Science Fact Friday: Wallace’s Line

This line may seem like small potatoes but Wallace discovered it before Darwin’s theory of evolution and long before scientists developed the theory of plate tectonics and continental drift. Scientists were still uncertain /why/ these two regions had such different wildlife. Tigers and monkeys on one side, kangaroos and platypus on the other. What gives?

Even though they are (relatively) close now, Australia and Asia haven’t been connected since the supercontinent Pangaea broke up about 175 million years ago. At that time, Australia was next to the Indian subcontinent and Antarctica. India gradually drifted upwards into Asia, Antarctica southwards to the pole, and Australia has been an island ever since. The consequence of this is that Australian species have been evolving, isolated, for about 80 million years.

The line has been modified a few times - Huxley proposed a small shift (pictured), and two other lines (Weber’s and Lydekker’s) have also been suggested.


i see this in both rromani communities and in gadjikano ones
″you guys are from india? i would have never guessed!!!”

the diaspora began in india

years ago
1  0  0  0

that is one zero zero zero

when people are shocked that after 1000 years of crossing the western part of the eurasian supercontinent, THAT NOT ALL OF US LOOK INDIAN, i just breathe in, and breathe out.

mixing happened
slavery happened
rape happened

the rroma are, by default, mixed race, even without european admixture we would have caucasian and middle eastern admixture

just like any human being (including indians themselves), roma are not full indian, and are not expected to LOOK “full indian” either

of course, some do, that makes gadje, especially gadjikano social justice warriors shit their pants in excitement because “AN INDIAN PASSING ROMA” which kind of means: A PERSON OF COLOR FROM AN OBSCURE GROUP WHO WE CAN BE BUNCHED UP EASILY WITH A MORE POPULAR POC GROUP BECAUSE 





yeah, lots of gadje get disappointed when they see roma who don’t look 100% indian or even remotely indian


blonde, blue eyed roma exist

they also deal with antiziganism a lot more than you’d think

but it’s okay, we know your solidarity isn’t with them

many roma tend to have similar features, but the faces of the roma are so diverse in terms of everything, and a roma who can pass for east asian, and a roma who can pass for african and a roma who can pass for indian are no purer from each other

thank you for hearing my rant
as usual, it’s all over the place
i don’t care
i’m an excellent writer when i need to be
this is tumblr
not my book


Let’s talk lore! Here are my thoughts, though I could possibly have drawn some incorrect conclusions that were answered in the lore Q&A. I didn’t get to watch that so I don’t know.

In the Hall of History, you see three globe holograms, across from which each has a hologram displaying a type of lifeform. The first globe shows a supercontinent-dominated planet, and its accompanying holo shows prehistoric animals. The next shows modern-day Earth, its holo shows humans. The last shows a waterless planet, with the outlines of Earth’s continents marked on it. Across from this globe is a holo of an indistinct humanoid form. Of note here is that where the other two consoles display two sets of double helix DNA strands, this console shows one double helix for the smaller one, but the larger is a four-strand helix.

Normally you don’t get a chance to take in the view from the observation deck, as the Overseer materializes and attacks as soon as you walk in and then you get teleported out once it’s dead. But I don’t play normally. From the window you can look out on other ARKs, one of which is damaged. You can also see that they’re in orbit around a waterless planet (or at least a dead one). To the left of the window is a small moon or large asteroid that has been partially destroyed, its debris and dust floating nearby (I didn’t screenshot this, it isn’t as interesting to look at as the ARKs)

Those are the facts, now here’s what I’m thinking. The ARKs were made by someone with the ability to create and maintain advanced artificial ecosystems, create and manipulate genetically modified organisms, and most bizarrely of all, time travel. The humans that inhabit the ARKs appear to all be taken from various points in Earth’s history, though it’s implied that there are children in some settlements. My point though is that as far as we know there aren’t any modified humans, at least on the ARKs we’ve visited so far. Humans seem to be the focus of the ARK’s purpose, and they are supposed to struggle to survive (Nosti was destroyed because they had it too easy, essentially.)

