surface study

All Eyes on the Sky for the August 21 Total Solar Eclipse

Just two months from now, the moon will completely block the sun’s face, treating part of the US to a total solar eclipse.

Everyone in North America will have the chance to see an eclipse of some kind if skies are clear. Anyone within a 70-mile-wide swath of land — called the path of totality — that stretches from Oregon to South Carolina will have the chance to see a total eclipse.

Throughout the rest of the continent, including all 50 United States — and even in parts of South America, Africa, Europe, and Asia — the moon will partially obscure the sun, creating a partial eclipse.

Photo credit: NASA/Cruikshank

An eclipse is one of nature’s most awesome sights, but safety comes first! When any part of the sun’s surface is exposed, use proper eclipse glasses (not sunglasses) or an indirect viewing method, like a pinhole projector. In the path of totality, it’s safe to look directly at the eclipse ONLY during the brief moments of totality.

During a solar eclipse, the moon passes between the sun and Earth, casting a shadow down on Earth’s surface. We’ve been studying the moon with NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, and its precise mapping helped NASA build the most accurate eclipse map to date.

During a total solar eclipse, the moon blocks out the sun’s bright face, revealing the otherwise hidden solar atmosphere, called the corona. The corona is one of the sun’s most interesting regions — key to understanding the root of space weather events that shape Earth’s space environment, and mysteries such as why the sun’s atmosphere is so much hotter than its surface far below.

This is the first time in nearly 100 years that a solar eclipse has crossed the United States from coast to coast. We’re taking advantage of this long eclipse path by collecting data that’s not usually accessible — including studying the solar corona, testing new corona-observing instruments, and tracking how our planet’s atmosphere, plants, and animals respond to the sudden loss of light and heat from the sun.

We’ll be studying the eclipse from the ground, from airplanes, with research balloons, and of course, from space.

Three of our sun-watchers — the Solar Dynamics Observatory, IRIS, and Hinode, a joint mission led by JAXA — will see a partial eclipse from space. Several of our Earth-observing satellites will use the eclipse to study Earth under uncommon conditions. For example, both Terra and DSCOVR, a joint mission led by NOAA, will capture images of the moon’s shadow from space. Our Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter will also turn its instruments to face Earth and attempt to track the moon’s shadow as it moves across the planet.

There’s just two months to go until August 21, so make your plans now for the big day! No matter where you are, you can follow the eclipse as it crosses the country with live footage from NASA TV.

Learn more about the upcoming total solar eclipse — including where, when, and how to safely experience it — at and follow along on Twitter @NASASun.  

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Astronomy and Astrophysics: Facts

Here is a list of some curiosities of astronomy and astrophysics. From our solar system to interstellar space.

Rings of Saturn: With an estimated local thickness of as little as 10 m and as much as 1 km, they are composed of 99.9% pure water ice with a smattering of impurities that may include tholins or silicates. The main rings are primarily composed of particles ranging in size from 1 cm to 10 m.

Valhalla (crater): Valhalla is the largest multi-ring impact crater on Jupiter’s moon Callisto and in the Solar System. It is named after Valhalla, the God Odin’s hall in Norse mythology where warriors are taken after death. 

Europa (lineae):  Europa’s most striking surface features are a series of dark streaks crisscrossing the entire globe, called lineae (English: lines). Close examination shows that the edges of Europa’s crust on either side of the cracks have moved relative to each other. The larger bands are more than 20 km (12 mi) across, often with dark, diffuse outer edges, regular striations, and a central band of lighter material. The most likely hypothesis states that the lineae on Europa may have been produced by a series of eruptions of warm ice as the Europan crust spread open to expose warmer layers beneath. The effect would have been similar to that seen in Earth’s oceanic ridges.

Tartarus Dorsa: The western part of Pluto’s northern hemisphere consists of an extensive, highly distinctive set of 500-meter-high mountains informally named Tartarus Dorsa; the spacing and shape of the mountains looks similar to scales or tree bark. 

Mountain in Ceres: Ahuna Mons is the largest mountain on the dwarf planet and asteroid Ceres. It protrudes above otherwise smooth terrain, it is not an impact feature, and it appears to be the only mountain of its kind on Ceres. Bright streaks run top to bottom on its slopes; these streaks are thought to be salt, similar to the better known Cererian bright spots, and likely resulted from cryovolcanic activity from Ceres’s interior. It is named after the traditional post-harvest festival Ahuna of the Sumi Naga people of India.

