superior temporal gyrus

Operation Fall In Love: Chapter 1

Excerpt | Chapter 1 | Chapter 2 | Chapter 3 | Chapter 4 | Chapter 5 | Chapter 6 | Chapter 7 | Chapter 8 | Chapter 9 | Chapter 10 | Chapter 11 | Chapter 12 | Chapter 13 | Chapter 14 | Chapter 15 | Chapter 16 |

Characters: Mark Lee, Lee Donghyuck, Park Jisung, Huang Renjun, Lee Jeno, Na Jaemin, Zhong Chenle, (y/n); possibly cameos from NCT and SMRookies

Category: everything; fluff, angst, romance, comedy (kind of)

Summary: Third year high school student, Mark Lee, has a year long Psychology report to complete. The report subject? Anything he wishes. There’s just one thing in particular he’s curious about; love. What is it? Why does it happen? How does it happen? When do you know that it’s love? Who do people fall inlove with? Surely he can use this opportunity to submit a good report that’s worth 25% of his grades and find his answers too, right?

Word Count: 1 455

Warnings: Since this a psychology fanfic, in future chapters it will contain talks of psychology and mental illnesses and may be triggering to some people.

A/N: hi!!! this is…the first chapter, no action or interaction with reader yet and it’s just an introduction a a little boring but,,,,anyways please read, enjoy, send feedback love you <3

Mark pushed open the door to an empty classroom and was greeted by Jeno’s bright smile. The two boys greeted each other and sat back down at the table. Jeno gawked eagerly at Mark as he pulled out his Psychology task sheets and placed them onto the table.

“So, I was thinking,” Mark began and thrusted some of the papers in Jeno’s direction, “there’ll be a main subject, a girl, I’m not sure yet who. Then three male subjects, all of whom will fit into different personality types, that will try to make her fall in love with them.”

Jeno read the planned out sheets carefully. The classroom was silent for a few minutes as Jeno continued to read and Mark looked around the class agitatedly. Jeno put the the papers in a pile and sat back in his chair while he crossed his arms.

“I think it could work, but what kind of girl would agree to that?” Jeno asked.

“Well, I won’t tell her the real motive of the experiment, that’ll hinder the results,” Mark pointed out as if it was obvious.

“Mark, that’s against the ethics code of conduct, if you do that you don’t really have their consent,” Jeno said alarmingly, now he had sat up in his chair.

“Listen Jeno, do you want to help me or not?” Mark gathered his papers and shoved them into his bag.

Jeno’s eyes widened as he saw Mark had abruptly stood up and slung his bag over his shoulder. He was Mark’s underclassman in Psychology, Mark was the top scoring student in the subject. There was no one Jeno admired more than him. Of course Jeno wanted to help, he’d be helping his admired upperclassman and also learn too. However, the fact that they would be deceiving the subject made him a little uneasy.

“Of course I want to help,” Jeno sighed after he battled over his morals in his head.

“Good,” Mark smiled and reached out his hand, “anyway, the code of ethics didn’t specifically state it wrong, only if the subject is harmed.”

Jeno nervously laughed and scratched his neck, slowly he reached out to shake Mark’s hand. The two boys exited the classroom together.

The seven boys sat together at the library. School had finished for the day so Mark had gathered with his friends to further work on his project.

“Do you just need any girl?” Jaemin questioned, eyes filled with curiosity.

Mark thought carefully. Truth be told, he hadn’t thought about it much. He only had one thing set in mind, the main subject would be a girl. He didn’t plan what kind of girl, who he’d have be the subject, not one of those things. Jaemin eyed him eagerly, he was excited about the experiment. He had been interested in Psychology but the class was full and he couldn’t have chosen the subject.

“I guess, just a girl will do? One with no relations to the male subjects at all,” Mark shrugged and went back to his notebook.

The boys sat in silence once again, mainly because the two youngest and loudest; Jisung and Chenle were sleeping. Mark observed the two boys, he suddenly thought of what personality types the subjects would be. He shifted his gaze to the other boys. Renjun who was diligently doing his trigonometry homework. Donghyuck who scrolled through his phone, he lifted the device up to his face level many times and overly posed; winking, pouting, finger hearts. Mark scoffed as he watched the younger boy’s narcissistic acts. He then looked at Jeno. Mark had admired Jeno, just as much as Jeno admired him. He was amazed how his underclassman could be so motivated and so keen to learn. Jeno sat quietly, his eyebrows knitted as he scanned through the Unit 2 Psychology textbook. Mark was snapped out of his trance by the sound of food being chewed. He turned to the source of noise, it was Jaemin who placed a piece of potato chip into his mouth as he read his comic. Mark screwed up his face as he watched Jaemin eat.