Why would the Overseer, an AI, be doing this? Who put it there, and what is its purpose? My theory is that this is a far off point in the future, wherein the Earth is dead. The remainder of humanity decided to work towards perfecting the race, to be able to survive on and rebuild their dead world. Perhaps with the aim of not repeating the mistakes that cost them the planet in the first place, as well. But if the Overseer is capable of time travel (which it is in a way, the writers of the explorer notes make it clear what point in time they each came from, but they’re contemporaries on the ARKs) why not just go back in time to stop the calamity? Maybe it doesn’t work that way. Or maybe it was determined that it would happen anyway. Regardless, the ARKs allow only the strongest and smartest to survive. At the same time, humans make good use of the creatures modified to be tamed with relative ease. Imagine what would happen generations down the line. The result would be hearty people, well used to surviving extremely hostile environments, and commanding many beasts that are also capable of surviving. Such a group would make excellent terraforming pioneers, or at least genetic stock for creating such.

There’s still a lot of questions, but I think it’s supposed to be that way. I think part of ARK is asking the questions and not necessarily knowing the answers.

One last note: The ARKs you can see from the window appear to be two copies of the Island (or one of them could be the Center, the obelisks are in different places), two Scorched Earths, and the damaged one which looks like Aberration. What I find interesting is that each seems to have an “arm” sticking out over it, which I think is an observation deck. That would explain why when you walk through the supply drop room, you can look down and see the Island under you: the deck is literally above the ARK, and in future patches which add Tek caves to the other maps you’ll be able to see those maps there instead. That also implies that each ARK has its own Overseer.

Years Ago
Anatomically modern humans evolve. Seventy thousand years later, their descendents create cave paintings — early expressions of consciousness.

4 million In Africa, an early hominid, affectionately named “Lucy” by scientists, lives. The ice ages begin, and many large mammals go extinct.

65 million A massive asteroid hits the Yucatan Peninsula, and ammonites and non-avian dinosaurs go extinct. Birds and mammals are among the survivors.

130 million As the continents drift toward their present positions, the earliest flowers evolve, and dinosaurs dominate the landscape. In the sea, bony fish diversify.

225 million Dinosaurs and mammals evolve. Pangea has begun to break apart.

248 million Over 90% of marine life and 70% of terrestrial life go extinct during the Earth’s largest mass extinction. Ammonites are among the survivors.

250 million The supercontinent called Pangea forms. Conifer-like forests, reptiles, and synapsids (the ancestors of mammals) are common.

360 million Four-limbed vertebrates move onto the land as seed plants and large forests appear. The Earth’s oceans support vast reef systems.

420 million Land plants evolve, drastically changing Earth’s landscape and creating new habitats.

450 million Arthropods move onto the land. Their descendants evolve into scorpions, spiders, mites, and millipedes.

500 million Fish-like vertebrates evolve. Invertebrates, such as trilobites, crinoids, brachiopids, and cephalopods, are common in the oceans.

555 million Multi-cellular marine organisms are common. The diverse assortment of life includes bizarre-looking animals like Wiwaxia.

3.5 billion Unicellular life evolves. Photosynthetic bacteria begin to release oxygen into the atmosphere.

3.8 billion Replicating molecules (the precursors of DNA) form.

4.6 billion The Earth forms and is bombarded by meteorites and comets.


anonymous asked:

in the story im writing which is on an earth like planet, the technology is modern but the planet is a sort of pangea with very high mountain ranges, i was wondering if you could talk about the unique aspects of a geologically young planet and how that might effect natural resources and weather and food etc. don't feel pressured to answer, but thank you so much for this blog!!

Ooh, this is gonna be a fun one!
But there are also so many things I want to talk about, so I’m trying a new strategy: I’m going to do a shorter, more generalized discussion of factors in this post….and link that to other posts that delve into the details of each of those factors. Because I honestly am having a hard time keeping this short. (If this counts as short…) If a topic sounds interesting, check out the link to the more detailed post! If not, hopefully this post covers the basics. (Note: I haven’t actually written the detailed posts yet… I’m working on that. I’ll post them as I write them!)