Pluto has a tenuous atmosphere consisting of nitrogen (N2), methane (CH4), and carbon monoxide (CO), which are in equilibrium with their ices on Pluto’s surface. According to the measurements by New Horizons, the surface pressure is about 1 Pa(10 μbar), roughly one million to 100,000 times less than Earth’s atmospheric pressure. It was initially thought that, as Pluto moves away from the Sun, its atmosphere should gradually freeze onto the surface; studies of New Horizons data and ground-based occultations show that Pluto’s atmospheric density increases, and that it likely remains gaseous throughout Pluto’s orbit.  

Sagittarius A*: Sagittarius A*  is a bright and very compact astronomical radio source at the center of the Milky Way, near the border of the constellations Sagittarius and Scorpius. It is part of a larger astronomical feature known as Sagittarius A. Sagittarius A* is thought to be the location of a supermassive black hole, like those that are now generally accepted to be at the centers of most spiral and elliptical galaxies.

Double Pulsar: PSR J0737−3039 is the only known double pulsar. It consists of two neutron stars emitting electromagnetic waves in the radio wavelength in a relativistic binary system. The two pulsars are known as PSR J0737−3039A and PSR J0737−3039B. It was discovered in 2003 at Australia’s Parkes Observatory by an international team led by the radio astronomer Marta Burgay during a high-latitude pulsar survey.

IC 1101: IC 1101 is a supergiant elliptical galaxy at the center of the Abell 2029 galaxy cluster, approximately 320 megaparsecs (1.04 billion light-years) from Earth. IC 1101 is among the largest known galaxies, but there is debate in the astronomical literature about how to define the size of such a galaxy.

A rogue planet (also termed an interstellar planet, nomad planet, free-floating planet, orphan planet, wandering planet, starless planet, sunless planet, or Planemo) is a planetary-mass object that orbits the galaxy center directly. Such objects have been ejected from the planetary system in which they formed or have never been gravitationally bound to any star or brown dwarf. The Milky Way alone may have billions of rogue planets.

souce: wikipedia

Image credit: NASA/JPL/SwRI, Ted Stryk, John Rowe Animations, commons.wikimedia 

“We’re not a large house, but we are a proud one. Every man on Bear Island fights with the strength of 10 mainlanders.”

“If they’re half as ferocious as their lady, the Boltons are doomed.”

Throwback to when my favourite little lady generously offered her soldiers - all 62 of them 😂

“Your Cup is Full”. Study for a Minoan cylinder seal impression*, 2012/2017

Acrylics on prepaped paper, 13.7 x 18.5 cm

Last month I had a dream involving an old memory exercise – the blind study of an ancient Minoan cylinder seal impression painted back in 2012.

In my dream I return to the studio after a walk and realize I have a guest: someone is shuffling through drawings in complete darkness! I switch the light on and find myself standing in the middle of a subterranean place of worship. In front of me there’s a Persian girl examining my drawings scattered on the floor among oddly shaped (votive?) coins and gemstones. After a while she pulls this old sheet of studies, nods thoughtfully and cuts the seal impression out of it with scissors. She inspects the painting again before producing a qalam from the folds of her colourful hide and writing something just above the grotesque griffin figure. She then hands the sheet over to me with a lovely smile. To my surprise the tiny piece of paper weighs like an apple; the Farsi calligraphy reads “Your cup is full”. I reach out to touch the writing but my hand meets with an obstacle - there’s an invisible object sitting on the surface of the study!

Upon awakening I promptly pulled the sheet from the heap, cut out the impression, brought it as close to the dream version as I could and added the gilded calligraphy. Now haunted by the memory of the invisible object I can’t help touching the writing every now and then fully expecting the phantom barrier to block my finger.


Ocean Worlds Beyond Earth

We’re incredibly lucky to live on a planet drenched in water, nestled in a perfect distance from our sun and wrapped with magnetic fields keeping our atmosphere intact against harsh radiation and space weather.

We know from recent research that life can persist in the cruelest of environments here on Earth, which gives us hope to finding life thriving on other worlds. While we have yet to find life outside of Earth, we are optimistic about the possibilities, especially on other ocean worlds right here in our solar system.  

So…What’s the News?!

Two of our veteran missions are providing tantalizing new details about icy, ocean-bearing moons of Jupiter and Saturn, further enhancing the scientific interest of these and other “ocean worlds” in our solar system and beyond!

Cassini scientists announce that a form of energy for life appears to exist in Saturn’s moon Enceladus, and Hubble researchers report additional evidence of plumes erupting from Jupiter’s moon Europa.

The Two Missions: Cassini and Hubble


Our Cassini spacecraft has found that hydrothermal vents in the ocean of Saturn’s icy moon Enceladus are producing hydrogen gas, which could potentially provide a chemical energy source for life.