He thought to himself, Jaemin won’t do. He eyed the other boys again. Suddenly, it was as if a light bulb had gone off in his brain. Although he knew that such things couldn’t happen, it was just his brain cells in his Superior temporal gyrus grasping on ideas. The three types of boys he would have in his experiment; the intellectual one, the beguiled one and of course the free spirited one.

“Kids, what do you think about being in my experiment?” Mark proposed, he smiled at the boys, well the ones who were awake.

His friends stared at him in disbelief, as if he were crazy. His smile slowly faded and he awkwardly coughed. He averted his gaze to the two boys fast asleep as his friends berated him with their stares. Mark kicked Jisung and Chenle under the table. The two boys groaned and slowly lifted their heads off the table.

“A-Are you crazy?” Donghyuck scoffed.

“No,” Mark innocently defended himself, “It’ll help me a lot, guys. I’ve decided the three types of male subjecrs would be; the intellectual one, beguiled and free spirited. You guys would be perfect!”

The other boys continued to stare at Mark. They weren’t convinced about the experiment. Mark stared at them desperately. He had to find a way to convince them somehow.

“Can you explain the experiment more to us please?” Renjun spoke up. He closed his maths book and averted his attention to Mark.

“Well, nothing’s set in stone yet but I’ll read you my draft,” Mark cleared his throat.

There was no denying that he was nervous about this. His friends, except Jeno, knew little about the subject of Psychology afterall. Mark held up his drafts and observed the six other boys. All of their attentions were now on him.

“The main subject, currently undecided, will be approached by Male Subjects A, B and C. Subject A will be a smart and mature type, Subject B - the flirty type, subject C will be a young male who’s carefree. We will…I will, as the supervisor and researcher, investigate how fond the main subject becomes of the male subjects, how long it will take for her to fall in love with him and what lengths would she go to in order to show her love,” Mark slowly trailed off.

Renjun looked skeptical, however the other boys looked less reluctant.

“So, who’ll be who?” Jaemin urged for Mark to continue.

“I was thinking, Jeno to be the intellectual one, Donghyuck will be the flirty one and Jisung will be Subject C,” Mark answered, “My hypothesis is that - the main subject will fall inlove with Subject A, as our age group seeks more mature and intelligent significant others to provide a sense of stability.”

“So you’re setting Jisung and I up to be rejected?” Donghyuck claimed in disbelief as he slammed his fist onto the cold table.

The action earned a few glares from surrounding students as they tried to study. He quietly apologised and turned back to Mark.

“Well, it’s just my hypothesis. She could fall for anyone, if we’re speaking truthfully,” Mark pointed out.

“And what are you going to tell her? You can’t exactly waltz up to her and say ‘Hey mind me experimenting with your feelings and play with your heart?’, that’s ridiculous,” Jisung shook his head, placed his fingers on the bridge of his nose in disapproval.

“She doesn’t have to know, I’ll just say it’s an experiment on what people’s ideal type would be, it’s not a huge lie,” Mark assured his younger friend.

Although the boys were still unsure, they decided to help Mark out with his experiment. Now all he needed was a main subject. He wasn’t friends with many girls so he had no idea who he would ask to participate in his experiment.

“I have an idea, I have this coworker,” Jaemin started excitedly, “She’s in the third year at our school as well. Maybe you know her?”

Mark shook his head. He didn’t know any girls well enough to say he knew them. That was the truth.

“Well, she’d be perfect for it. She’s never dated, to my knowledge anyway,” he suggested and stuffed the empty snack bag into the front pocket of his bag.

“You mean, (y/n)?” Chenle laughed, “She’s my History tutor, not in Mark’s class, she’s in Class 3-2. Probably why he doesn’t know her, really nice.”

A History tutor? A girl in the third year, and at his school? Mark thought it was perfect.

