subordinate clauses

If y'all want me to stop talking about disabled rights then you can tear my desire to be treated with basic decency from my cold, dead hands. So have a meme that illustrates my feelings because as genuine as the arguments for disabilities in fiction are, I think that the point has gotten lost amongst all the focus on creating circumstances (mainly in fantasy) that “allow” disabled people to exist.

‘It’s possible’, she mused, reflecting on her writing (although she knew that she would be better served by focusing on the task at hand), ‘that I use too many subordinate clauses in my sentences’.

Subordinating Conjunctions in German

As part of 100 Days of Languages

Day 16: learn 1 grammatical concept. (I already knew how to use these, but now I have a better grasp of them)

image

Originally posted by butteryplanet

While writing sentences in German you can use a subordinating conjunction to join a main clause (Hauptsatz) with a subordinate clause (Nebensatz). When you use one, the word order of the sentence is changed sending the verb to the end of the sentence. There’s many subordinating conjunctions, I’ll go through some.

Als – when (past events)

  • Als sie in Italien war, hat sie viele Menschen getroffen.
  • When she was in Italy, she met many people.

Bevor – before

  • An wen denkst du, bevor du einschläfst?
  • Who do you think about before going to bed?

Dass – that

  • Ich denke, dass wir uns nicht treffen sollen.
  • I think we shouldn’t see each other.

Damit – so that

  • Sie hat Medizin in der Universität studiert, damit sie eine Ärztin werden kann.
  • She studied medicine in the university so that she could become a doctor.

Nachdem – after

  • Nachdem ich nach Deutschland gereist bin, esse ich mehr Brot.
  • After I travelled to Germany, I eat more bread.

Ob – if

  • Sie hat mich gefragt, ob du zurück nach Hause kommst.
  • She asked me if you are coming back home.

Obwohl – although/even though

  • Er isst Nüsse, obwohl er allergisch ist.
  • He eats nuts even though he is allergic.

Seit – since

  • Sara wohnt in Schleiz, seit sie geboren ist.
  • Sara lives in Schleiz since she was born.

Sobald – as soon as

  • Er wird Japanisch lernen, sobald er fertig mit Französisch ist.
  • He will learn Japanese, as soon as he is done with French.

Soviel – as much as/for all

  • Soviel sie weist, Pamela mag auch Mädchen.
  • For all she knows, Lara also likes girls.

Soweit – as far as

  • Soweit ich mich erinnern kann, dieser Film ist über Vampire.
  • As far as I can remember, this film is about vampires.

Sowie – as soon as

  • Sie wird ihr Buch lesen, sowie sie mit Hausaufgaben fertig ist.
  • She will read her book, as soon as she is done with homework.

Während – during/while

  • Während wir ins Kino gehen, könnten wir auch etwas essen.
  • While we go to the cinema, we could also eat something.

Weil – because

  • Ich lerne Deutsch, weil es sehr schön ist.
  • I learn German because it is really beautiful.

Wie – how

  • Wir haben keine Idee, wie die Lampe kaputt gegangen ist.
  • We have no idea how the lamp broke.

Wo – where

  • Daniel weiß nicht, wo sein Zwilling ist.
  • Daniel doesn’t know where his twin is.
German: Conjunctions

Here a just a few conjunctions for German. The coordinating list is complete but there are so many more for subordinating conjunctions but these are the mains ones which I have encountered in my lessons.

Coordinating:

[word order is unchanged; verb remains the second idea]

und  – and
aber – but
oder – or
denn – because
sondern – but/but rather

Subordinating:

[send the verb to the end of the clause]

als - when (in the past)
als ob - as if
bevor - before 
bis - until
da - as/since/because
dass -that
damit - so that/in order that
ehe - before
falls - in case
indem - while
je - the (e.g. ‘the harder I work…’)
nachdem - after
ob - if/whether
obwohl - although
obgleich -although
obschon - although
seit - since
seitdem - since
so dass - so that
sobald -as soon as
solange - as long as
trotzdem despite the fact that
während - while
weil - because
wenn - if/when
wie - as, how

DAS VS. DASS

Distinguishing between ‘das’ and 'dass’ is one of the hardest challenges when learning German, and it’s hard even for us native speakers! It’s especially difficult for learners whose native language is English in my opinion, because both usually simply mean 'that’. However, not exactly the same kind of 'that’. In this post I’ll try to show you how to distinguish these two by showing you what I usually do when having to choose between 'das’ and 'dass’.


