okay, because most Japanese people don’t care. They actually consider it kind of nice that people are interested in their culture. 

On to Kimonos! 

This one is mostly white girls complaining (as always). “Kimonos are SACRED TO THE JAPANESE OMG HOW DARE WHITE PEOPLE WEAR THEM?!" 

Guys, have you ever been to Japan? The people there literally try to get you to wear a Kimono at every opportunity. They like when foreigners show appreciation for their culture by wearing traditional garments. It’s not an insult to them, it’s a joy, and you shouldn’t be offended. The same goes for people with henna tattoos and and other such things. Culture was meant to be shared. 

Music is another common complaint. "you cant listen to, make or perform [musical style] because you are not [ethnicity]!”

Music is a world wide thing, it’s a unifying experience, and EVERYONE has the right to experience, make and enjoy music. I, personally, love Indian music, Native American flute music, rap of all kinds but especially done in Spanish (have you ever heard Daddy Yankee - Gasolina? It’s amazing!). Just because it’s from a different culture, that doesn’t mean you can’t enjoy it, and don’t let ANYONE tell you otherwise. 

Hairstyles are also a big thing, and one of the things that makes me deeply ashamed of Tumblr, because you lot took to twitter en masse to attack a 14 year old girl over her hair, and that is not acceptable. For those of you who don’t know, Mallory Merk is a young girl who decided she would try Box Braids. She saw a girl wearing them while out on the town one day and said to herself, that’s awesome. I want to try that. She did, and SJWs became ENRAGED. Hundreds of black people from all over came to her defense, but it was too late, and Mallory just appologized for trying something new with her hair. That’s sad. Box braids, dread locks, buns, beehives, perms, mohawks…these things belong to anyone with hair. They may originate in a particular culture, but they are for everyone. Hairstyles are not sacred or protected. They’re fashion, they’re for those who like them. You do you and you don’t let people take that away by telling you you can’t.

There is on last thing on my list here, but its one that angers me. 


I need you to listen the fuck up, because this is important: No one, and I mean NO ONE, owns language. Language is fluid, language is changing, flowing, living and beautiful. To learn a new language, to use it, is a beautiful thing. 

Do NOT, EVER, tell someone that they cannot learn and use a new language. DO NOT tell someone they can’t speak a particular dialect, that they can’t use a phrase because they are the wrong color, from the wrong part of the world, have the wrong background, ect. Language is not a possession, it’s not something you can own. Language is beautiful, and everyone has the right to learn a new language, an old language, to use it and to make something beautiful with the words they are given. What you cannot do with it is twist it. You should not, knowing a language, twist and destroy words or give them new definitions to fit your own agenda, but learning and respecting a language? That’s something everyone should do. 

Sincerely, Lea.

anonymous asked:

Hi Dr. Ferox. I have a question in regard to the ethics of the procedures declawing/ear cropping. A veterinarian I worked with explained to me that she will declaw a cat because she fears that if she does not do it herself, the owner will find a way to have it done, and that way may not be through a licensed veterinarian. Do you think denying people such a "service" may lead to the animal being harmed by unlicensed people attempting to do it themselves? What can be done about this? Thank you.

I seriously hope there isn’t some layperson going around chopping off the last bone of a cat’s toes because a veterinarian declined to do it. If that is happening, both the owner seeking the procedure and the non-veterinarian should be heavily prosecuted for animal cruelty and performing acts of veterinary medicine without a license.

Originally posted by softly-satanic

Some vets will reluctantly agree to perform declawing of cats as a last resort because they feel that they understand just how much pain the cat will be in and use a higher quality analgesia protocol than another vet might. They feel that if it’s going to be done somewhere, it might as well be done by them with practiced surgical technique and the best quality pain relief available.

They may also believe that the cat will be rehomed, abandoned or euthanised due to not being declawed, and that therefore performing the procedure effectively saves the cat’s life. I think this belief is false, as the procedure is illegal here in Australia with no difference in the oversupply of cats. If someone is going to surrender their cat, they will do so. If they don’t have the surgical declawing option, which they perceive as an ‘easy’ solution, they are more likely to pursue a better compromise like soft paws or regular nail trimming.

Ear cropping is a little different in that it is a 100% cosmetic procedure with zero medical benefit for the dog. It’s only done for human aesthetics because somewhere along the line dog breeders decided that surgically altering a dog’s ears to the desired shape was easier than breeding them that way. It should be banned and universally condemned. If you want a breed with straight ears, then breed them to have straight ears. No breed should require surgery to ‘look right’.

