superhs

Space Weather

 To the casual observer, the Sun may appear unimpressive from 93 million miles (150 million km - 1 AU) away but upon closer examination – in the extreme ultraviolet region of the spectrum, it becomes evident that it’s characterized by unpredictable and explosive surface activity. The Sun creates highly variable and complex conditions in the space, as well. We call these conditions ‘space weather’. Space weather is an emerging multidisciplinary field within space sciences that studies how solar activity influences Earth’s space environment.

  Our Sun continuously bathes Earth in solar energy, in the forms of: electromagnetic radiation (visible light, microwaves, radio waves, infrared, ultraviolet, X-ray, gamma rays) and corpuscular radiation (streams of subatomic particles such as protons, electrons, and neutrons). The Sun is a magnetic variable star, and like most stars, it’s composed of superheated plasma; a collection of negatively charged electrons and positively charged ions. Its magnetic fields are produced by electric currents that are generated by the movement of the charged particles. The electrically conductive solar plasma acts like a viscous fluid, so the plasma near the poles rotates slower than the plasma at the equator. This differential rotation results in a twisting and stretching of the magnetic field lines, leading to the formation of sunspots, solar flares and CMEs.

The Sun’s overall magnetic field is quite weak compared to sunspots, which are localized regions of intense magnetism (magnetic loops that poke out of the photosphere), and they can be 1000 times stronger than the Sun’s average field. Above sunspot regions, the Sun’s magnetic field lines twist and turn like rubber bands, and when the field lines interact, the confined coronal plasma is accelerated to several million miles per hour in a powerful magnetic eruption. The cloud of extremely hot and electrically charged plasma expelled from the active region is called a coronal mass ejection, or CME for short. CMEs aimed at Earth are called halo events or halo CMEs because of the way they look in coronagraph images; the coronagraph instrument will detect it as a gradually expanding ring around the Sun. As the CME moves away from the Sun, it pushes an interplanetary shock wave before it, amplifying the solar wind speed, and magnetic field strength, as well. The Sun’s magnetic field isn’t confined to the star, the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) is carried into interplanetary space by the solar wind and CMEs.

Depending on how the IMF is aligned in relationship to our geomagnetic field, there can be various results when the CME arrives. Some particles get deflected around Earth – thanks to the invisible magnetic “bubble”, called the magnetosphere (it’s actually non-spherical), but a small amount of ionized particles can still get into our near-Earth environment (geospace), mostly via the magnetotail. The magnetosphere is formed when the flow of the solar wind impacts the Earth’s magnetic (dipole) field. The overall shape of Earth’s magnetosphere is influenced by the speed, density and temperature of the solar wind: the dayside is continuously compressed by the solar wind, and the nightside is stretched out into a tear drop shaped magnetotail. Our magnetosphere is an extremely dynamic region and it’s filled with a variety of current systems.

When a powerful CME hits Earth, electrons in the magnetosphere cascade into the ionosphere at the polar regions, creating the so-called Birkeland or field-aligned current that flows along the main geomagnetic field. If the CME’s polarity matches that of Earth’s magnetic field (Northward IMF), our magnetosphere may deflect some of the highly charged particles. The problems occur when the CME’s polarity is the opposite of Earth’s (Southward IMF) because it can cause a geomagnetic storms and brief magnetospheric substorms that disrupt Earth’s own magnetic environment.

 Changes in the ionosphere trigger bright aurorae that are, in fact, the visual manifestation of the interaction between solar energetic particles and the high-altitude atmosphere. Solar energetic particles are high-energy charged particles, they can induce voltages and currents in power grids and cause large-scale power and radio blackouts, temporary operational anomalies, damage to spacecraft electronics. During geomagnetic storms, the energy transferred into the ionosphere by the Birkeland current heats up (Joule heating) the atmosphere, which consequently rises and increases drag on low-altitude satellites.

