Go for Venus! Fifty-five years ago this week, Mariner 2, the first fully successful mission to explore another planet launched from Cape Canaveral in Florida. Here are 10 things to know about Mariner 2.
1. Interplanetary Cruise
On August 27, 1962, Mariner 2 launched on a three and a half month journey to Venus. The little spacecraft flew within 22,000 miles (about 35,000 kilometers) of the planet.
2. Quick Study
Mariner 2’s scan of Venus lasted only 42 minutes. And, like most of our visits to new places, the mission rewrote the books on what we know about Earth’s sister planet.
3. Hot Planet
The spacecraft showed that surface temperature on Venus was hot enough to melt lead: at least 797 degrees Fahrenheit (425 degrees Celsius) on both the day and night sides.
4. Continuous Clouds
The clouds that make Venus shine so bright in Earth’s skies are dozens of miles thick and permanent. It’s always cloudy on Venus, and the thick clouds trap heat - contributing to a runaway “greenhouse effect.”
5. Night Light
Those clouds are why Venus shines so brightly in Earth’s night sky. The clouds reflect and scatter sunlight, making Venus second only to our Moon in celestial brightness.
6. Under Pressure
Venus’ clouds also create crushing pressure. Mariner 2’s scan revealed pressure on the surface of Venus is equal to pressure thousands of feet under Earth’s deepest oceans.
7. Slow Turn
Mariner 2 found Venus rotates very slowly, and in the opposite direction of most planets in our solar system.
8. Space Travel Is Tough
Mariner 2 was a remarkable accomplishment, considering that in 1962 engineers were still in the very early stages of figuring out how operate spacecraft beyond Earth orbit. The first five interplanetary missions launched - by the U.S. and Soviet Union, the only two spacefaring nations at the time - were unsuccessful.
The first (and still incredibly rare) photo of the surface of Venus was taken by the Soviet Venera 9 lander, which survived for a little more than a minute under the crushing pressure and intense heat on the ground.
Transits got me thinking about love again, so here you go, a master post on transits that involve love, meeting people, etc etc (Probably only going to include positive ones). Hopefully I don’t miss any. (keep in mind that these are like, unafflicted aspects so don’t be like “this isnt happening for me” because chances are something is afflicting it or you are literally not taking advantage of the power it’s providing you with)
Mercury Retrograde Increases likelihood of reconnecting with people from your past (can either be a good or bad thing). Especially effective in houses that deal with relationships (3rd, 5th, 7th, and 11th), but really it can happen in any house, like for example, in the 9th house it might be due to traveling that you meet someone from your past.
Venus Retrograde Increases likelihood of reconnecting with a past lover. Again like the Mercury Retrograde, it can be bad or good, depends if you wanna see your ex again.
Venus Transiting Specific Houses
Venus transiting your Third House
A good time for confessing love/reassuring your loved one’s that you love them.
Venus transiting your Fifth House
Increases likelihood of finding a love interest while working in your area of creativity. Finding a love interest during this transit without having to surrender who you are means you can be yourself around this person.
Venus transiting your Seventh House
Helps all relationships, whether it be friends, a lover, or enemies. Expressing love is easier during this time. Increases likelihood of meeting a new love interest as well.
Venus transiting your Eighth House
Relationships that begin in this transit leave big impacts on your life whether they be good or bad. Gives existing relationships closer intimacy and intensity. During this time, you are able to see the whole ocean your relationship represents versus just its surface.
Venus transiting your Ninth House
Attraction for people who are strange or different increases during this time.
Venus transiting your Tenth House
The likelihood of falling in love with someone who’s older or above you increases during this time.
Venus transiting your Eleventh House
Likelihood of falling in love with a friend increases. Existing love relationships may bring in new friendships.
Venus transiting your Twelfth House
Denial of being in love.
Other Planets Transiting the 5th and 7th House
Sun transiting your Seventh House Likelihood of meeting a new love interest during this time is increased. You will also take relationships some what lightly during this time.
Sun transiting your Seventh House A time to discuss with your partner about the importance of the relationship, examine your roles in each others lives.
Moon transiting your Fifth house Emotional experiences with love are brought out during this time. You may also be very protective of your lover during this time.
Moon transiting your Seventh House Relationships and marriage will be important to you during this time.