Cat declawing, dog ear cropping and dog tail cropping are banned in Australia without a specific medical intervention, as it should be. Dog breeds that were traditionally docked and cropped have had no downturn in popularity, no increase in injury, and more and more breed clubs have banned surgically altered dogs from being shown. These are steps in the right direction.

If somebody attempts to dock tails or crop ears at home, they can be prosecuted for animal cruelty and I have had no hesitation in reporting them in the past. When I graduated the ban had only just come into effect, and many old school ‘breed enthusiasts’ were moaning about it. They complained that ‘young vets these days didn’t really understand dogs’ and similar such nonsense. They’ve had to get over it, and dogs get to keep their natural ears and tails as a result. Interestingly, Rottweilers in general seem much more confident with tails.

As veterinarians we are supposed to promote good animal welfare. That’s what started us on this path, right? Most (all?) professional veterinary associations condemn declawing, ear cropping and tail docking.

If we don’t decline to do unnecessary cosmetic surgery, then public opinion will never change, and the demand will never lessen. We owe it to the countless future dogs and cats yet to be born to speak out against these practices. This it why even if they were legal down here, I would personally refuse to do them.

(As a side note, desexing is entirely different. Desexing has a proven medical and social benefit, and is only soft tissue surgery compared to a partial amputation or cutting away cartilage. Far less pain, far more benefits.)

art by @wyrmcult

Full Name: Dr. Feainne Sunblossom

Other Names: Some used to call her Fea….but at the present, nobody has that privilege. 

Universe They Exist In: World of Warcraft

Gender and Sexuality: Cis heterosexual female

Pronouns: She/Her

Ethnicity/Species: Sin’dorei

Birthplace and Birthdate: She was born in Quel’thalas on November 11 and is currently 73 years old. 

Guilty Pleasures: Hard liquor (girl can put away whiskey), cheap Pandaren takeout, fantasy novels

Phobias: Failure, mistakes, malpractice

What They Would Be Famous For: Probably achievements in surgery/trauma mending and pioneering surgical techniques via Light magic. 

What Have They / Would They Gotten Arrested For: Though she hasn’t done anything yet, I can see her performing magic preeeetty close to necromancy in order to study anatomy in motion (like animating a limb or something). To her, she would see it as a scientific exercise and not a breach of morality. Might piss people off. 

Your Favorite OC Relationships: Feainne needs more friends (aka I need to RP her more) but @dorksworn ‘s Caeliri actually made her smile once or twice and she has a lot of respect for @retributionpriest ‘s Lirelle. She also gets along well with @brothersemberfell ‘s noodle monk Orion. 

OC Most Likely To Murder Them: HA probably a butthurt patient who didn’t like her bedside manner (which is rather lacking) or, more tragically, a family member of someone she couldn’t save. 

Favorite Book Genre: Scientific literature. Particularly ones with diagrams for new mending techniques. 

Least Favorite Book Cliche: Drama. She hates it. (If TV were a thing she’d try to sue the producers of Grey’s Anatomy and House, MD…nonrealistic filth!)

Talents and/or Powers: She’s a trauma mender specializing in Light-based magic. She uses it on a very small-scale level to heal complex wounds, focusing on internal injuries that require a great deal of anatomical knowledge. With the Light she’s able to knit together tissues, mend severed vessels, sense internal injuries, and even create a sterile scalpel-like Light blade for incisions. 

Why Someone Might Love Them: She’s probably hard to love, but she’d be loved because she’s intelligent, very knowledgeable about her craft, and stalwartly dedicated to her job.  

Why Someone Might Hate Them: Feainne’s sharp and callous, though she doesn’t actually mean to be. She often lets her duty get in the way of kindness, and values getting the job done over people’s feelings. To her, logic > emotion, so she can easily off people without meaning to, even though she harbors no ill will. 

How They Change: Feainne wasn’t always so unshakable or stoic. Years of training and years of bashing her own anxiety into the dust have made her the stony-faced surgeon she is today. She’s not entirely mentally healthy and bottles up her emotions without knowing how to process them…a result of the change required for her job. She used to lose control of her emotions, but now she puts up far too many walls. The opposite extreme. 

Why You Love Them: I love her because I aim to study medicine myself. I’ve had to guillotine emotions as soon as they cropped up, having seen some truly sad autopsy cases. I’ve seen it in surgeons I’ve known (parents’ friends) or shadowed. I even struggle with putting up walls myself. 

Why you Hate Them: Eh, I don’t hate any of my characters, but I dislike that she’s rude/standoffish/aloof in RP. It’s difficult to make friends for her! And I have a hard time writing her as callous as she is because I’m a friendly person behind the screen :(

Tags: I tagged a bunch of people in here so feel free!!


