sulfur vents


吾妻火山・一切経山 大穴火口 (2017年9月) 福島県

The Oh-ana vent of Mt. Issaikyo-san, Azuma volcano, Fukushima, Japan. Viewed from south. This active vent, with steam and sulfur exhalation at several spots, is the youngest among the Azuma volcano which has been active since 0.3 Ma. At present, relatively a calm period, only the W-6 fumarole is apparently active with sulfur deposits around it. (lower).

By popular demand, here’s an extensive multicolor land list for budget deckbuilding


Orzhov - Orzhov Basilica, Orzhov Guildgate, Scoured Barrens, Foresaken Sanctuary, Tainted Field, Salt Flats

Isolated Chapel, Godless Shrine, Shambling Vent, Concealed Courtyard

Dimir - Dimir Aqueduct, Dimir Guildgate, Dismal Backwater, Salt Marsh, Submerged Boneyard, Frost Marsh, Jwar Isle Refuge, Dreadship Reach, Tainted Isle, Waterfall Cavern, Rootwater Depths

Drowned Catacomb, Watery Grave, Choked Estuary, Sunken Hollow, Fetid Pools

Golgari - Golgari Rot Farm, Golgari Guildgate, Foul Orchard, Jungle Hollow, Tainted Wood, Pine Barrens

Woodland Cemetery, Overgrown Tomb, Hissing Quagmire, Blooming Marsh

Rakdos - Rakdos Carnarium, Rakdos Guildgate, Urborg Volcano, Cinder Barrens, Bloodfell Caves, Akoum Refuge, Molten Slagheap, Tainted Peak, Lantern-Lit Graveyard, Cinder Marsh

Dragonskull Summit, Blood Crypt, Foreboding Ruins, Smoldering Marsh, Canyon Slough

Boros - Boros Garrison, Boros Guildgate, Stone Quarry, Wind-Scarred Crag, Scabland

Clifftop Retreat, Sacred Foundry, Needle Spires, Inspiring Vantage

Azorius - Azorius Chancery, Azorius Guildgate, Coastal Tower, Meandering River, Boreal Shelf, Sejiri Refuge, Tranquil Cove, Calciform Pools, Cloudcrest Lake, Thalakos Lowlands

Glacial Fortress, Hallowed Fountain, Port Town, Prairies Stream, Irrigated Farmland

Selesnya - Selesnya Sanctuary, Selesnya Guildgate, Elfhame Palace, Tranquil Expanse, Arctic Flats, Graypelt Refuge, Blossoming Sands, Saltcrusted Steppe, Tranquil Garden, Vecc Townships

Sunpetal Grove, Temple Garden, Fortified Village, Canopy Vista, Scattered Groves

Simic - Simic Growth Chamber, Simic Guildgate, Woodland Stream, Thornwood Falls, Skyshroud Forest

Hinterland Harbor, Breeding Pool, Lumbering Falls, Botanical Sanctum

Izzet - Izzet Boilerworks, Izzet Guildgate, Highland Lake, Swiftwater Cliffs, Caldera Lake

Sulfur Falls, Steam Vents, Spirebluff Canal, Wandering Fumarole

Gruul - Gruul Turf, Gruul Guildgate, Shivan Oasis, Timber Gorge, Highland Weald, Kazandu Refuge, Rugged Highlands, Fungal Reaches, Pinecrest Ridge, Mogg Hollows

Rootbound Crag, Stomping Grounds, Game Trail, Cinder Glade, Sheltered Thicket

Triple Lands

Shards - Seaside Citadel, Crumbling Necropolis, Arcane Sanctum, Savage Lands, Jungle Shrine

Khans - Sandsteppe Citadel, Frontier Bivouac, Nomad Outpost, Opulent Palace, Mystic Monastery


Any - Command Tower, Transguild Promenade, Rupture Spire

Any with Stipulations - Exotic Orchard, Forbidden Orchard, Reflecting Pool, Pillar of the Paruns, Primal Beyond, Mana Confluence, Ancient Ziggurat, City of Brass, Grand Coliseum, Haven of the Spirit Dragon, Ally Encampment, Rainbow Vale, Sliver Hive, Spire of Industry

Charge Counters - Vivid Grove, Crag, Creek, Marsh, Meadow, Mirrodin’s Core


Basic Land

Evolving Wilds, Terramorphic Expanse, Myriad Landscape, Panoramas

Land Type

Bad River, Flood Plain, Grasslands, Krosan Verge, Mountain Valley, Rocky Tar Pit

anonymous asked:

Whats the great oxygenation event??

Oh boy! So, this all takes place around 2.3 billion years ago. Up until then, life had been pretty much chilling for a billion or so years. Pretty much everything was a single-celled organism back then. Also, the planet was a whole lot different. There was no ozone layer, so UV radiation was constantly reaching the surface. That kills stuff, by the way, in high concentrations. Methane gas was also being spewed into the air by various volcanic eruptions. So, not a very nice place. Most importantly, oxygen wasn’t much of a thing. The little there was existed in the ocean and bonded with the iron molecules that were floating around to make rust.

(Home sweet home.)

The organisms that were alive got along just fine without oxygen, for the time being. These are called anaerobic organisms, and some of them still exist today. A lot are in your stomach right now. Anyways, along comes this little thing called a cyanobacteria. It’s unclear how they evolved, but the point is, they can do this neat trick we like to call photosynthesis. As you probably know, a byproduct of photosynthesis is oxygen.