Mercury transiting your Seventh House A good time to discuss any issues in a relationship.
Mars transiting your Fifth House You’ll be thirsty af. No other way of putting it. Mars transiting the 8th house has this same affect.
Jupiter transiting your Fifth House Expansion and growth in relationships. New relationships started under this transit may be with a person who is dramatically different from you so you can learn and experience new things from them.
Jupiter transiting your Seventh House The topic of marriage runs smoothly during this transit. New relationships started under this transit is likely to be with someone who is older (physically or spiritually) and more experienced in life. They may also come from a different background or country than you.
Saturn transiting your Fifth House A love affair with someone who is either older or younger than you may begin under this transit.
Transiting Venus Aspects
Transiting Venus Conjuncts Natal Sun Makes you appear more attractive to males.
Transiting Venus Trines Natal Sun
Little to no difficulty showing affection towards people. You are comfortable being yourself around love interests during this time.
Transiting Venus Conjuncts Natal Moon
Dreamy romantic moods. You view romance on an emotional plane today.
Transiting Venus Opposition Natal Moon
Desires between you and your loved one to take care of each other.
Transiting Venus Conjuncts Natal Mercury
Increases chances of making good first impressions, especially towards potential love interests.
Transiting Venus Trines Natal Mercury A good time to confess love to someone.
Transiting Venus Opposites Natal Mercury A good time for discussion about the relationship. Communication is important and it will happen during this time.
Transiting Venus Conjuncts Natal Venus Increases likelihood of meeting a new love interest and making new friends. Also a good time to confess love for someone.
Transiting Venus Sextiles Natal Venus New relationships made under this transit are beneficial for the future and most of the time very successful.
Transiting Venus Trines Natal Venus Attraction for considerably beautiful people increases during this time. Lots of unusually romantic encounters during this transit as well.
Transiting Venus Conjuncts Natal Mars People with lots of masculine energy will be likely more attracted to people with a lot of feminine energy and vice versa during this transit. Symbolizes actually seeking out a love interest. Indicates the likelihood of meeting a new love interest. Relationships are very passionate during this time.
Transiting Venus Sextiles Natal Mars Attracts the people you actually want to attract into your life.
Transiting Venus Squares Natal Mars Desires for a more physical relationship is indicated at this time. Not the best for starting a relationship during this time as you will be more attracted to looks than personality.
Transiting Venus Trines Natal Mars Relationships started under this transit will likely last a long time and be satisfying. During this time it is easier to charm people.
Transiting Venus Opposites Natal Mars Likelihood of seeking for casual/sexual relationships
Transiting Venus Conjuncts Natal Jupiter REALLY good for weddings. Love is a celebration when Jupiter is involved.
Transiting Venus Sextiles Natal Jupiter New relationships started under this transit bring out the best qualities in you. Attraction towards people with a very vast mind is indicated.
Transiting Venus Trine Natal Jupiter May attract a new love interest, but might not lead onto anything significant
Transiting Venus Conjunct Natal Saturn Relationships started under this transit are loyal and long lasting.
Transiting Venus Sextile Natal Saturn If you have an existing relationship, you may want it to become more serious during this time. Seeking out new relationships during this transit may make you consider deeply about what exactly you are looking for.
Transiting Venus Trines Natal Saturn Indicates taking relationships seriously at this time. You may seek out someone who is very stable during this time.
Transiting Venus Conjuncts Natal Uranus Unexpected relationships occur under this transit.
Transiting Venus Sextiles or Trine Natal Uranus Attracts casual and unconventional relationships.
Transiting Venus Conjuncts Natal Neptune Sensitive and romantic energy is presented by this transit. Daydreaming or having fantasies about potential relationships in your life. During this time you are willing to sacrifice for your lover.
Transiting Venus Sextiles Natal Neptune Similar to the conjunction, only more subtle.
Transiting Venus Trines Natal Neptune Like the sextile, it carries sensitive and romantic energy in subtle, pleasant ways. New relationships started under this transit feel very spiritual. May make you feel as if you’ve found your soul-mate (whether that be true or if it’s Neptune tricking you). If you are in an existing relationship, it may be time to evaluate whether or not you guys are soul-mates.