Ok, so my original Bathtub Bacta Post has been getting a TON of really great feedback, and I’ve had Yet More Ideas, so I figure it’s time for a second post to answer some questions and clarify points!


The conclusion reached in the original discussion of this topic is that in order to be “smeared on” as is described in multiple canon works, Bacta is probably about the same consistency as neosporin or vasaline, which is about the texture you want for, uh… the rough stuff.  Bacta is also great for treating micro-tears, which is also probably a good thing when you and your eight-armed partner decide to get freaky in the back of the freighter on the way to Concord Dawn or smth.

As with all forms of personal enjoyment, everyone has their own preferences, and probably more than a few people are going to be turned of by the medical/pineapple scent, or having to wait for the stuff to thaw out before use.


So, if you’re into star wars at all, you might have noticed the series have a few issues regarding canon, namely, there’s like, six canons, they all conflict, and basically most people have learned to pick out the parts they like best and chill.

TO THAT END, I’m drawing my use and statistical theories from the media i have most readily available and enjoy the most, namely the Clone Wars and Rebels animated series, the movies, and the Edge Of The Empire tabletop RPG system, which if you like star wars and rolling dice, you should all play right now.

No, really, go to your local nerd store and get the thing, you will thank me.

I KNOW, I KNOW, some of Y’all love the old EU and Legends and whatever, and You do You.  But EU does not regularly supply me with obscure economic data that my weird gremlin brain desires, so all of this is based on the newer canon(s), which are pretty explicit about bacta being short for Bacteria, and its administration and costs, if you’re willing to read between the lines a bit.

(If you wanna make you own post about bacta based on legends I’ll definitely give it a read!)


In EotE, the creators are nice enough to provide us with costs for everything your party might need, and an interesting cost discrepancy comes up:

“Basic” Medkit, which does not contain bacta: 50 cr

“Proper” Medkit, which does: 100 cr

Refills on bacta for proper Medkit: 20 cr.

Bacta Tank, which does not need refills if you don’t use it too much: 2000 cr


Bacta itself is pretty cheap, but the devices to administer it are expensive.  It also comes up in EotE that Bacta is transported Frozen (as half a sentence in the middle of an extensive paragraph about world-building, but it was important to keep the Players from doing something particularly VILE, so remember GMs- ALWAYS read all of your source material!), which leads me to believe that the extra 30 cr in the “proper” medkit are an administration device that thaws the stuff out

TANKS on the other hand, are like the vats bacta is grown in, and contain live cultures, so they don’t need to be re-filled.  It was a hell of a thing for the rebellion to accquire, but ultimately more cost-effective than trying to re-supply constantly.

Also, if you just sort of convert credits into USD, bacta is only slightly more expensive by the ounce than really good lube is.

4. to the half-dozen people int the tags freaking out that: YOU CAN’T JUST GROW A MEDICALLY IMPORTANT THING IN YOUR TUB!!!!

Guys, growing bacteria cultures is literally the easiest thing ever.  Just don’t do the dishes for a week.  No, really, growing bacteria for human consumption is a thing humans have been doing since probably three weeks after intentionally farming crops was discovered.

I have a red-wine-vinegar culture in an extra-large mason jar in my pantry right now.  His name is Steve, and I gave him a bottle of two-buck-chuck three months ago and give him a skimming every week or so.   Mom has a sourdough culture in the fridge back home.

This is easier than houseplants, and WAY easier than trying to brew your own booze, which has got fermentation, extraction AND the potential to explode on you, but people all over the world have been doing that with a remarkable level of safety since forever.

Like, it requires some know-how and probably a sterile container, but i promise IT’S NOT HARD AND REALLY FUN.


So, if Bacta is a microbial agent suspended in extra-thick Saline with vitamins, why not put other stuff in?  Especially if you were already in the Spice Trade, why not make a value-added product.  It’s not popularly discussed, but pretty much all banned drugs in the US have medicinal properties- IN REALLY SMALL DOSES. So while adding a lot of product to your bacta is probably a waste/going to kill someone, adding small amounts might get you something medically valuable.

To the one person in the tags concerned about “Pineapple Express” being a treatment of PTSD- yes, PTSD is a complicated disorder than needs probably both meds and therapy.  The name was a joke about my cousin’s favorite marijuana strain for treating his, and how it’s a pun about the smell.  Psychoactive compounds in Bacta would probably be very symptom-specific (anti-seizure, anti-anxiety, sedative, etc), and would not be a substitute for the therapy that like 90% of the galaxy needs.  But! It would be helpful perhaps, in treating people who have received traumatic injuries, to prevent them developing the disorder.