'Das’

Article
“Das Haus ist gross” “Er geht, das Mädchen folgt ihm”
In these cases, 'das’ is used as an article, however, it can seem a bit tricky after a comma. But when you can match the 'das’ as an article to a noun, always write it with one s.

demonstrative pronoun
“Das ist gar nicht gut” “Sie sagte, das sei normal”
In these cases, 'das’ is a pronoun and the subject of a sentence, so 'das’ can replace a noun and acts on its own. You can always check whether it is a demonstrative pronoun by asking (let’s take the first sentence as an example) “wer/was ist gar nicht gut?” “DAS ist gar nicht gut”. This one is the hardest to spot for me actually but after a while (and after refreshing German pronouns) it gets a lot easier.

relative pronoun
“Das Haus, das einen grossen Garten hat” “Das Kind, das den Nachbaren gebissen hat”
Here 'das’ refers to an object/the subject in the  previous sentence part, in the examples above to “Das Haus” and “Das Kind”. You can check that by substituting 'das’ by 'welches’ i.e. instead of “Das Kind, das den Nachbarn gebissen hat” “Das Kind, welches den Nachbarn gebissen hat”, if that works then you’re dealing with a relative pronoun which is very similar to the English version: “The child who/that has bitten the neighbour”


'Dass’

Conjunction
“Es geht nicht, dass er sie so behandelt” “Dass du mir nicht vertraust, verletzt mich”
'Dass’ is only used in one instance; to link different parts of sentences, so it’s similar to words like 'und’ and 'oder’ but unlike those to which link two main clauses, 'dass’ always links a main clause with an subordinate clause, so unlike 'das’ it does never depend on a noun. Unlike i.e. a relative pronoun, 'dass’ can be shifted within the sentence as a whole, although it always stands at the beginning of the subordinate clause.

Whenever I need to choose between 'das’ and 'dass’ in an essay or such, I try to first go through all the possibilities including a noun (article, relative pronoun, demonstrative pronoun) and if none of these can be applied, I am only left with 'dass’.

And tada: that’s how I try to not get confused with 'das’ and 'dass’, however, I am sure that there are other methods as well which are super helpful :^)

Have a nice weekend, everyone!

Using trop, très, beaucoup, si tellement, and assez

All of these adverbs express intensity, but they cannot always be used interchangeably.

1. Beaucoup

Beaucoup can be translated to “a lot” and is used with verbs.

e.g.:

Il a beaucoup mangé. – He ate a lot.

2. Trop/Très

These two are both used with adverbs and adjectives. However, it is worth noting that they have different meanings, and therefore can’t be interchanged without changing the meaning of a sentence. Très means a lot or very, while trop means too much (and usually carries a negative connotation).

e.g.:

Elle est très bavarde. – She talks a lot.

Elle est trop bavarde. – She talks too much.

Très and trop can also be combined with other adverbs to indicate intensity (très bien, très mal, beaucoup trop, un peu trop).

e.g.:

Il a très bien réussi son examen. – He did very well on his exam.

Elle lui a beaucoup trop racconté. – She told him way too much.

Note: In casual French (mostly in France), trop is sometimes used to indicate intensity, but without any negative connotation. In this case, it translates to “very”.

e.g.:

C’est trop cool! – It’s very cool!

3. Si

Like, trop and très, si is used with adverbs and adjectives. It can be used in exclamatory sentences or in sentences expressing a consequence. It translates to “so”.

e.g.:

Cette ville est si belle! – This city is so beautiful!

Son œuvre d’art était si magnifique qu’elle a remporté tous les prix. – Her work of art was so amazing that she won all the prizes.

Si can also replace aussi in negative and interrogative sentences.

e.g.:

Le repas n’est pas si mauvais qu’elle le prétend. – The meal isn’t as bad as she claims.

Comment peux-tu être si certain qu’il ne ment pas? – How can you be so sure he isn’t lying?

4. Tellement

This word modifies verbs, adjectives, and adverbs, and like si, can be used in exclamatory sentences or in sentences expressing a consequence.

e.g.:

On a tellement marché au cours de nos dernières vacances à New York! – We walked so much during our last vacations in New York!

Cette robe est tellement belle que je dois me l’acheter. – This dress is so beautiful that I have to buy it.

There are two ways of writing sentences with tellement. When it is used with que, it introduces a subordinate clause expressing a consequence. When the sentence is affirmative (i.e. not negative), it’s necessary to use the indicatif or conditionnel for the verb conjugation. However, if the sentence is negative or an interrogative sentence, then it is the subjonctif that is used.

e.g.:

Jean nous a tellement menti que je ne lui fais pas confiance. – Jean has lied to us so much that I don’t trust him. (affirmative + indicative présent)

Sacha n’est pas tellement fatigué qu’il ne puisse pas aller à l’école. – Sacha isn’t so tired that he can’t go to school. (negative + subjonctif présent)

Tellement can also be used without the que. In that case, it is placed next to a proposition expressing the cause. Unfortunately, this does not have an English equivalent, so both constructions are translated the same.

e.g.:

Il surprend ses parents tellement il est intelligent. – He is so smart he surprises his parents. (lit.: He surprsies his parents he is so smart.)