With that out of the way… let’s get started!

I’m assuming when you say the planet is “Pangea”, you’re referring to a planet that has recently had its continents collide, so there’s a single supercontinent. This has some really interesting implications for climate—in some intuitive ways, and some unexpected ways. (Granted, some of those impacts don’t come into play for millions of years, but that’s still cool. I’ll get to that later.)

Pangea is the most recent of Earth’s supercontinents, having existed ~300-175 million years ago (MYA). There’s been a lot of research on Earth’s supercontinent cycle, because the tectonics of it are really interesting—including the fact that there are multiple stages involved in both assembly and break-up. That research shows that supercontinents have been forming and breaking apart for at least 3 billion years. (More on supercontinent cycles here.)

Thinking about the geologic history of your world is actually really important because of geological resources. The age of your planet, the number of past continental collisions, past climates and ecosystems… all of these go into making oil and mineral resources. If you want your societies to have petroleum, or metal, or any technology, you need mineral deposits. And those mineral deposits would have formed millions of years prior to your story (assuming you’re dealing on human rather than geological timescales).

A quick note on mineral resources (more info on that here): Your mineral resources are going to depend less on the current continental set-up than on the geological history of your world. In general, the location of hydrothermal deposits is very important—because this is a major source of metals and rare earth elements. But where they appear at/near the surface depends on prior tectonic movements. The older your world is, the more time there will be to develop various ore deposits in different locations. Understanding where mineral deposits exist is important particularly in a world where you intend to have technology comparable to present-day Earth.

Now moving on to climate: The high mountain ranges that result from continental collisions are going to have a huge impact on climate—largely because they intercept rainfall. The rainshadow/orographic effect means that your coasts are going to be wet, while the center of the continent will be very arid. The interior’s climate will also be highly continental—meaning that there will be large temperature swings, because air temperature won’t be moderated by the ocean. What that temperature is will depend on your latitude—but it’s quite likely that summers will be very hot and winters very cold, and that nights will be significantly colder than days. (More on climate and natural resources here.)

Other natural (non-geological) resources: Water is going to be scarce inland. If anyone wants to live inland of the mountains, their best bet is probably going to be aqueducts collecting water from glaciers or something like that. But there won’t be much reason to live there, unless there’s a particularly desirable mineral deposit underground, or maybe a population of animals that have adapted to the harsh conditions. On the coasts, water will be abundant—because you’re going to have both monsoonal rainfall and large rivers of snowmelt from the mountains. The river floodplains are also going to have the most fertile soil for agriculture. Wood is mostly going to be where the water is, along the outer regions of the continent. You might also have large salt deposits inland, where there were once lakes or seas that have now dried up. (More on climate and natural resources here.)

So, those are the things that come to mind off the top of my head—but I’m hoping to delve deeper into this later after a bit of research, because these are some important topics that might be useful to people for various reasons.

Hope this offers a few useful thoughts!
-Mod Terra

Reflecting on Dream Lake

Telling roof from floor is a bit tricky when the spring water in a part of Luray Cavern (in Virginia) is so still that it takes on mirror like qualities, so the old question of which are stalactites (holding on tight to the ceiling) or mites is open to debate. The rocks here are Ordovician magnesium rich limestones called dolomites deposited in a long gone ocean some 480 million years ago. They were then folded into a mountain range (whose American remnants are known as the Appalachians) when the Iapetus Ocean closed up during the assembly of the supercontinent Pangaea. Later acidic waters hollowed out networks of caves in a set of processes called karst erosion, whereby the limestone is dissolved and carried away to be reprecipitated.


Image credit: David Jones


It wasn’t long ago that our Earth was thought to be only a few thousand years old and having been created in a matter of days. However during the scientific revolution that was taking place in the 18th and 19th centuries, minds like Darwin, Hutton and Lyell were challenging these age old theories. It was Charles Lyell that pioneered the theory that the forces of physics have remained the same throughout history, James Hutton also expressed that we can interpret the ancient past by studying modern day natural processes because the past and present are governed by the same laws. His findings reported that layers of sediment accumulated at around 2cm per year, he deduced that since mountains are sedimentary formations and thousands of metres high that the planet is more than a few thousand years old, but hundreds of millions. 