Transiting Venus Conjuncts Natal Pluto May make you seek out intense relationships. Meeting new love interests under this transit makes you infatuated and obsessed with them.
Transiting Venus Squares Natal Pluto Emotional transformations generally happen during a transit like this. Could be for better or for worse.
Transiting Venus Sextiles/Trines Natal Pluto Brings intensity to existing relationships; overwhelming feelings for your partner. New relationships started under this transit seem to have some sort of magnetism to them. They are intense and magical.
Transiting Venus Conjuncts Midheaven Good transit for marriage and a good day to confess love to someone.
Transiting Venus Trines Midheaven A good transit for sorting out difficulties and mending a relationship. Time to put everything out in the open and allow love to heal it.
Transiting Venus Conjuncts Ascendant The likelihood of meeting a new love interest during this time is great. It is also a good time to mend broken relationships.
Transiting Venus Trines/Sextiles Ascendant Like the conjunction, increases your chances in meeting a new love interest, but in order to do so, you will need to put yourself out there. Go out with friends, have a good time and then you will be able to seek a new love interest.
Transiting Venus Opposites Ascendant A good day to introduce yourself to potential love interests. Indicates the beginning of new love relationships. Very good time to be going out and meeting people.
Other Transiting Planets Aspects
Transiting Sun Conjuncts Natal Venus You will crave attention during this time and you will do a great effort to get the attention you think you deserve. You may also find a new love interest.
Transiting Sun Sextiles/Trines Natal Venus During this time you are more open to meeting new people and spending time with friends.
Transiting Sun Opposites Natal Venus Brings awareness to how much you need your lover in your life.
Transiting Moon Conjuncts/Trines/Sextiles Natal Mercury A good time to talk about your feelings.
Transiting Mercury Conjuncts/Trines/Sextiles Natal Venus You or someone will confess their love. Also a good time to talk about your relationship with your lover.
Transiting Mars Trines/Sextiles Natal Moon Emotions are intense during this time. Indicates love-hate relationships and tension. You can’t decide if you wanna punch a person in the face or kiss them.
Transiting Mars Conjuncts/Trines/Sextiles Natal Venus Indicates new love interests and physical relationships. Sexual desires run high.
Transiting Jupiter Conjuncts Natal Venus On the rare occasion that a relationship starts under this transit, it is extremely favourable and successful. Also beneficial to existing relationships.
Transiting Jupiter Trines/Sextiles Natal Venus You may feel like flirting with and impressing a potential love interest during this time. New relationships started under this transit are often very significant. The sextile symbolizes a longer lasting relationship than the trine, but you should check other transits to see the success in that.
Transiting Saturn Conjuncts Natal Venus Relationships started under this transit are likely due to fate and bring great significance to your life.
Transiting Saturn Trines/Sextiles Natal Venus Symbolizes a lover with an age difference (physically or spiritually). Relationships will be looked at more practically and seriously with this transit.
What is the Stratospheric
Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, or SOFIA, up to?
Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, as our flying telescope is called, is a Boeing 747SP aircraft
that carries a 2.5-meter telescope to altitudes as high as 45,000 feet.
Researchers use SOFIA to study the solar system and beyond using infrared
light. This type of light does not reach the ground, but does reach the
altitudes where SOFIA flies.
Recently, we used SOFIA to study water on Venus, hoping to
learn more about how
that planet lost its oceans. Our researchers used a powerful instrument on
SOFIA, called a spectrograph,
to detect water in its normal form and “heavy water,” which has an extra
neutron. The heavy water takes longer to evaporate and builds up over time. By
measuring how much heavy water is on Venus’ surface now, our team will be able
to estimate how much water Venus had when the planet formed.
We are also using SOFIA to create a detailed map of the Whirlpool
Galaxy by making multiple observations of the galaxy. This map will help us
understand how stars form from clouds in that galaxy. In particular, it will
help us to know if the spiral arms in the galaxy trigger clouds to collapse
into stars, or if the arms just show up where stars have already formed.
We can also use SOFIA to study methane on Mars. The Curiosity rover
has detected methane
on the surface of Mars. But the total amount of methane on Mars is unknown and
evidence so far indicates that its levels change significantly over time and
location. We are using SOFIA to search for evidence of this gas by mapping the Red
Planet with an instrument specially tuned to sniff out methane.