 Fortunately, there is a fleet of observing spacecraft monitoring the Sun’s activity across a wide range of electromagnetic wavelengths. Their continuous observations and measurements of solar and geospace variability gives us the ability to prepare and respond to potentially harmful space weather events.

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Just as long as I’ve got you….


Hubble Finds Misbehaving Spiral
External image
NASA - Hubble Space Telescope patch.

Jan. 29, 2016

External image

Despite its unassuming appearance, the edge-on spiral galaxy captured in the left half of this NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image is actually quite remarkable.

Located about one billion light-years away in the constellation of Eridanus, this striking galaxy — known as LO95 0313-192 — has a spiral shape similar to that of the Milky Way. It has a large central bulge, and arms speckled with brightly glowing gas mottled by thick lanes of dark dust. Its companion, sitting in the right of the frame, is known rather unpoetically as [LOY2001] J031549.8-190623.

Jets, outbursts of superheated gas moving at close to the speed of light, have long been associated with the cores of giant elliptical galaxies, and galaxies in the process of merging. However, in an unexpected discovery, astronomers found LO95 0313-192, even though it is a spiral galaxy, to have intense radio jets spewing out from its center. The galaxy appears to have two more regions that are also strongly emitting in the radio part of the spectrum, making it even rarer still.

The discovery of these giant jets in 2003 — not visible in this image, but indicated in this earlier Hubble composite — has been followed by the unearthing of a further three spiral galaxies containing radio-emitting jets in recent years. This growing class of unusual spirals continues to raise significant questions about how jets are produced within galaxies, and how they are thrown out into the cosmos.

For images and more information about Hubble, visit:

    http://www.nasa.gov/hubble
    http://hubblesite.org/
    http://www.spacetelescope.org/

Text credits: ESA (European Space Agency)/Rob Garner/Image credits: ESA/Hubble & NASA; acknowledgement, Judy Schmidt.

Greetings, Orbiter.ch
Full article
NSFW

(Don’t read if you aren’t interested in dirty, gay smut) This is not mine, it was an anonymous submission but I hope you all enjoy.

MacCready’s fingernails scrape against the concrete of the abandoned diner’s wall as Sole gently rests their cock against the superheating flesh of his back. Sole thrusts gently along the length of his spine while MacCready feels his limbs trembling from anticipation. He exhales softly, about to speak, but he merely thinks, God, I need him to fuck me already. 

Sole’s hands slide tenderly across MacCready’s ribs, sending chills reverberating deep within him. The excited fingers find MacCready’s nipples, already hardening with arousal– little jolts of electric energy rising from his feet through his chin as Sole’s fingers graze and twist the sensitive skin of his chest. “Fuck…” MacCready bites his lip at the curse word; despite knowing he couldn’t stop it from escaping, he couldn’t let Sole win.

“I told you I could make you.” The man’s voice chuckles softly, and in tandem the fingers slide teasingly down to MacCready’s abs, halting just above the pelvic bone. 

“Come on, that’s… I wasn’t ready. Best two of three.“ 

Teasingly, “Fine, but if I win…”

“Yeah, yeah, you get to tie me up– I got it, Sole." 

MacCready grinned, thanking God he could hide the smile against the wall. He desperately wanted Sole to win their little bet, but he wanted to make him work for it. Something about the thought of the rope and leather against his skin. Those pre-war magazine pictures that Sole showed him. Fuck. He felt a dribble of pre-cum roll down the shaft of his cock.  "Not cussing again, Sole. Not unless you make me." 

"That… that I can do.” Leaning over, Sole let a small stream of saliva roll off of his tongue onto MacCready’s back, prompting the man to shiver. After a moment of watching the liquid make its way, slowly, down the crack of Mac’s ass, Sole grew impatient. Crouching down, cockhead grazing Mac’s thigh as he did, Sole flicked out his tongue. Spreading apart Mac’s cheeks with both hands, fingers digging hedonistically into the muscled mercenary’s bottom, he began by flicking his tongue gruffly upwards and downwards. 