5. Assez

This word means “enough” or “rather” and is used with verbs, adjectifs, and adverbs.

e.g.:

Il a assez travaillé cette semaine. – He has worked enough this week.
Elle est assez fatiguée après sa pratique de hockey. – She is rather tired after her hockey practice.

In some cases, assez can also be used to indicate intensity.

e.g.:

J’aime assez ce vin que vous avez acheté. – I rather like this wine that you have bought.

NOUNS

Some of these words can also be used to mark intensity with nouns. However, they require placing a de between them and the noun. These words are beaucoup, trop, tellement, and assez.

e.g.:

Elle a beaucoup de toutous. – She has a lot of stuffed animals.

Samuel a trop de bonbons. – Samuel has too many candies.

Il y a tellement de monde au centre commercial aujourd’hui! – There are so many people at the mall today!

Elle a assez d’argent pour souper au restaurant. – She has enough money to dine at a restaurant.

It still fascinates me that I often see people on Dutch twitter use ‘when you’ as an untranslated meme. It is interesting, because Dutch syntax is different than English syntax, and therefore ‘borrowing’ a conjunction is not as straightforward as it may seem.

On the one hand, Dutch ‘wanneer’ (’when’) triggers a subordinate clause, and in Dutch sub-clauses the verb comes in final position. So, if you analyse ‘when’ as an equivalent of ‘wanneer’, you would therefore get the sentence below:

when you een Engelse meme in het Nederlands gebruikt…
lit: ‘when you an English meme in Dutch use.’

On the other hand, ‘when’ is not Dutch, and some people feel that it triggers a more English-like order - after all, it’s an English function word. This yields (to me weird-sounding) sentences like:

when you gebruikt een Engelse meme in het Nederlands
lit: ‘when you use an English meme in Dutch’

So, thanks to English memes, we have actually started to use weird syntactic structures that would usually be considered ungrammatical in Dutch.

I’ll just list ways you can accomplish this [radical revision] when you are working on a poem. Dig up some old ones and see what happens (it’s best to use old ones to start, as you are no longer emotionally attached to them):

1) If someone tells you you have too much in your poem, add more.

2) If someone tells you you have too little in your poem, take out more.

3) Take the last line and make it the first. Rewrite from there, keeping whatever works in what’s already there.

4) Expand your poem: add subordinate clauses using who, when, until, if, while, before, after, as, since, whenever, where, etc.

Also use coordinating conjunctions: and/and/and; or/or/or; but/but/but (think of it as a list that keeps going).

So, for example: “The man, who once loved me, who once told me___________, and __________, and ____________, and ______________…” so you’re pushing the syntax and the comfort of the line/sentence.

Actual listing - must make a qualitative progression (light to dark, big to small, for example); can’t be random. Push the list, see what you come up with.

Repetition - repeat what you just said. Maybe repeat it again.

Contradiction - say the opposite of what you just said.

5) Compress your poem:

Negation: use the word ‘not.’ When you do this you get both the thing named and its absence. You can also use other words that negate - 'un’; 'never’; 'less’; 'without.’

Neologisms: (what I like to refer to as kennings - used in Anglo Saxon poetry): put words together to create a heightened adjective, a metaphor: 'the shutmouth mother,’ 'the sorrowfence.’

Possessives: use possessives: 'how the sun’s poultice draws on my inflammation’ (Plath) or 'the wind’s rebuke’ and 'the leaves’ exhalation’ (Brigit Pegeen Kelly).

Shift the parts of speech: Use a noun as a verb or vice versa. Use an adjective as a verb, etc.

Cut and paste: radically rearrange your poem. Find new combinations!

EXERCISE:

Go over your poem and underline any lines you feel jump out with lots of energy. Pick three of those lines. Make one the first line of a new poem, one a middle line, and one the last line. Now, using some of the above strategies (minimum 3), write a new poem.

—  Catherine Barnett, “Radical Revision”

anonymous asked:

Okay so I'm having trouble with は and が and where to place them. I feel like it's a little random with wether to use は or が. Except for like the subject of a sentence... then its は I believe. Anyway. I'm also having trouble with に. Sometimes に is simple for me to understand because it'll be right after a specific location. Other times it's like 日本語の雑誌は先生の事務室にあります. And I'm just like.. How in the world is Japanese Magazines allowed in front of に?