It DOES have an issue of any mutant strains of bacta could cause serious issues, like cancer or unwanted limbs, so there’s probably development of a bacta-killing counteragent in case of decontamination.  It’s the rebellion’s MOST secret project, both because they don’t want the empire releasing THAT on the galaxy, and because you start talking about drug-resistance and the military/diplomatic type’s eyes begin to glaze over.


So… anyone who knows anything about birth, probably saw episode three and went THAT’S NOT HOW ANY OF THAT FUCKING WORKS.  We can talk about how Lucas maybe doesn’t know how uteri work, but if we take everyone’s spectacular incompetence there as a deliberate world-building choice… it kinda fits.

See, Earth, right now, has the GFFA’s ass kicked, in terms of potential available medical care.  We have all manner of surgery that seems to be absent- like facial reconstructions and c-sections.  

The Blue Shadow Virus was a serious concern in TCW, despite the fact that they knew what the virus was (the talk of a major outbreak starts BEFORE they know it;s been modified)  Do they not have vaccinations in SW?  

In Shatterpoint, Mace Windu ruminates on how a breakdown of sanitation on Harun-Kal has resulted in the outbreak of many diseases like dysentery and pneumonia, which people die from, despite having access to a hospital.  

There’s also some debate to the average expected lifespan in SW: wookiepedia and other sources cite 120-150 as being average for humans, but the low age of consent (15 in the civilized parts), lack of secondary educational institutions and relative youth of most of the protagonists suggests that life in the GFFA is rather short. Besides a handful of force-users, there are no humanoid characters in SW over the age of 60. (and I’m 90% sure the force is pulling some life-extending BS with it’s favorite toys, but that’s another post)

MY THEORY:  because bacta (and previously, Kolto) ARE so effective at treating traumatic injury, it’s kind of sapped a lot of the demand for medical advancement in SW.  Lots of modern surgical technique was developed in response to wartime injuries, which led later on to studies like orthopedics and oncology and the like.  In a universe where people live “long enough” if they make it off the battlefield in less than three pieces, medical science lags behind due to lack of demand and opportunities to experiment.

ADDITIONALLY, as was brought up in the tags, the Jedi have been progressively losing their ability to heal using the force.  Partly, i think from Bacta serving as such an effective crutch that Healing is gradually removed from the syllabus and replaced with more lightsabers/murderology, partly from the creep of the Dark Side, and partly from people with the know-how getting killed off.

So yeah, magical healing juice? Not so great for civilization.


Ok, first of all, I’m so glad so many of you think “Uncle Jesse’s Extra-Viscosity Varmint Grease” Is funny because I thought of it at 4AM while on cold medicine and laughed way too much.  Varmint Grease comes from eastern Ohio, heartland of the northern redneck, and is used when you gotta squeeze under the porch or behind the water heater because the goddang skunk is back.  (It also makes an appearance in Futurama and I promise whoever wrote that joke is from Ohio)

Think of all the objects that get misappropriated to smuggle Bacta: Kids lunch boxes, fuel carries, imperial plumbing, some jackass carves compartments out in the doors of their speeders, which works great until they leave it out in the sun and the stuff sort of melts everywhere, doing exciting things to the upholstery.

Smugglers would also have to disguise the scent from customs officials with all manner of interesting things.  Like mint, which gives you an exciting sort of tingle if you’re one of those deviants that uses it as lube, or possibly vanilla.  Do not disguise scents with vanilla, it’s more potent than you think.

“Why does this ship smell like a bakery?”  Asks some dumbfounded official to the smugglers, who then produce the cookies they had to learn how to bake to explain why their ship smells like the Pillsbury doughboy’s asshole.

Their Pineapple-vanilla clusters turn out to be a great side business tho.

anonymous asked:

Stephen Strange! You created a surgical technique, yeah? Sorry, it was in my textbook for human anatomy. I'm not, like, a med student, far from it, but the class was required. Still, it's super cool that you can do medicine AND magic.

Magic? That’s a metaphor, right? Because my techniches are amazing…?