Our Earth is actually 4600 million years old, this staggeringly long time is almost impossible for the human mind to comprehend. As far as we know, life emerged as single celled organisms around 3800 million years ago, for the next 3 billion years it would remain as these minute unicellular organisms. This is the Precambrian, 4600 - 570 million years ago. 

To help us grasp the immense history of the Earth, a geological timescale was developed with each period marking a milestone in evolution and life.

CAMBRIAN 540 - 488 million years ago
Named after Cambria, an ancient name for Wales where rocks of this age are greatly exposed.
The Cambrian period sees explosive development of multicellular life with all the main modern phyla being established. Complex eyes and food chains evolve as well as active predation. Life is confined to the sea.

See Hallucigenia Opabinia Anomalocaris  

ORDOVICIAN 488 - 440 million years ago
Named for an ancient welsh tribe, the ordovices who lived in areas where rocks of this age are well exposed. Th oceans flourish with huge diversity of jawless fish, trilobites and gastropods and arthropods begin to dominate. The period ends with arthropods taking the first steps onto land. The end of the ordovician is marked by the first of the five major mass extinctions to hit the planet.

See Pterygotus Cameroceras 

SILURIAN 444 - 416 million years ago
Named for another welsh tribe, the silures, who inhabited areas where rocks of this age are abundant. Life in the oceans recovered from extinctions, magnificent coral reefs thrive in warm seas. Small plants begin to colonise the land and jawed fishes evolve.

DEVONIAN 416 - 359 million years ago
Named after the English county of Devon which is rich in Devonian age rocks and fossils. The Devonian period is also known as the age of the fishes. Jawed fish and placoderm fish rule the oceans, trilobites still thrive. Plants move from the coastal areas deep into land and the first forests spring up. Shark species increase in numbers and early forms of amphibian begin to spend more time on land.

See Dunkleosteus 

CARBONIFEROUS 359 - 299 million years ago
Known as the age of amphibians and named for the ancient coal deposits which were laid down during this time. The land is overrun with lush forests and swamps, The two main continents of the time, Eurasia and Gondwana are colliding to form the supercontinent Pangea. Winged insects take over the skies, oxygen content is much higher that today allowing insects to reach great sizes and the first true reptiles evolve, these are the first truly terrestrial vertebrates.

PERMIAN 299 - 251 million years ago
Named after Perm in Russia where rocks of the age are well exposed. Pangea is covered in harsh deserts, the number of species goes into decline, eventually 95% of them are wiped out in the worst mass extinction ever seen. Mammal like reptiles evolve. The first dinosaurs evolve towards the end of the Permian, they start as a few isolated groups and begin to increase rapidly in numbers.

See Scutosaurus Helicoprion Dimetrodon Gorgonops 

TRIASSIC 251 - 200 million years ago
Named after the word “Trias” referring to 3 rock divisions in Germany called bunter, muschelkalk and keuper. The climate of Pangea is warm and dry and dinosaurs have gradually assumed dominance in the land, skies and oceans. Mammals only exist as a few small species. Ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs reign in the sea and reach phenomenal size.

See Proterosuchus Tanystropheus 

JURASSIC 200 - 146 million years ago
Named for the Jura mountains. Dinosaurs still dominate the land and the oceans flourish with marine reptiles and ammonites. The first bird start to appear towards the end of the Jurassic.

See Liopleurodon Megalosaurus 

CRETACEOUS 146 - 65 million years ago
Named for the latin “creta” meaning chalk which is laid down during this period and found widely now. Dinosaurs continue to dominate, the first flowering plants evolve. Sea levels are up to 300m higher than today in some areas, much of the land is covered in shallow seas. Carbon dioxide concentrations rise, slowly choking the atmosphere. The end of the cretaceous is marked by the extinction of the dinosaurs due to possible meteor impact.