Cassini discovered that this little moon of Saturn was active in 2005. The discovery that Enceladus has jets of gas and icy particles coming out of its south polar region surprised the world. Later we determined that plumes of material are coming from a global ocean under the icy crust, through large cracks known as “tiger stripes.” 

We have more evidence now – this time sampled straight from the plume itself – of hydrothermal activity, and we now know the water is chemically interacting with the rock beneath the ocean and producing the kind of chemistry that could be used by microbes IF they happened to be there.

This is the culmination of 12 years of investigations by Cassini and a capstone finding for the mission. We now know Enceladus has nearly all the ingredients needed for life as we know it.

The Cassini spacecraft made its deepest dive through the plume on Oct. 28, 2015. From previous flybys, Cassini determined that nearly 98% of the gas in the plume is water and the rest is a mixture of other molecules, including carbon dioxide, methane and ammonia. 

Cassini’s other instruments provided evidence of hydrothermal activity in the ocean. What we really wanted to know was…Is there hydrogen being produced that microbes could use to make energy? And that’s exactly what we found!

To be clear…we haven’t discovered microbes at Enceladus, but vents of this type at Earth host these kinds of life. We’re cautiously excited at the prospect that there might be something like this at Enceladus too!


The Hubble Space Telescope has also been studying another ocean world in our solar system: Europa!

Europa is one of the four major moons of Jupiter, about the size of our own moon but very different in appearance. It’s a cold, icy world with a relatively smooth, bright surface crisscrossed with dark cracks and patches of reddish material.

What makes Europa interesting is that it’s believed to have a global ocean, underneath a thick crust of ice. In fact, it’s got about twice as much ocean as planet Earth!

In 2014, we detected evidence of intermittent water plumes on the surface of Europa, which is interesting because they may provide us with easier access to subsurface liquid water without having to drill through miles of ice.

And now, in 2016, we’ve found one particular plume candidate that appears to be at the same location that it was seen in 2014. 

This is exciting because if we can establish that a particular feature does repeat, then it is much more likely to be real and we can attempt to study and understand the processes that cause it to turn on or off. 

This plume also happens to coincide with an area where Europa is unusually warm as compared to the surrounding terrain. The plume candidates are about 30 to 60 miles (50 to 100 kilometers) in height and are well-positioned for observation, being in a relatively equatorial and well-determined location.

What Does All This Mean and What’s Next?

Hubble and Cassini are inherently different missions, but their complementary scientific discoveries, along with the synergy between our current and planned missions, will help us in finding out whether we are alone in the universe. 

Hubble will continue to observe Europa. If you’re wondering how we might be able to get more information on the Europa plume, the upcoming Europa Clipper mission will be carrying a suite of 9 instruments to investigate whether the mysterious icy moon could harbor conditions favorable for life. Europa Clipper is slated to launch in the 2020s.

This future mission will be able to study the surface of Europa in great detail and assess the habitability of this moon. Whether there’s life there or not is a question for this future mission to discover!

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Two More Times the Gods Bothered Icarus at Work

The library doesn’t actually pay, per se, but if he volunteers a given number of hours, it does give him vouchers for select items purchased at the campus shops – class supplies, food and other sundries.  Icarus did the math and determined that the value of the vouchers was nearly as good as actual money, with the added benefit of the convenient location where he could stop by between classes easily and rack up hours for the week. 

And it’s fairly peaceful work.  Running the checkout desk; entering returned books into the computer; shelving books; light cleaning.  And Icarus is free to do some of his own homework as well, as long as he gets the list of tasks done, while still earning credit for being there.  Hard to complain about it.

He enjoys the tasks, and enjoys the hush of the narrow aisles, packed with books on either side, higher than his head.  They have a good section on aviation: old and new books; practical and philosophical; aeronautical and astronautical.  Icarus likes to sneak back to steal a few browse through them whenever he can.

Icarus is on his way back to the front counter with two books in hand, when he hears a yelp of surprise, two feet to his left, where there are a couple small steps leading up to the study carrels and tables. 

Keep reading

star-anise  asked:

Can you pls write one of the SMH doing fiber arts?

Why yes I can! Have some Frog bonding.

“I’m sure they’ll let me back into Annie’s by now,” Nursey insisted to Chowder as he knocked on Dex’s door. “The sign incident was ages ago.”

“Oh, yeah, I’m sure,” Chowder said vaguely, distracted as he was by a text from Cait.

“It’s open,” Dex called.

Nursey opened the door and stuck his head into Dex’s room. “Hey, bro, you wanna go with me and C to…” He trailed off as he actually registered what he was seeing. “What are you doing?”