My father always hated magic tricks and stuff. He would always scold me whenever I mentioned things of the sort. Maybe because…there’s no magic.

jazzypizzaz  asked:

!!!!!!!!!!!! what are your biological headcanons for Trill??

sorry this took me so long to answer!! life’s been a mess lately. but so anyway here are my Trill thoughts:

the book excerpt you posted talked about how Trill neurochemistry is unusually complicated? which makes total sense. but what i think about a lot is how ridiculously complicated Trill vasculature must also be?? because the symbiont would obvi need a blood supply, but most Trills don’t have a symbiont, BUT all of them have the biological capability to have a symbiont (regardless of whether they have the psychological/neurochemical capability). (related: DO all of them have that capability? are some Trill born with internal structures that are incapable of supporting a symbiont? they would necessarily be excluded from the joining selection process. how is that handled in Trill society?)

so there must be all kinds of “extra” convoluted blood vessels in the abdomen of a Trill that can be used to nourish a symbiont, in the event that one is inserted. this could have a bunch of implications – the one i mostly use in fic is the headcanon that Jadzia’s hands are always freezing because relatively more of her circulatory system is in her abdomen and relatively less in her extremities (also it’s a nice mushy trope to contrast with the fact that Bajoran body temp is higher than both Trills and humans, which is also my headcanon. fight me). this is also related to that ep in season 2 when Jadzia’s symbiont was stolen and Julian was like ‘that leads to unstoppable death’ and the mechanics weren’t explained, and in my head i filled that in to be a combination of neurochemical imbalance and also nigh-unstoppable bleeding from the very complicated symbiont blood supply. and good LORD think about the internal mechanics of a Trill with a symbiont who is also PREGNANT, like, how is there any blood supply left for the mother, who the fuck knows, what an evolutionary mess.

WHICH ALSO LED ME TO THINK ABOUT how this arrangement evolved in the first place?? in modern Trill society symbiont transfer is done via surgery, but it couldn’t always have been like that. for such an intricate system to have functioned at all, it must have been evolving and in process MUCH longer than Trills have had modern society or surgical capabilities. (I think there is a star trek book somewhere out there that contradicts me on this, but fuck that). so my idea is that symbionts were originally a kind of parasite, probably one that infiltrated via the GI tract, probably one that was relatively benign. then it was noticed that Trills infected with this parasite sometimes displayed impossible knowledge and underwent bizarre personality changes and claimed to be different people, proving their claims by saying things that only their ‘other self’ would know, and this eventually got incorporated into various forms of Trill religion, and in that way the ‘parasites’ were cultivated and their evolution progressed in step with that of Trills until they attained the form of mutualism they have today. (i kind of like to think that symbionts have other, less obvious evolutionary benefits than just holding memories – like maybe they confer resistance to certain GI infections or filter out agents that cause blood diseases, maybe diseases that aren’t a problem anymore but would have been hugely important to early Trill.) the introduction of surgical techniques allowed the symbionts to undergo an explosion of growth (previously, in order to be passed on they would have to be small enough to be swallowed) so now they can be the size that they are.

also it’s my headcanon that the Trill spots are remnants of a system of arboreal camouflage, the same reason that leopards have spots. probably stone-age Trill were entirely spotted, head to toe, and the ‘racing stripe’ configuration is just the vestigial pattern randomly selected for when spots stopped being necessary for survival.

bonus Bajoran headcanons: Bajorans are smaller than humans, like Kira is average Bajoran height, and their metabolism is faster, including heart rate and etc. their basal body temp is higher and they tolerate heat better than humans but tolerate cold worse. they also can’t go as long as humans without food because their bodies burn through nutrients faster. the reason their spirituality involves grabbing the ear is because due to a quirk of evolution, there is a nerve branch in the left earlobe that is connected to the brainstem and produces a mildly euphoric/slightly disembodied sensation when stimulated, since it messes with proprioception (your awareness of where your body is). there is an artery that supplies this nerve, so the pulse can be felt in the ear. also: Bajoran nose ridges are sensitive and can be tickly like the soles of a human’s foot. Jadzia does a LOT of nose-smooching and Kira tries really hard to pretend that she hates it. 


anonymous asked:

A character of mine ends up getting pregnant unexpectedly. However, she can't have a child in her current situation, so she looks for an abortion. My question is, what would that procedure look like? Are there any side effects she would have to deal with after? She does a lot of physical activity on a daily basis, how much would that be affected? She is in her early 20s if that helps at all. Thank you so much!!

Okay. So I suppose we need to do one of these again:


So let’s get cracking!

First off, a lot of the specifics about the process of your character obtaining a safe, medically supervised abortion are going to vary by location. Laws regarding terminating pregnancy are very different in different places, and I strongly suggest you research not just those of the country your character lives in, but of the specific area you’ve set the story in as well. Your character may find it very challenging to even get to the process of actually speaking to a physician about her medical procedure.  

There is one thing to mention here: Your character turning to an unlicensed, unregulated, or otherwise “unauthorized” provider is a BAD IDEA. Terminations performed without the supervision of a physician CAN AND HAVE BEEN FATAL in the real world. There are many ways this can go wrong, and your character should have access to physicians before, during, and after the procedure.