Cyanobacteria were incredibly successful - they could make up to 16 times as much energy as anything else. So, they started multiplying. Pretty soon, there was a bunch of extra oxygen floating around, and not enough iron to bond with it. Then things started dying. See, to a lot of anaerobic organisms, oxygen is incredibly deadly. And now there were billions of cyanobacteria constantly spewing it out. 

(The killers themselves. Look at them. Not an ounce of remorse.)

Long story short, almost everything besides cyanobacteria died. The survivors either adapted to be able to live with oxygen, or went and lived in places without it, like underground or in sulfur vents (those guys are still around today!). The cyanobacteria were literally so successful that they changed the chemical makeup of the atmosphere. This also led to a decrease in greenhouse gases and started the longest ice age the world has ever seen. Go cyanobacteria!

Sources: (x) (x)

anonymous asked:

Top 5 animals! (Individuals or species)

1. Guinea pigs.  Obviously.  They’re the best animal.

2. Dogs.  Kind of an obvious choice, but I’m really amazed how much emotional communication they’re capable of carrying on with humans, and how intuitive it is for both sides.  You can say “let’s get excited!” to a dog and it can say “I am very excited!” back and the two of you will understand each other perfectly.  I love that.

3. Lamellibrachia, deep-sea tube worms that live on sulfur vents and live 250 years.  Nothing about them is fathomable to me.  Everything I think of as part of being a living animal - moving, thinking, sensing, eating - they don’t do in any way that I could understand.  But they are living animals, and the sheer amount of difference is fascinating.

4. Rats.  Tenacious, clever, fearless, adaptable, unstoppable little forces of nature when they’re wild.  Not always for the good, but you have to admire their abilities.  And when they’re pets they’re just sweet little cuties.

5. Non-avian dinosaurs.  They had a whole other world happening, right in the place where we live now, and we only get these fascinating, tantalizing glimpses of it.


I had to turn down the volume on this - the music is overly loud. However, here’s a trip inside the crater of the White Island Volcano off the northern coast of New Zealand - regularly active volcano with steam and sulfur rich vents, geothemral features, only reachable by helicopter.


Bumblebee Agate skull  - Java

Bumblebee Agate (sometimes called Bumblebee Jasper) has been known only since the late 1990s and has been found only on the Indonesian island of Java. It is not really agate or jasper but a mix of minerals in a matrix of a volcanic material mined from sulfur vents. It is composed of anhydrite (gypsum), sulfur and hematite in a matrix of volcanic tuff (welded ash). It may also contain plumose calcite and ilmenite.


The Adventure Photography of Ladytron Co-Founder Reuben Wu

To see more of Reuben’s photography, check out @itsreuben on Instagram. For more music stories, head to @music.

Reuben Wu (@itsreuben) first fell in love with photography while chasing another creative dream. As a keyboardist, songwriter and producer in the electronic band Ladytron, he had the grand opportunity to travel the world and document his experience through an analog lens. From there, he began booking personal trips without any music gigs attached, strictly to take photos.

“One of the first places I went to was Svalbard, right next to the North Pole,” he says. “It was not going to be possible for me to find a DJ gig in the North Pole, so I had to book my own flight and just go. It is as much of a passion as music is. They’re both separate and intertwined as a creative outlet.”

Reuben’s love of strange landscapes took root during his childhood. He’d spend the gray English days poring over his father’s National Geographic magazines, escaping through his imagination to far away and exotic lands. Today, he’s able to do that in person, heading to remote and often dangerous destinations with his wife. For their honeymoon, they vacationed on the beaches of Indonesia, a place Reuben had always wanted to visit, due to its deadly volcanoes, in particular the so-called “mountain of fire,” Mount Ijen.

“I spent about 20 hours on the volcano wandering around with my camera,” he says. “It’s famous for this molten sulfur which vents out of the bottom of the crater as gas. Basically, it’s this huge toxic plume of yellow cloud, and you can’t breathe in it, so I had to wear a respirator and goggles. When it ignites, it burns with a blue flame, so you have to wait until it gets dark before you actually see it.”

Then there was the time the couple spent Christmas Day in the freezing fields of remote Utah so Reuben could capture the 1,500-foot-long (457-meter) “Spiral Jetty” by land artist Robert Smithson.

“It was a strangely magical place, frequented by … well, it was just us and these wild horses wandering around,” he remembers. “Don’t get me wrong, I absolutely love people. But in order for me to get into a creative flow, I have to be by myself.”

It’s the same when he’s composing music, whether it be a solo piece or something with Ladytron (which has plans to release a new album later this year). His many disciplines bleed in and out of one another in his mind. Music and images are, for Reuben, separate entities hopelessly tangled.

“I do see photo, video and music as three essential parts of one thing,” he explains. “I’ve always composed music with visuals in mind regardless of whether I need to. I always visualize, ‘Oh this could be a scene from a film,’ and it’s the same when I’m taking photographs. I instinctively imagine music soundtracking that.”

That tendency has expanded into a full-time occupation. Reuben spends most of his time now filming his own short clips and scoring them, an act of expression he calls both “liberating” but also “quite stressful.”

Kind of like walking inside a poisonous volcano.

––Kat Bein for Instagram @music


A volcano venting bright blue flames is a real, rarely-seen phenomenon of nature. 

The glowing, electric-blue flames are caused by combustion of sulfuric gases. The gases vent from cracks in the volcano with high pressure and temperatures reaching up to 600 degrees Celsius (1,112 degrees Fahrenheit). Once they come in contact with the air, the gases ignite, sending flames shooting as much as 16 feet high.

First image: Dallol volcano in Ethiopia

Second image: Kawah Ijen volcano in Indonesia

photos by Olivier Grunewald 


Sulfur vents and mines at Ijen Crater, Indonesia