See Archelon Deinosuchus Ankylosaurus 

PALEOGENE 65 - 23 million years ago
The world begins to recover, mammals and birds begin to flourish and exploit the vacant niches left behind by the dinosaurs, in doing so they grow to incredible sizes. The climate is gradually cooling and will continue to do so bringing the earth into an ice age. In these cooler conditions the first grasses evolve.

See Gastornis Paraceratherium Entelodon Andrewsarchus Ambulocetus

NEOGENE 23 - 2.5 million years ago
The climate is still cooling, ice sheets begin to spread down from the poles, as a result sea levels slowly drop. The size of forests reduce and grasslands take over resulting in vast open planes. Mammals dominate the earth due to their ability to adapt to changing environments and harsh conditions. Towards the end of the period early hominids begin to appear.

See amphicyon Glyptodonts Megalodon

QUATERNARY 2.5 million years ago to present
With an enduring ice age much of the mammalian megafauna have become extinct. Hominids have continued to evolve, only the homo sapiens survive as they are able to adapt.

See Megatherium 


Pangaea Ultima is a possible future supercontinent configuration. Consistent with the supercontinent cycle, Pangaea Ultima could occur within the next 250 million years.

Supercontinents describe the merger of all, or nearly all, of the Earth’s landmass into a single contiguous continent. In the Pangaea Ultima scenario, subduction at the western Atlantic, east of the Americas, leads to the subduction of the Atlantic mid-ocean ridge followed by subduction destroying the Atlantic and Indian basin, causing the Atlantic and Indian Oceans to close, bringing the Americas back together with Africa and Europe. As with most supercontinents, the interior of Pangaea Proxima would probably become a semi-arid desert prone to extreme temperatures. [x][x][x]

(more at @annotated-hetalia)

Here’s something I didn’t know until yesterday: all of the world’s songbirds can be traced back to Australia. Or, at least, a western portion of the supercontinent Gondwana, which would become Australia.

The evidence has been there for us to find, but for over two centuries it was simply assumed that Australia’s songbirds were descended from Northern Hemisphere ancestors. When in the 1980s Australian scientists first floated evidence that the opposite was true – that all the songbirds of the Northern Hemisphere originated in Australia – they were laughed at. But over the next couple of decades, mounting evidence from DNA and fossil studies proved them right.

Australia was the birthplace of all of today’s songbirds, pigeons and parrots, and knowing this helps to explain some things about our own native birds. Compared to those of other continents, Australian birds are more likely to be intelligent, loud, aggressive, melodious, socially cooperative and environmentally influential. In part, that’s because they had an evolutionary head start on the rest of the world.

This Fossil Friday, learn about a fossil hunt at the bottom of the world.

Home to penguins, particularly hardy mosses, and the occasional seal paying a visit to dry land, Antarctica is a unique and uniquely harsh environment. Snow and ice cover 98 percent of the landmass, and with wind chill, temperatures in the center of the continent can plunge to 100 degrees below zero.

But it wasn’t always this way. Tens of millions of years ago, Antarctica was the heart of the supercontinent known as Gondwana, pressed between would-be South American and Australian continents at first and then likely joined to each by land bridges for millions of years after they started to drift apart. Though it was still at Earth’s southern pole, Antarctica was then much warmer. And, as fossils recovered there show, the continent was home to a diverse group of vertebrates, including non-avian dinosaurs and, later, during the Eocene period about 45 million years ago, mammals.

Paleontologists think the continent still has more fossils to yield—remnants which could show the dinosaurs that roamed there 65 million years ago shared the continent with even more ancient mammals. In February, Abagael West, a graduate student who studies South American mammals at Columbia University in a collaborative program with the Museum’s Richard Gilder Graduate School (RGGS), joined Museum Curators Ross MacPhee and Jin Meng as they headed south on a seven-week expedition in search of the evidence.

Read the full story on the Museum blog. 