Ok imma try. And sorry for the like 6 week delay. 😳 I’ve been through it the past 10 weeks.

First rule: Particles determine the role of each word relative to the verb. 

 が 

As a Case Marker - defines the subject, or the person, or thing doing the action described by the relevant verb. The subject is always expressed as a noun phrase. It is different than は which defines the object. i.e subject of existence like “Over there is a store.” 店がある。

 As a Conjuctive - it is used to connect two contrasting clauses like ‘but’ or ‘though.’

As subordinate clause connector - Indicates the subject of subordinate clause when it is different from the subject of the main clause. Indicates the subject of a relative clause.

Articles on は vs が

Wasabi           Misa’s YouTube       Tae Kim

Ok now I struggle with this so I hope this makes sense. 

  • Indicates time or frequency
  • Indicates a location
  • Indicates the indirect object of a verb
  • Indicates the surface of a object where some action takes place
  • Indicates a point of arrival
  • Indicates an entering motion
  • Used together with a verb to express a purpose
  • Joins two or more nouns to indicate a list of items
  • Connects two or more items to indicate a matching or a contrast
  • Indicates the one acting or the one acted upon
  • Used with a verb to indicate a change or choice
  • Indicates a person who gives something or who provides a service

日本語雑誌先生事務室あります.

「日本語雑誌」= Magazines of the Japanese Language or Japanese magazines

「先生事務室」= Office of the teacher or teacher’s office

「あります」= to be located

「は」indicates the topic = magazines are the topic

「日本語の雑誌は」

「に」indicates a location = are located 

The Japanese magazine’s are located in the teacher’s office. 

Articles on に

Wasabi                Quora             Tae Kim       Misa’s Youtube

anonymous asked:

do you know the difference between depuis, pendant, and pour? please help! thank you :)

I know that this is extremely late!

Pendant que:

Pendant que is a conjunction that indicates that one action is occurring simultaneously with another action.

e.g 

Va acheter le pain pendant que je fais la queue à la boucherie !

Go buy the bread (simultaneous action) while I queue at the butcher’s (other simultaneous action)


Depuis que:

Depuis que expresses the starting point of an action that is continuing. The verb in the subordinate clause can express either an action that is occurring simultaneously or that occurred in the past.

e.g. 

Depuis qu’il prend ce médicament, François n’a plus d’allergie au pollen.

Since he started taking this medication, François stopped being allergic to pollen. (Even though it seems simultaneous, I would say that this sentence indicates something happening in the past)

Depuis qu’elle sort avec Joseph, Alice est beaucoup plus souriante. 

Since she has been going out with Joseph, Alice is a lot more smiley.

(This sentence is more simultaneous)


Depuis:

This is a preposition that indicates the beginning of an action that is continuing in the present or the past.

With a verb in the present or the imperfect tense-

E.g. Vous attendez depuis longtemps ? Non, depuis cinq minutes seulement !

Have you been waiting long? No, only for five minutes.

Il neigeait depuis plus de trois jours et toutes les routes étaient bloquées.


With a composed past verb (passé composé) or a verb in the pluperfect tense:

(Verbs that use the auxiliary verb être:)

Est-ce que je peux parler à Paul ? Non, désolé, il est parti depuis une demi-heure.

Can I talk to Paul? No sorry, he left half an hour ago.

Les élèves étaient arrivés depuis une semaine en classe de nature quand il a enfin cessé de pleuvoir. (Ils étaient là depuis une semaine)

The students had been there for a week in nature class when it finally stopped raining.


(Verbs that use avoir as the auxiliary verb:)

When depuis is used with the auxiliary verb avoir, avoir is used in the negative form or it indicates progression (grandir/augmenter/progresser/grossir etc.) or change (commencer/finir/quitter/disparaître etc.)

In the negative:

Il n’a pas fait de ski depuis trois ans.

He hasn’t gone skiing in three years.

Elle n’avait pas dormi depuis deux jours et elle était très fatiguée.

She hadn’t slept for two days and she was very tired.


To express change or progression:

Il avait beaucoup vieilli depuis sa maladie.

He had aged a lot since his illness.

Elle a abandonné l’étude du violon depuis deux ans.

She gave up the violin two years ago.


Pour:

Pour means ‘for’, it can expression cause, destination, goal, length of time, for someone, to approve of something.

E.g. 