In all cases of medically supervised abortion, there is some form of counseling about what the procedure entails and what she can expect. The details of these are often legally mandated, and I’m not going to discuss them beyond this, but it is worth researching this aspect as well.

All that said, there are two basic types of terminations: medical and surgical.

Medical Abortions

Most terminations in the first trimester—within 64 days, or 9 weeks, of fertilization—is done with medication rather than surgery. This is done with a 1-2 combination of medications, mifepristone and misoprostol. Your character will take the mifepristone in the doctor’s office, then misoprostol a couple hours later at home. About 4-6 hours after taking the misoprostol, your character’s pregnancy tissue will be expelled through her vaginal canal.

She will also likely experience abdominal cramping for a few hours (up to 8hrs after the misoprostol), and heavy vaginal bleeding for the first few hours. She may continue to have some bleeding for up to a couple of weeks. She may also experience fever, nausea, and vomiting as side effects of the medications.

It’s possible, but not very common, for a woman to be offered a medical abortion (aka induced abortion) in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy. There are several downsides to this approach. The risk of infection and hemorrhage is greater than a D&C or D&E, and in addition, there is a risk that the uterine contents won’t pass, or won’t pass completely, and a D&E may be necessary anyway. In the 2nd trimester, an induced abortion must be done in-hospital in a labor & delivery ward, whereas a surgical option can be performed in an outpatient setting.

Surgical Abortions (D&C, D&E)

By contrast, once past the 9-week mark, most US pregnancy terminations are done surgically, with a technique called dilation & curettage, or dilation & evactuation (D&C or D&E). The patient is placed in stirrups, her cervix dilated with medication and/or a speculum, and the inside of the uterus is typically scraped with a hooked implement called a curette, and/or the uterine contents are removed with suction. Many places use these terms interchangeably.

D&Cs/D&Es are quick, relatively painless procedures that are often completed inside of 30 minutes once actually initiated. It’s also worth noting that while this is a much more popular choice in the 2nd trimester, it can definitely be performed in the 1st trimester as well. It’s also worth noting that your character may or may not be offered some mild sedation.

Your character can expect some vaginal bleeding and lower abdominal pain and cramping after the procedure, which should last a few hours and will probably feel a lot better with some ibuprofen, though pain may persist.


No matter which way your character and her providers choose to terminate, your character will likely feel some malaise for a couple of days, in part from some blood loss, in part because her body is physically recovering from the pregnancy. Let how she’s feeling guide her exercise. She may choose to postpone or skip workouts, or shorten their duration. If she has a physical job, she may ask to take it easy for a couple of days. A couple of days’ worth of sick time would not be out of the question here.

Her ability to conceive children in the future won’t be affected by the procedure.

Overall, when abortion is performed by qualified providers with training, it is a safe procedure with low rates of complication (though complication rates increase as gestational length increases).

I hope this helps your writing!

xoxo, Aunt Scripty


The Script Medic is supported by generous donations on Patreon. Have you considered donating?


Pharma if he was in RiD  

“Vertebreak was part of Crystal City Science Council, he studies the surgical techniques of other worlds, disciplines such as unauthorized cybergrafting.
That was the Council thought, Vertebreak was expelled and swore reveng”

How to Survive the OR

(from someone who did it for two months with minimal yelling, puking, and fainting)

The OR is a very unique experience, and even if you 100% do not want to go into a surgical field it’s kind of a once in a lifetime thing and pretty freaking cool. I personally found the order and rhythm of OR days to be somewhat soothing (I’m weird and really get off on routine). That being said I was extremely nervous going into it and was terrified I was going to fuck up and/or die. So here are some tips I’ve compiled to hopefully make your OR experience enjoyable or, at the very least, tolerable.  


-GET COMPRESSION SOCKS/COMFORTABLE SHOES. Do not be me. Do not wait until a week of awful leg pain to decide to order compression socks. They were a complete game changer, especially since I’ve been very bullheaded about not buying Danskos so I was just wearing tennis shoes. You will be standing for 2-3 hours at a time if you’re lucky, 6+ hours if you’re not. And this will be repeated for about 10-12 hours a day. Also investing in massages is a great idea. The massage I got at the end of my first month of surgery was the best decision I’ve ever made. I almost cried when she worked on my quads because it hurt so good. 