“Jaemin, take me to see her at your cafe,” Mark announced.

Brodmann areas & Lesions
  • Areas 3, 1 & 2: Primary Somatosensory Cortex; impairment of all somatic sensations of CL body
  • Area 4: Primary Motor Cortex; spastic paresis of CL body
  • Area 5 & 7: Somatosensory Association Cortex; apraxia, astereognosia
  • Area 6: Premotor cortex and Supplementary Motor Cortex; apraxia
  • Area 8: Includes Frontal eye fields; CL horizontal gaze palzy
  • Area 9 & 10: Dorsolateral & Anterior Prefrontal cortex; frontal lobe sd
  • Area 17: Primary visual cortex; unilateral lesion- CL homonymus hemianopsia w/ macular sparing, bilateral lesion- cortical blindness w/ intact PLR (pupillary light reflex)
  • Area 18 & 19: Associative visual cortex; deficit in perceiving visual motion
  • Area 20 & 21: Inferior & Middle temporal gyrus, part of Associative visual cortex; visual agnosia, achromatopsia, prosopagnosia.
  • Area 22: Superior temporal gyrus, the caudal part contains the Wernicke's area, Auditory Association Cortex;
  • Area 39: Angular gyrus, considered to be part of Wernicke's area
  • Area 40: Supramarginal gyrus, part of Wernicke's area; Lesion of Wernicke's area result in aphasia and alexia.
  • Areas 41& 42: Primary Auditory cortex; unilateral lesion- CL slight hearing loss and difficulty localizing sounds, bilateral lesion- deafness
  • Area 43: Primary gustatory cortex
  • Area 44 & 45: Pars opercularis & Pars triangularis, part of the inferior frontal gyrus and part of Broca's area; lesion results in aphasia and agraphia
Will computers ever truly understand what we're saying?

From Apple’s Siri to Honda’s robot Asimo, machines seem to be getting better and better at communicating with humans.

But some neuroscientists caution that today’s computers will never truly understand what we’re saying because they do not take into account the context of a conversation the way people do.

Specifically, say University of California, Berkeley, postdoctoral fellow Arjen Stolk and his Dutch colleagues, machines don’t develop a shared understanding of the people, place and situation – often including a long social history – that is key to human communication. Without such common ground, a computer cannot help but be confused.

Keep reading

What brain studies reveal about the risk of adolescent alcohol use and abuse

Neuroscientists at Georgetown University Medical Center (GUMC) are zeroing in on brain factors and behaviors that put teens at risk of alcohol use and abuse even before they start drinking.

Four abstracts from the Adolescent Development Study exploring these factors will be presented at Neuroscience 2014, the Society for Neuroscience’s annual meeting in Washington. The Adolescent Development Study, a collaboration between the University of Maryland School of Medicine (UMSOM) and GUMC funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), is a wide-ranging effort to understand how a teen brain “still under construction,” as the NIH puts it, can lead to risky behaviors such as alcohol and drug use.

The project is directed by John VanMeter, PhD, director of the Center for Functional and Molecular Imaging, and associate professor of neurology at GUMC, and Diana Fishbein, PhD, director of the Center for Translational Research on Adversity, Neurodevelopment and Substance Abuse (C-TRANS) at UMSOM.

One abstract provides new evidence that adolescents at higher risk of alcoholism have reduced connections in key brain networks; another links impaired brain connections to impulsivity; and two abstracts examine impulsivity in relation to sugar intake and intake of DHA, an essential omega-3 fatty acid.

“What this study is attempting to do is identify the differences in the brains of adolescents who go on to misuse alcohol and other drugs,” says VanMeter. “If we know what is different, we may be able to develop strategies that can prevent the behavior.”

The studies were conducted with a participant pool of 135 preteen and teenage boys and girls with an average age of 12.6 years. All underwent structural and functional MRI to investigate the connection between brain development and behavior. Other tools the researchers used include questionnaires and several tests of neurocognitive function, including two tests used specifically while adolescents were scanned – the Continuous Performance Task (CPT), which measures impulsivity, and the Temporal Discounting Task (TD), which quantifies preference for immediate rather than delayed reward.

1. Evidence of reduced executive cognitive functioning in adolescents at risk for developing an alcohol use disorder

The first study examines a long-standing question: is lack of connectivity in the brain’s Executive Control Network (ECN) a contributor to, or the result of, teen alcohol use?