Dex was seated cross-legged on his bed, some kind of cloth in one hand and a threaded needle in the other, an open box filled with a rainbow of other threads next to him. He looked down at his lap and then back at Nursey like he was a moron. “Cross-stitch? What does it look like?”

Nursey came the rest of the way into the room so he could get a better look. “I wouldn’t know, man, my sister did ballet and my mom doesn’t do crafty shit.”

Chowder looked up from his phone and followed Nursey in, bouncing over to Dex’s side cheerfully. “How cool! What is it?”

“Uh, a fractal.”

“You can make fractals out of thread?!”

Dex cracked a smile. “Yeah, sure.” He handed the fabric on the hoopy thing over to Chowder, who ran a finger over the surface as he studied it intently.

Nursey pulled out Dex’s desk chair and sat down on it backwards, resting his chin on his folded arms. “Why do you do it?”

Dex shot him a suspicious glance. “Because it’s soothing and methodical and more portable than Legos.”

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anonymous asked:

HC where MC has the hiccups??? Thought it would be cute and fluffy thank you goodbye have a lovely day ❤

OH GOODNESS I am so sorry for how late this is. But hopefully it didn’t disappoint. ^^ I certainly aimed for cute and fluffy!

Requests are open.~


  • lbr he thinks everything you do is cute
  • so this includes when you have the hiccups
  • he hears your little hiccups and his first thought is “omg so cute!!”
  • your glare is what finally brings him to sympathy rather than amusement
    • “I’m sorry Princess…you’re just so cute!”
  • it doesn’t help that he also thinks it’s cute when you’re mad
  • even when it’s at him
  • afterward he tells you to hold your breath to try to help them go away
  • ends up holding his breath with you until they’re gone
  • and only teases you a little bit afterward


  • super attentive tbh
  • he absolutely hates getting hiccups so
  • he treats you like you’re really sick even though you tell him you’re fine
  • tries to bring you food to bed
  • he’s so sweet like it’s just the hiccups it’s okay bby
  • brings you water and rubs your back
  • he googles a list of hiccup cures and makes you do them one by one until something works
  • you give him a big kiss once they’re gone
  • he’s so precious with his medical studies really surfacing


  • she’s got at least five remedies on the tip of her tongue
  • you hiccup once and she’s listing them all
  • glass of water at the ready as she tells you ways to stop them
  • like this girl has you covered as always
  • you are amazed because she is prepared for like everything?
  • it is nearly impossible to catch her off guard
  • seriously you’ve never gotten rid of the hiccups so quickly in your life
  • when all is said and done she’s rubbing soothing circles on your back
    • “Are you feeling okay, MC? Some people have really painful hiccups.”
  • as if you had a chance for it to hurt, seriously they were gone so quickly


  • this overprotective boy starts to panic very easily over things like this whenever you’re involved
  • one cough from you and he’s calling his private doctor to come check you out
  • so when you get the hiccups he starts to worry, not helped by the fact that he doesn’t really know how to help you
    • “MC, shall I call a doctor?”
    • “Jumin, what? *hic* No…it’s just the *hic* hiccups!”
  • like it’s almost amusing and definitely endearing
  • he looks worried when you’re holding your breath trying to get rid of them surely that is not the safest remedy
  • like this poor boy is actually kind of worried help him
  • finally calms down when you get them to go away
  • he’s pampering you for a good several hours after that as if you’d recovered from some terminal illness rather than simply swallowing too much air


  • hiccups?
  • more like a license to scare with no consequences
  • he sets up all kinds of booby traps all over the house
  • he comes to you as you hiccup with an evil smirk
    • “Ready to kill those hiccups?”
    • uh oh
  • you know what’s coming but end up jumping at literally every trap anyway
  • and at the end you’re…still hiccupping
    • “Well…I heard tickling is another way to cure hiccups…”
  • commence tickling war
  • somewhere between squealing laughter and attempting to tickle him instead, they vanish
  • you don’t realize it until you two are tangled on the floor, exhausted and breathless from laughing
    • “Hey, I’m cured!”
    • “Did you have any doubts? Defender of Justice is always here to help!”
  • as if it wasn’t an excuse to goof off for hours

For lack of better content at the moment, I thought I’d share some of my environment speedpaints from the past week. I was recently given a very generous gift (Surface Pro 4), which I used to paint these.

Thank you to the amazing person who made drawing and painting that much better for me! And thank you all for looking. ;u;

I plan on getting back to business soon with regular updates. Stay tuned!

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I’m the original creator of these paintings. I’m so happy if you like them, but please don’t repost them. Reblog this post instead, thanks!