-EAT, EAT, EAT. I’m not a big breakfast eater but I made sure to at least get a couple of protein bars in me before the day started. This will greatly decrease your chances of passing out, like my rotation partner did a few times. The resident actually told us to not work out in the morning because that will also get your system revved up and not help the situation if you’re already prone to fainting (not sure how legit this is because there’s no fucking way I was working out at 4am anyways). When it comes to water, keep hydrated but don’t down a liter before you go into the OR, or if you do make time for a bathroom break. And keep snacks on you that you can quickly scarf down between cases because who knows if you are going to be able to get a real lunch. 

Keep reading

anonymous asked:

How do you feel about phalloplasty?

Edit, April of 2015 - This was posted in July of 2014. There have since been new advancements in the realm of 3D printing penises but they did not exist at the time of this post. Estimates for when this 3D printing can be utilized for trans men do not exist currently as human trials in cis men are not even ready. Human trials for cis men are scheduled to occur in 4-5 years. Current estimates from the team in charge of this research, as well as prominent surgeons performing bottom surgery, say that this research won’t be available for trans men for another 15-20 years. [End of update]

I have very positive feelings about the outcome of the operations. I’ve done about as much research as a person can possibly do right now on phalloplasty, so I can answer most questions people have about it. I spend a good amount of my time clearing up misconceptions about phalloplasty, such as the very false idea that a person loses all sensation or won’t be able to orgasm afterwards (the reality being that nearly everyone reports satisfactory sexual sensation) . There’s a lot of extremely inaccurate information out there that continues to be spread every day and it’s dissuading people from having phallo done even though they want it. The reality right now is that phalloplasty results in a penis that is of average length, that is “passable” as a cis males penis, that one can use to urinate standing up and can use for sex, that retains tactile and erotic sensation from base to tip. To spare a lot of *’s, all of that also depends on the surgeon, surgeons technique, what operations the person opted for, and how the person heals, so keep in mind that there is variation. For instance a person might not have urethral lengthening done, so they’ll still sit down to pee.

As of right now there is also an immense amount of research going into phalloplasty itself as well as various other procedures that, combined, has a large potential to result in us being able to have phalloplasty done without the need for skin grafts or erectile devices some time within the next, say, 10 years. For instance it’s estimated that in 7 years using a 3D printer and stem cells to ‘print’ skin grafts will be commonplace, which gets rid of the need for donor sites; There is research into producing urethras from stem cells, also getting rid of the need for a donor site and further minimizing the complications of phalloplasty (which at this time almost all complications are related to urethral issues); There is research into creating large scale erectile tissue, which would take away the need for an erectile device and would allow us to achieve natural erections.

When research into all of this is completed and is able to be brought together the end result is a phalloplasty that has minimal scarring, can become erect on it’s own, and has a vastly reduced risk of urethral issues that might require further operations to fix. This doesn’t mean it’s a matter of sewing a fully developed penis onto a person, don’t get me wrong. I’m optimistic but I’m not unrealistic. There is still the matter of ensuring proper blood flow, of harvesting a nerve to attach to the nerves already present in your genitals so that it can grow and you have full sensation, of ensuring there is no necrosis of tissue while healing, and various other details, but it’s still a vast improvement in terms of how intensive the operations are right now. You’d most likely still need to have glansplasty done (to sculpt the head of the penis) and you’d need to have your testicular implants put in, but that’s this would be a large improvement.

I realize I may have gone a little off tangent here. Long story short, I believe that phalloplasty is a necessary procedure for me to live my life fully and as such I’ve done everything I can to be fully informed on what results are like now and where the surgical operations are headed in the future. I believe that where results are now is incredible and I believe that improved surgical techniques are not far away.

The LA Devil and His Fallen Angel -Bonus II

AUTHOR’S NOTE: Hey everyone. So I was asked by the lovely beautystrength88 to say how Ahsha got pregnant with the fourth baby from the Bonus. Anyway, here’s how Derek J. Roman II came about. I feel that I need to warn ya’ll that this fic contains sexually explicit content and adult situations. Enjoy! 

Keep reading

kevintheknob  asked:

First off, congratulations on your recent surgery! I'm ftm, 15, pre-everything, and I am curious as to how much it generally costs to have the top and/or bottom surgeries. Also, what are the preordained requirements for either? Thanks in advance!

Thank you! The answer to this question depends on an incredible number of individual factors. These factors include but are not limited to what you’re having done, who your surgeon is, where your surgeon is located, if the surgeon operates privately, if you have insurance coverage, and if you have complications. For a short and extremely generalized answer the (uninsured) prices are approximately:

Top surgery - $2,000 to $12,000
Hysterectomy -  $3,000 to $15,000
Metoidioplasty - $5,000 to $45,000
Phalloplasty - $30,000 to $110,000

Prices for top surgery and hysterectomies predominantly vary based on the surgical technique and the surgeon fee. Prices for metoidioplasty and phalloplasty are also effected by these factors but are greatly impacted by what you’d like to have done during the operation(s). For example, having a simple meta (a ‘release’) can cost close $5,000 or less while having a full meta (metoidioplasty, urethral lengthening, scrotoplasty, testicular implants, vaginectomy) will put the cost closer to the high end of that financial spectrum. Opting out of particular operations will lead to a lower cost. This meta-specific chart breaks down approximate costs by surgeon and operations performed. This post discusses the cost of phalloplasty specifically a little further.