Tomas Clarke, a research assistant and Stuart Washington, PhD, a post-doctoral fellow in VanMeter’s laboratory, looked at the association between the Drug Use Screening Inventory questionnaire filled out by the 32 participants’ parents and brain connectivity within the ECN, which includes the areas that process emotion, impulsivity and self-control.

The questionnaire is predictive of future alcohol misuse. It does not ask parents about their alcohol or drug use but probes social behaviors in their children such as irritability, anger, sadness, etc.

Clarke divided the participants into two groups–16 at high/medium risk for alcohol abuse, based on the test, and 16 at low risk. He then used fMRI scans to look at connectivity in the ECN. He found ECN connectivity was significantly lower in the high/medium risk groups compared to the low risk group.

“We know impaired functioning in the ECN is linked to an earlier age of drinking onset and higher frequency of drinking, but it was unclear whether this dysfunction occurred before drinking or was a consequence of alcohol use,” Clarke says. “Our findings suggest reduced prefrontal cortex development predates alcohol use and may be related to future alcohol use disorders.”

2. Functional connectivity between the insula and anterior cingulate predict impulsivity in adolescents at risk for alcohol misuse

The next study examined the levels of impulsivity in relation to the connection between executive control in the prefrontal cortex and the insular cortex, which is involved in processing emotions.

Benson Stevens, a graduate student in Georgetown’s Interdisciplinary Program in Neuroscience, used the Drug Use Screening Inventory to establish a high/medium risk and a low risk group, each with 17 participants. Stevens then administered the CPT test while the participants underwent fMRI. He found that compared with the low risk group, high/medium risk participants had reduced connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and the insular cortex.

“Less connectivity predicted higher levels of impulsivity,” Stevens says. “Importantly, these effects were observed before the onset of alcohol use. The reduced connectivity between these brain regions could be an important factor in adolescent alcohol use given that reduced inhibitory control has been found to be a factor in alcohol use disorders.”

3. Relationship between sugar intake, impulsivity and increased sensitivity to immediate rewards in adolescents

A third study investigated the relationship between sugar intake – as reported by participants in a food questionnaire – and performance on two tests, the CPT and the TD, which measure impulsivity and ability to delay gratification. The CPT was used while participants were being scanned by fMRI.

“We know that, compared to healthy individuals, adults with alcoholism have a stronger preference for sweet tastes, are more impulsive and are less able to delay gratification,” explains Dana Estefan, a former research assistant in VanMeter’s lab who is now a student at New York University. “We wanted to know if this profile fits youth deemed to be at risk for early alcohol use by the Drug Use Screening Inventory.”

The TD task confirmed the expected relationship - kids with high amounts of added sugar in their diets preferred immediate rewards more than kids with lower levels of added sugar in their diets. The CPT task revealed that individuals with increased sugar intake also showed greater activation in right superior temporal gyrus and right insula, areas linked to impulsivity and emotional affect. Their hypothalamus was also highly activated, which, in adults, is linked to overeating, reward seeking and drug addiction, Estefan says.

“Our findings could potentially mean a positive correlation between impulsivity and sugar intake in adolescents, but more research needs to be done on this,” she says.

4. Relationship between DHA intake and activation of impulse control circuitry in early adolescents

Finally, Valerie Darcey, a registered dietitian and a graduate student in the Interdisciplinary Program in Neuroscience, examined the relationship between intake of DHA, an essential omega-3 fatty acid, and impulsivity. DHA, found in cold-water fish, is important for neuronal function.

She used a food questionnaire to measure, in 81 participants, ingestion of DHA and arachidonic acid (AA), which is omega-6 fatty acid found in vegetable oil, among other foods. AA competes with DHA for a place in cell membranes, so the more AA consumed, the less DHA is used. Darcey then gave participants the CPT test while scanning their brains with fMRI.

“My preliminary findings show that while impulsivity levels are the same for kids with high and low levels of DHA in their diets, the brains of kids with low DHA appear to be more active – working harder to compensate – in a region involved in paying attention to the task and a region that participates in executive function,” she says. “This tells us that the brains of the kids eating less DHA may not be developing like those eating more DHA.”