Next our team will use SOFIA to study Jupiter’s icy moon Europa, searching for evidence of possible water plumes detected by the Hubble Space Telescope. The plumes, illustrated in the artist’s concept above, were previously seen in images as extensions from the edge of the moon. Using SOFIA, we will search for water and determine if the plumes are eruptions of water from the surface. If the plumes are coming from the surface, they may be erupting through cracks in the ice that covers Europa’s oceans. Members of our SOFIA team recently discussed studying Europa on the NASA in Silicon Valley Podcast.
This is the view of Jupiter and its moons taken with SOFIA’s
light guide camera that is used to position the telescope.
Despite its proximity, Venus remains largely mysterious, thanks to its cloudy atmosphere and incredible harsh conditions. A recent study using data from the Japanese satellite Akatsuki revealed an enormous bow-shaped wave in the Venusian atmosphere. The wave appeared at an altitude of about 65 km and stretched more than 10,000 km long, across both the northern and southern hemispheres. Although surface winds on Venus are believed to be small due to its incredibly slow rotation, winds higher in the atmosphere are much faster – so it was strange to observe this wave sitting essentially stationary for five days of observation.
When the scientists mapped the location of wave relative to the surface, they found it was sitting over the Aphrodite Terra highlands, suggesting that this structure is a gravity wave generated by winds interacting with the topography. Similar, albeit smaller, gravity waves are often observed on Earth near mountains. The finding raises questions about our understanding of Venusian atmospheric dynamics and exactly how disturbances from surface winds could create enormous structures so high in the atmosphere. (Image credit: T. Fukuhara et al.; h/t to SciShow Space)
I’ve finally got round to continuing with my series of photos about the planets of the solar system! Next on my list is Venus. Venus is the second closest planet to our home star and notable for many strange oddities. For example, it has a rotational period of 243 days, whilst a year takes just 225 days. It has a diameter of ~12100km, making it very similar in size to Earth. It is often compared to Earth as its so-called twin planet, which may be true for aspects such as mass, size and proximity to the sun, but for almost everything else, they are vastly different.
Report from under the table: Zarathustra the cat have delicious meat on a glass surface under Botticelli’s Ginger Venus #FatCatArt 😻 Healthy treats is essential for beauty even if you are on diet! #zarathustralive #foodporn #venus
Venus Williams did not break the law in fatal car crash - report
A video has surfaced exonerating Venus Williams of being at fault in a fatal car accident last month (Jun17).
The tennis ace, who was involved in a car crash in Florida on 9 June, may now have charges quashed due to a video that has emerged of her driving on the night of the accident.
According to initial reports, Venus, who was driving her 2010 Toyota Sequoia, was struck by Linda Barson’s Hyundai, as the lights changed. The woman’s 78-year-old husband, Jerome suffered severe injuries and later died in hospital.
Venus has since received a court order from the Barson family suing her for wrongful death.
Police originally said Venus was “at fault for violating the right of way,” however, in the new video Williams is seen entering the intersection, under a green light. She paused briefly in the middle of the intersection, when she was cut off partway by another driver turning left, before continuing to drive.
A police statement obtained by ET Online appeared to exonerate the tennis champion. It read, “the vehicle driven by Venus Williams lawfully entered the intersection on a circular green traffic signal, and attempted to travel north through the intersection to Ballenisles Drive.
"The update from the Palm Beach Gardens Police Department and video released today show that Venus lawfully entered the intersection on a green light and was impeded in her progress through the intersection.”
The police explained that a car had cut across the intersection in front of the Wimbledon star and made a left turn, forcing her to stop at the intersection to avoid a collision. The crash happened when she legally began to continue her journey.
Venus’ attorney, Malcolm Cunningham responded to the police statement saying that she was “grateful for the continued diligence and efforts of the Palm Beach Gardens Police Department in its investigation” and added that she was “deeply saddened” by the loss suffered by the Barson family and she continued to keep them in her “thoughts and prayers”.
The Titan City aerostat skirts the edge of the day, far above the surface of Venus. Languid afternoons of golden light last for entire seasons, dependent on whim. It’s a place to lose things and find them again.
The setting also functions as a sort of memory theater or related mnemonic device, i.e., OCs are OP, you see?