Pacific Ocean To Close In 2018

The world’s largest ocean, after being open for almost 750 million years, will end its run in July of 2018. Pacific Spokesman Roland Haphausenhauer cited over-fishing, pollution, and the bad global economy as the reasons for the closure.

“This is the end of quite an era,” said the spokesman, “We tried to keep the Pacific going as long as we could but the fact is, it’s just not profitable and it’s just no longer rewarding work for those responsible.” The Pacific has seen several hundred lay-offs in recent years, with the ocean becoming less popular with tourists and new businesses. Now over 30 billion USD in debt, the ocean will file for bankruptcy and close its shores forever.

The effects will be long lasting as ships fall to the dry ocean floor, weather and water concerns go haywire, and many countries bordering the ocean dry up and their people flee in search of water. Said Japanese oceanographer Noriyuki Honjo, “Japan as we know it is essentially over with this news. Much of our economy is based on fishing, most of our contact with other countries happens by sea. With no Pacific Ocean, our land is doomed.” Most other island nations have expressed similar fears.

This is the largest geographical closure since the breakup of Pangea, a supercontinent that comprised most of the world’s landmass well into the Mesozoic, when it was hit with an antitrust lawsuit and was forced to break into smaller continents.

An excerpt from the zoological text The Hunter’s Encyclopedia of Animals (First Edition).

CHAPTER III: An overview of the desert barroth

The desert barroth (Aratrum limus) is one of two extant species found in the genus Aratrum. This bipedal entomophage measures at 14 meters in length, and weighs 7.3 metric tons. Like many theropods that inhabit the Sandy Plains the barroth is specialized for living in a savanna-desert mosaic, demonstrated by its morphological adaptations to hunting arthropods and its heat-avoidance behavior. It is distinguished from other praesidiosaurs by its prominent crown structure, which houses five redundant nasal passages. Currently, the desert barroth is labeled vulnerable in its conservation status. Its species is confined to a single region, and has become increasingly susceptible to human activities such as defaunation and anthropogenic desertification. In the last decade, efforts from the International Hunters’ Guild have mitigated population decline.

The average lifespan of the barroth is 29 to 34 years, with no distinction in longevity between the sexes. Individuals tend to inhabit areas with ephemeral wetlands and depressions flooded by seasonal rains. When foraging for food, barroths will venture more than five miles from their wallowing sites into the surrounding xeric scrubland and savanna. The barroth is a solitary animal with little tolerance for encroaching predators or conspecifics, charging intruders at speeds of 25 mi/h and flinging projectile mud to encumber them. Ecologically, the barroth is an important organism—as an allogenic engineer, it helps shape the landscape through soil nutrient recycling and foliage trampling. Subterranean insects (like the altaroth) constitute the bulk of its diet. The barroth is a cathemeral animal, although its activity spikes significantly at dusk and dawn when the oppressive temperature has cooled.

Historical interactions with the barroth were predominantly seen by aboriginal peoples of the Sandy Plains, and caravans passing through the area en route to Loc Lac. The bulk of these attacks were the result of people attempting to gather water or bathe near its wallowing site. Territoriality is the sole provocation for all barroth attacks, hence the moderately high fatality rates in human and lynian populations. The constant churning of silt, water, and detritus caused by the barroth’s movements helps enrich and disperse mud. Early peoples revered the barroth because of the versatility of this resource, with its applications ranging from adobe housing to fertilizer. Today, it is still widely regarded as a pillar of desert culture, and this reputation has helped endorse conservation efforts. Historians attribute the rise of the hunting horn as a weapon to the sandpipe, a traditional woodwind instrument fashioned from the barroth’s crown.

Keep reading

papillon-noirsblog  asked:

I think Ruby/sapphire plots, with Groudon drying the world out with intense sunlight or Kyogre drowning it with torrential rain sound illogical. If water did evaporate massively , it would have to eventually form clouds and fall down. And also there's a limited number of water on this planet so I don't think Kyogre would drown all the land ( ironcially Groundon would, by melitng ice capes). They would cause lots of problems, but definitely wouldn't end human civilisation. Or would they?

