surgical

anonymous asked:

Could you talk a little about "teacup" dogs? I know they're unethical and not real breeds, but I'm curious why they're unethical and what some of the problems associated with them are.

Dogs are living things that aren’t supposed to get smaller with every generation. Some of the ethical concerns with breeding them are:

  • High risk to the mother when pregnant being so small. This is both in terms of pregnancy complications, giving birth and developing hypocalcaemia when lactating.
  • Breeding runt dogs together - often closely related individuals, or individuals with other illnesses (eg liver shunts)
  • High risk of hydrocephalus. That bulging look to the skull with the eyes that look slightly apart instead of straight again? That’s hydrocephalus.
  • Seizures and other neurological abnormalities can occur secondary to the hydrocephalus.
  • High risk of hypoglycaemia (low blood sugar). This may be related both to their small size and potential liver issues
  • They often have abnormal joints, Medial Luxating Patella being the most common. And being so small, surgically correcting this dislocating kneecap is extremely difficult.
  • They’re also physically fragile, injuring themselves jumping off couches can fracture their legs, and they’re easy to accidentally severely injure underfoot.
  • Let’s not mention their frequent dental disease
  • Collapsing trachea is common, because the cartilage that holds open the airways is weak and small. Some dogs have a chronic cough, some dogs frequently faint, and this gets worse with age.
  • Liver shunts are a common cause on runty dogs, and unsurprisingly when you consistently breed runts together the condition becomes more common. Some of these dogs are treatable with surgery, some are not, but surgery is expensive and not all dogs are normal even with treatment.

Just don’t fall for this scam. These are living dogs, not objects that you can breed for fashion. Everyone I know who purchased one, who didn’t just pull the pit when managing it got expensive, regretted their purchase. 

Photographs of William W. Keen’s successful operation to remove a brain tumor from a 26-year old patient, 1887. The patient was a carriage maker who exhibited symptoms of severe headaches, seizures, and partial blindness; he also had a history of a head injury and was prone to aphasia.

Owing to Keen’s demands at that proper antiseptic measures were taken for the operation (including removing the carpet and cleaning walls and ceiling), the tumor was removed after a two hour operation. Despite some complications with wound closure and cerebrospinal fluid leak, the patient lived for thirty years, even donating his brain to his surgeon for anatomical study.

Journal of the American Medical Association, 1918.

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Microsurgical Resection of Tumor of the Lateral Ventricle:

The surgical management of tumors of the lateral ventricles (LV) and the third ventricle (TV) remains a distinct challenge for neurosurgeons due to the deep and difficult-to-reach location and frequent involvement of adjacent critical neurovascular structures. An appropriate surgical approach should provide adequate operative working space with minimal brain retraction or brain transgression. To accomplish these goals, neurosurgeons may choose an approach that necessitates a longer distance to reach the tumor if it minimizes the amount of brain tissue that is resected or placed at risk by the approach. Furthermore, selection of the optimal approach to ventricular tumors depends on multiple other factors including the size of the ventricles and the tumor, the location of the arterial supply, pathological features of the tumor, and the surgeon’s experience. This video provides an overview of the open surgical operative corridors to the lateral tumors, highlighting the key surgical principles.

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Microsurgical Resection of Tumor of the Third Ventricle:

The surgical management of tumors of third ventricle (TV) remains a distinct challenge for neurosurgeons due to the deep and difficult-to-reach location and frequent involvement of adjacent critical neurovascular structures. An appropriate surgical approach should provide adequate operative working space with minimal brain retraction or brain transgression. To accomplish these goals, neurosurgeons may choose an approach that necessitates a longer distance to reach the tumor if it minimizes the amount of brain tissue that is resected or placed at risk by the approach. Furthermore, selection of the optimal approach to ventricular tumors depends on multiple other factors including the size of the ventricles and the tumor, the location of the arterial supply, pathological features of the tumor, and the surgeon’s experience. This video provides an overview of the open surgical operative corridors to the TV tumors, highlighting the key surgical principles.

The truth about medical training: aka a mantra I need to repeat

You will make mistakes. 

You will not have all the answers. 

You will think you’re catching on, when the truth is you really have no idea what you’re doing. 

You will make mistakes. 

You’ll miss the diagnosis. You’ll pick the wrong treatment. You’ll forget to order the essential lab. Your hand will waver in the OR. 

You will make mistakes. 

Making mistakes is part of the process. 

There will be next times. 

Next times you will remember this time. Next time your hand will be steady - your mind certain. Next time things will fall into place. Next time you will be better. 

You will make mistakes. But you will not make the same mistakes. 

You will make mistakes. But you’ll learn from them. 

You will make mistakes – make them great ones. 

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Keyhole Surgery Not Recommended for Degenerative Knee Disease:

“Keyhole” arthroscopic surgery should rarely be used to repair arthritic knee joints, a panel of international experts say in new clinical guidelines.

Clinical trials have shown that keyhole surgery doesn’t help people suffering from arthritis of the knees any more than mild painkillers, physical therapy or weight loss.

Keyhole surgery is one of the most common surgical procedures in the world, with more than 2 million performed each year. The United States alone spends about $3 billion a year on the procedure.

The new guidelines – published online in the BMJ – were issued as part of the journal’s initiative to provide up-to-date recommendations based on the latest evidence. The guidelines make a strong recommendation against arthroscopy for nearly all cases of degenerative knee disease. This includes osteoarthritis as well as tears of the meniscus. However, arthroscopic surgery still can help people with joint movement problems caused by meniscus tears who have not developed moderate or severe knee osteoarthritis.

Roman Bronze Castration Tongs, 1st-4th Century AD

Two arms hinged and closed by a screw nut form an oval-like ring, accompanied by the serrated teeth of two longer arms. The penis was kept out of harm’s way by insertion through the oval, while the teeth sliced away the skin between the scrotum and the body.

What I want to know is, why are men so interested in watching sexual violence against fictional women? Why do both of the first two Star Trek reboot movies involve a woman being watched stripping without her knowledge? Why does historical accuracy only apply to sexual assault against women and the erasure of POC, and not the total lack of bathing, horrifying surgical techniques, and everyone dying from the plague? Why do men want to watch women being called whores and sluts? If you claim not all men, why do you all seem to want to watch it?