MacCready gasped, breath suddenly held. He wasn’t expecting the sensation and his eyes suddenly shut tight, left hand involuntarily snaking to his dick and massaging the dripping precum all over his shaft and balls. “M-mo–” Sole grinned, “Moth–M-…" 

Sole thrust his tongue victoriously forwards, deeper into MacCready’s hole, moaning vibrations deep inside of Mac. "M-mutfruit! H-ha!" 

MacCready burst into a triumphant laugh that was cut off by groan. A groan that sent his eyes reeling back into his head as Sole’s lips sucked and slurped at his asshole. 

"You want me to fuck you, Mac?” Sole’s voice was intense; quiet and yet full of desirous yearning. Animalistic. Hungry. 

“God, please!” Sole, slid a finger into Mac– tortuously slow. MacCready’s legs nearly buckled, but he stayed standing. “I want your cock– now…" 

Sole smirked, his finger having pumped in and out of Mac a few times. Now he was on two digits. "You’d like me to fuck you, wouldn’t you. In this fucking abandoned building… any fuckin’… raider or gunner could come right in and see you with my cock ramming into you, whining so loud the whole district could hear you– bet they’d want to join right in, huh? Pay your debt with the gunners that way, huh??" 

"Sole! Just–” Mac gasped as Sole’s fingers curled within him, “Just… take me!” He wouldn’t lose this bet just yet.

“As you wish.” Sole stands, one hand gripping his dick and giving it a few strokes. The other elbow wraps around Mac’s neck, slamming him roughly over the counter behind them. Sole tightens his choke-hold on Mac and the ex-gunner’s cock jumps as he tries and fails to breathe. When Sole finally lets him, Mac’s head is spinning and his cock is gushing wet. Guiding his throbbing hardness with the other hand, Sole presses his manhood into the eager asshole before him, moaning as he feels it stretch around the pulsing veins of his prick. 

“Aaa-aah~” MacCready’s fingers clutch the edges of the old wooden counter top, lifting one shin onto it and pushing back onto Sole’s dick. As he feels Sole’s full length within him, they both pause– feeling one another. Sole can feel the grip of Mac’s hole adjusting to his thickness, and Mac… Mac focuses on his breath as he relishes the warmth and closeness of another man inside of him. They were silent. This was a ritual, it seemed.

They needed this moment, the both of them.

Sole placed one arm around Mac’s chest, the other the top of his thigh. He pulled out slowly at first, and then rammed himself back into Mac. Mac began to moan, too, but it started out soft. 

This balancing of roughness and tenderness was how it always began. The little things to show their love, and the… bigger things to fulfill their lust. Soon, Sole’s hips were slamming voraciously into Mac, and Mac’s moans echoed through the former diner and through the shattered windows and into the night. 

Sole groaned and grunted, changing his pace in effort to surprise MacCready into cussing. He always curses when he cums. Always. He’s got no chance.

“Ughn, oh God Sole!” Mac is bouncing in perfect opposition to Sole’s thrusts, and the slapping of Sole’s swollen, begging-to-cum balls fills the night air. The sounds of the rough fuck only serve to turn each of them on even more, and they each feel the heat and friction of their passion filling every fibre of their being. Sole slams MacCready’s torso onto the bar, freeing his hands to work on Mac’s nipples and cock at the same time. The feel of Mac’s thick member in his fist set something off in Sole, and he let out a vicious grunt as he began to thrust extremely hard into Mac’s ass, and pull out with an agonizingly slow pace. As he did, Sole could feel every nerve on his cock tingling and screaming for release, and Mac could barely think as he was stretched steadily, and he let out a long, guttural moan as every millimeter of Sole’s many inched cock massaged his insides. Mac’s moan grew constant, the long-tone gyrating up and down with each slam of Sole deeper inside of him. 

“I’m gonna cum in you, Mac. Fucking hell, I’m gonna fill you.” Sole pumps Mac’s cock even harder as he thrusts, but MacCready soon slaps the hand away.