Yeah, for being my favorite games in the franchise, Both Team Aqua and Team Magma’s plans aren’t very sound scientifically. But let’s investigate this!

You are absolutely right about there being a limited amount of water on the planet. On Earth, about 97% of the water is currently in the oceans, and about 2.7% is in glaciers and ice caps. Because of ice ages and things like that, our sea level fluctuates. Just for fun, here’s a graph of the Global Relative Sea Level (on the vertical axis), compared to time, going up to 150,000 years ago.

You can see where it dips, which correspond to ice ages, where a significant portion of the water on the Earth was stored in glaciers on land, instead of in the ocean. The ocean has dropped as low as 120 meters below its current level during some of those.

So if Team Aqua wants to raise sea levels, they would have to melt glaciers. But, that might not even cut it. If all of the ice on Earth melted, the oceans would rise about 70 meters (230 feet). That’s not really a whole lot. This is what the continents might look like. They’re different, but not unrecognizable:

But once again you’re right, Team Magma’s plan would more likely bring about this kind of glacier-melting than awakening Kyogre would. Even if Kyogre could create water out of nowhere, there are over 300 million cubic miles of water on Earth. Kyogre would have to produce an astronomically large amount of water to even make a difference.

As for Team Magma, you’re right in saying that just by evaporating the water wouldn’t cut it. The planet could be humid and miserable, sure, but water would eventually condensate and rain back down per the water cycle. However–and this is extreme–you also have to remember that water is made of hydrogen and oxygen, and with enough energy it is possible to break that bond and physically destroy water.

The easiest way to do this is through electrolysis, or with electricity. But it is possible to do it with heat, too, known as thermal decomposition. For water, about 50% of molecules will decompose at 3000 °C. Magma is closer to 1200 °C – so this doesn’t seem like a good plan for Team Magma either.

But really, Team Magma’s goal isn’t to get rid of the oceans, but rather create more land. The only real feasible way to accomplish Team Magma’s goals and Team Aqua’s may not be so different after all. So we’re not done here yet. The sea level patterns we’ve looked at so far are within the last 150,000 years. Our planet is 4.5 billion years old, so that little fraction is nothing. If we really want to manipulate sea levels, we have to look at tectonic plates.

As you probably know, tectonic plates are pieces of the Earth’s surface, which are responsible for Earthquakes, mountains, continent migration, and a lot of stuff on the Earth’s surface. Pangea was the supercontinent that started breaking apart into all of the other continents 200 million years ago.

So here’s the catch: Plate tectonics can actually be attributed to long-term rise and fall of ocean levels around the world. This has less to do with the amount of water that’s on the Earth, and more to do with the amount of space that’s in the ocean basins. Think about it: If you have the same amount of water in a large bowl compared to a small bowl, one is going to fill up more. Continents can move vertically just as easily as they can move side to side, large deep crevasses can open up at plate boundaries (think “Mariana Trench”, the deepest parts of the ocean). It’s estimated that the seas have been up to 400 meters above and below the current levels due to this kind of plate tectonics.

So really, Team Aqua and Magma are interested in Plate Tectonics. The story we get in the games may not be the full picture. We’ve got to give them a little more credit, I mean the Magma/Aqua suit is quite an amazing piece of technology, so I have a hard time believing their scientists were that uninvolved with the main plan. What if Team Aqua and Magma didn’t want to awaken Kyogre/Groudon to cause a bunch of rain/volcanoes, but rather to speed up the movement of the tectonic plates to get their desired ocean level effect?

Kyogre and Groudon live in the Seafloor Cavern, a deep and dangerous place that is undoubtedly at the boundary of tectonic plates. And they’re both extremely powerful legendary pokémon, I would believe that they would be capable of causing a huge disruption at this plate boundary. Potentially big enough to change the shape of the oceans and raise/lower the sea level.

Of course, this would be a global catastrophe: earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis. The normally slow continental drift would be forced and pushed and ultimately accelerated before settling into its new form. But, it just might work.

Hopefully that answers your question!

-Professor Julie