Requirements for each operation depend on who the surgeon is and whether you’re going through insurance. For every operation you may require 1-2 letters of recommendation from a therapist and/or physician. For top surgery you may have to be on testosterone. For metoidioplasty and phalloplasty you do have to be on testosterone for 1-2 years unless you have a documented medical condition that prevents you doing so.

I hope this helped but please keep in mind that this is an incredibly simplified answer to a very complex question and that it doesn’t take into account how insurance impacts the costs and requirements for each operation. This is by no means an exhaustive list of factors that contribute to the cost of these operations, of the requirements of each operation, or of the actual costs of the operations themselves. My answer here will hopefully give you a general idea of what to expect but it’s best to contact the surgeons you’re interested in to ask about their specific requirements and costs.

Stem cells regenerate human lens after cataract surgery, restoring vision

Researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and Shiley Eye Institute, with colleagues in China, have developed a new, regenerative medicine approach to remove congenital cataracts in infants, permitting remaining stem cells to regrow functional lenses.

The treatment, which has been tested in animals and in a small, human clinical trial, produced much fewer surgical complications than the current standard-of-care and resulted in regenerated lenses with superior visual function in all 12 of the pediatric cataract patients who received the new surgery.

The findings are published in the March 9 online issue of Nature.

Congenital cataracts – lens clouding that occurs at birth or shortly thereafter – is a significant cause of blindness in children. The clouded lens obstructs the passage of light to the retina and visual information to the brain, resulting in significant visual impairment. Current treatment is limited by the age of the patient and related complications. Most pediatric patients require corrective eyewear after cataract surgery.

“An ultimate goal of stem cell research is to turn on the regenerative potential of one’s own stem cells for tissue and organ repair and disease therapy,” said Kang Zhang, MD, PhD, chief of Ophthalmic Genetics, founding director of the Institute for Genomic Medicine and co-director of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering at the Institute of Engineering in Medicine, both at UC San Diego School of Medicine.

In the new research, Zhang and colleagues relied upon the regenerative potential of endogenous stem cells. Unlike other stem cell approaches that involve creating stem cells in the lab and introducing them back into the patient, with potential hurdles like pathogen transmission and immune rejection, endogenous stem cells are stem cells already naturally in place at the site of the injury or problem. In the case of the human eye, lens epithelial stem cells or LECs generate replacement lens cells throughout a person’s life, though production declines with age.

Current cataract surgeries largely remove LECs within the lens; the lingering cells generate disorganized regrowth in infants and no useful vision. After confirming the regenerative potential of LECs in animal models, the researchers developed a novel minimally invasive surgery method that preserves the integrity of the lens capsule – a membrane that helps give the lens its required shape to function – and a way to stimulate LECs to grow and form a new lens with vision.

In subsequent tests in animals with cataracts and in a small human trial, they found the new surgical technique allowed pre-existing LECs to regenerate functional lenses. In particular, the human trial involved 12 infants under the age of 2 treated with the new method and 25 similar infants receiving current standard surgical care. The latter control group experienced a higher incidence of post-surgery inflammation, early-onset ocular hypertension and increased lens clouding.

The scientists reported fewer complications and faster healing among the 12 infants who underwent the new procedure and, after three months, a clear, regenerated biconvex lens in all of the patients’ eyes.

“The success of this work represents a new approach in how new human tissue or organ can be regenerated and human disease can be treated, and may have a broad impact on regenerative therapies by harnessing the regenerative power of our own body,” said Zhang, who also has an appointment at Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System.

Zhang said he and colleagues are now looking to expand their work to treating age-related cataracts. Age-related cataracts is the leading cause of blindness in the world. More than 20 million Americans suffer from cataracts, and more than 4 million surgeries are performed annually to replace the clouded lens with an artificial plastic version, called an intraocular lens.

Despite technical advances, a large portion of patients undergoing surgery are left with suboptimal vision post-surgery and are dependent upon corrective eyewear for driving a car and/or reading a book. “We believe that our new approach will result in a paradigm shift in cataract surgery and may offer patients a safer and better treatment option in the future.”