“Just fucking fuckme Sole! God, fucking cum in my ass! Fuck the fucking motherfucking bet, fuck the fucking cum out of me!” Mac slams himself again and again onto Sole, so hard that Sole stumbles back and they fall to the ground in a heap. 

MacCready is quick, he turns around and hops right back onto Sole’s crimson, pulsing cock and begins to ride him, facing him. He bends down, thrusting his tongue down Sole’s throat. Biting lips, moaning instead of breathing, cursing as his fingernails drag ferociously down Sole’s chest. “Oh, fucking shit Mac!” Sole cannot move. MacCready is in full control of Sole, but Mac isn’t in control of himself. He screams out Sole’s name, blood boiling with the need for Sole to fill his insides with cum. The need growing only more intense as Sole’s dick slams again and again against Mac’s prostate. 

 "Fuck, Sole, I need it, I need it, I need it.“ Sole tries to make a witty retort, but he can’t. His voice comes out as an unintelligible groan and his muscles seethe and lock up as his pelvis flies upwards into MacCready, load after load of hot white cum slamming like machine-gun bullets against Mac’s g-spot. Sole’s mouth is open wide, the orgiastic wail of ecstasy probably audible for miles. 

The best thing about the apocalypse is that both no one and everyone can see and hear you when you fuck. 

Mac’s eyes roll back in his head as he moans in tandem, whispering a breathless ‘fuck’ with every jet of Sole’s cum. His own cock starts to throb, and his muscles begin to tremble. He forces himself off of Sole’s cock, despite his desire to keep the fullness of Sole’s dick in him. His body in a near push-up position over Sole’s face, he shoves his quivering cock into Sole’s mouth, and Sole instinctively goes to work. 

He slathers it with his tongue and, knowing how close MacCready is, Sole uses both hands to pull him in. To pull Mac into his throat. 

"Fuck!” Mac thrusts himself as deep as he can go into Sole, holding himself there as he unloads rivers of white into Sole’s stomach. Sole moans as he swallows load after load, his cock stirring to semi-hardness again from the sheer act of swallowing Mac’s cum. He holds this position until he needs to breath, and when he does it’s a gasp for air. A gasp halted by a lover’s kiss as MacCready descends stomach-to-stomach onto Sole, clutching him tightly and kissing him again and again. They roll a bit on the floor as they kiss, and end up in a warm embrace. Mac’s cock stiffens a little too as he feels Sole’s warmth still inside of him. But they are both spent, and merely clutch one another.

A hold as if neither could not bear to let go for fear of the wind taking the other away.

MacCready grabs his coat with one hand and tosses it over them like a blanket. “Never leave, Sole." 

"I’m not gonna." 

"Good.” Their hands clutch tighter. A kiss. Mac rests his head on Sole’s bicep.

A long silence. Sole’s voice. “It’s so… quiet.”

Mac. “Yeah, almost… too–”

“Do not.” Sole pauses and then laughs, snuggling closer to MacCready. Mac laughs too, and he closes his eyes. Safe. He feels…

Safe. 

darth-buddha asked:

Dad what's a quasar

FUCKIN BALLSACK CASTLE NOT THE DAD THING FWBLIBLRI-

*ahem*

a quasar is a region of gas that forms around a black hole but isn’t moving at the right angle to fall in. it gets superheated because of the enormous energies and it ends up glowing so bright they’re the most luminous objects in the universe so you need 2 pairs of sunglasses to look at them

eartharchives.org
Watch the Sun's magnetic field twist and turn
Up close, the sun is a roiling mass of plasma with a surface that’s whipped into a frenzy by its self-generated magnetic fields. While invisible to us, the magnetic forces produced by the sun are responsible for massive bursts of superheated material, called solar flares, that our neighboring star periodically jettisons. Such flares are responsible for the spectacular auroras that paint the sky here on Earth. And while auroras are beautiful spectacles to behold, the solar flares that produce them could potentially knock out electrical systems across the globe if they’re powerful enough. Therefore, understanding the sun’s magnetic structure is crucial for scientists to forecast and understand these events.
I Need a Doctor

read it on the AO3 at http://ift.tt/1VzSUgr

by bettername2come

Oliver told Felicity he would find a way to make her walk again. Who else to call but the doctor of a metahuman with superhealing abilities?

Words: 605, Chapters: 1/1, Language: English

Series: Part 8 of Long Distance Phone Calls to Central City



read it on the AO3 at http://ift.tt/1VzSUgr
I Need a Doctor

read it on the AO3 at http://ift.tt/1VzSUgr

by bettername2come

Oliver told Felicity he would find a way to make her walk again. Who else to call but the doctor of a metahuman with superhealing abilities?

Words: 605, Chapters: 1/1, Language: English

Series: Part 8 of Long Distance Phone Calls to Central City



read it on the AO3 at http://ift.tt/1VzSUgr

i’m annoyed with even the thought of that lightsaber vs energy sword video because it’s like… they’re both ridiculous and impractical weapons, did you really need to spend nearly 17 minutes talking about it. nerds have been discussing how impractical the lightsaber is since star wars first came out.

if you’ve looked at the energy sword for longer than 2 or 3 seconds, you’d realize that your hand would be melting while it’s on the handle of that thing. that plasma burns so hot, the superheated air surrounding it alone can seriously damage substances like metal. did you seriously have to spend nearly 17 minutes talking about something i can easily figure out with me own 2 eyeballs. we get it, it’s impractical

also that’s not a theory

Despite its unassuming appearance, the edge-on spiral galaxy captured in the left half of this NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image is actually quite remarkable.

Located about one billion light-years away in the constellation of Eridanus, this striking galaxy — known as LO95 0313-192 — has a spiral shape similar to that of the Milky Way. It has a large central bulge, and arms speckled with brightly glowing gas mottled by thick lanes of dark dust. Its companion, sitting in the right of the frame, is known rather unpoetically as [LOY2001] J031549.8-190623.

Jets, outbursts of superheated gas moving at close to the speed of light, have long been associated with the cores of giant elliptical galaxies, and galaxies in the process of merging. However, in an unexpected discovery, astronomers found LO95 0313-192, even though it is a spiral galaxy, to have intense radio jets spewing out from its center. The galaxy appears to have two more regions that are also strongly emitting in the radio part of the spectrum, making it even rarer still.

The discovery of these giant jets in 2003 — not visible in this image, but indicated in this earlier Hubble composite — has been followed by the unearthing of a further three spiral galaxies containing radio-emitting jets in recent years. This growing class of unusual spirals continues to raise significant questions about how jets are produced within galaxies, and how they are thrown out into the cosmos.

Image credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA; acknowledgement, Judy Schmidt #nasagoddard #hubble #galaxy by nasagoddard http://ift.tt/1NFwSDf

Misbehaving Spiral Galaxy: Despite its unassuming appearance, the edge-on spiral galaxy captured in the left half of this Hubble Space Telescope image is actually quite remarkable. Located about one billion light-years away, this striking galaxy - known as LO95 0313-192 - has a spiral shape similar to that of the Milky Way. It has a large central bulge, and arms speckled with brightly glowing gas mottled by thick lanes of dark dust. Its companion, sitting in the right of the frame, is known rather unpoetically as [LOY2001] J031549.8-190623.

Jets, outbursts of superheated gas moving at close to the speed of light, have long been associated with the cores of giant elliptical galaxies, and galaxies in the process of merging. However, in an unexpected discovery, astronomers found LO95 0313-192, even though it is a spiral galaxy, to have intense radio jets spewing out from its center. The galaxy appears to have two more regions that are also strongly emitting in the radio part of the spectrum, making it even rarer still.

Image credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA; acknowledgement, Judy Schmidt

#nasa #hubble #hst #space #nasabeyond #astronomy #galaxy #science #Repost @nasa