Cause:

le musée est fermé pour travaux (’travaux’ is the cause introduced by ‘pour’) - the museum is closed for works (construction/renovation)

Destination:

Je pars pour Paris - I’m leaving for Paris

Goal:

Je travaille pour un examen - I’m working/studying for an exam (to pass it)

Length of Time:

Je serai là pour huit jours - I will be here for eight days

Something for Someone:

J’ai des cadeaux pour des amis - I have presents for friends

To approve of sth (to be all for sth):

Je suis pour le travail à temps partiel - I am for part time work


(most examples from Nouvelle Grammaire du Français)

Speaking & Writing Vocabs

il lessico - lexicon, vocabulary (list of words known by a person), terminology
la terminologia, la nomenclatura - terminology, nomenclature, vocabulary
l’etimologia - etymology
il vocabolario - vocabulary (list of words in one language)
il dizionario - dictionary 
l’alfabeto - alphabet
i vocaboli, le parole, i termini - words, terms
le lettere - letters (alphabet)
i numeri - numbers
la lingua - language
il linguaggio - language / style
la dizione - diction, elocution
la pronuncia - pronunciation, diction
la parlata - way of speaking, idiom, parlance
la scrittura, la calligrafia - writing / calligraphy
il modo di dire - common saying
il proverbio - proverb, saying
il motto, la massima, l’adagio - maxim, motto, principle, aphorism, adage
lo scherzo - prank, joke, dirty trick
la battuta, la freddura - joke, gag, pun
l’idioma - language, dialect
il gergo - slang, lingo
il dialetto (la parlata locale) - dialect, vernacular (local idiom)
l’accento *- accent, stress
la cadenza, l’accento *- inflection, stress, accent

la sintassi - syntax
la morfosintassi - morphosyntax, grammar
la stuttura sintattica - structure (of syntax)
il costrutto - construction, construct, sens (syntactic structure) 
l’ortografia, la scrittura - orthography
il corsivo - cursive (writing)
lo stampatello - block letters (writing)
lo spelling, la compitazione - spelling
la frase, il periodo - phrase, sentence
la proposizione - clause, sentence
il periodo ipotetico - “if sentences”, conditional period
la protasi - subordinate clause in “if sentences”
l’apodosi - main clause in “if sentences”
la (frase) reggente / principale - main clause
la (frase) subordinata - subordinate clause
la morfologia - morphology
il dialogo - dialogue, conversation
il monologo - monologue
il soliloquio, il monologo interiore - soliloquy, interior monologue
il discorso - conversation, speech
la conferenza - lecture, educational speech, conference
il discorso diretto - direct speech
il discorso indiretto - indirect speech
la domanda - question
l’esclamazione - exclamation
la prolissità, essere prolissi - verbosity, prolixity
la sinteticità, essere concisi - conciseness 
il tema, il componimento scritto - essay, composition
la lettera - letter (writing)
la raccomandata - registered mail
la poesia - poem (poetry)
i versi - verses
le rime, le assonanze - rhymes
la figura retorica - figure of speech
la metafora - metaphor / analogy
la retorica - rhetoric

la grammatica - grammar
l’analisi logica - logical analysis, construe
l’analisi grammaticale - grammatical analysis, construe, parse
l’analisi del periodo - period analysis
il verbo - verb
l’ausiliare (verbo) - auxiliary verb
l’apostrofo - apostrophe
l’accento *- accent mark
la coniugazione (verbo) - conjugation
la prima persona plurale (verbo - noi) - 1st plural person (we)
la terza persona singolare (verbo - lei/lui) - 3rd singular person (s/he, it)
il modo (verbo) - mood
il tempo (verbo) - tense
il tempo composto - compound tense
l’articolo determinativo - definite article
l’articolo indeterminativo - indefinite article
l’articolo partitivo - partitive article
il nome **- name, appellative
la declinazione - declension, conjugation
il genere - gender
maschile - masculine
femminile - feminine
il numero - number (sing/plu)
singolare - singular
plurale - plural
il nome proprio **- proper noun/name
il nome comune **- common name, generic name/noun
la congiunzione - conjuction
la preposizione semplice - simple preposition
la preposizione articolata - preposition + article
l’aggettivo - adjective
il grado (aggettivo) - degree
il grado comparativo (aggettivo) - degree of comparison
l’aggettivo qualificativo - qualifier adjective
il diminutivo - diminutive
il vezzeggiativo - nickname, term of endearment
il pronome - pronoun
il soggetto - subject
il sostantivo **- noun
il complemento - complement
il complemento diretto / oggetto - direct object/complement
il complemento indiretto - indirect complement
l’attributo - attribute
le interiezioni - interjection
l’abbreviazione - abbreviation 

la punteggiatura - punctuation
il punto - full stop, period, dot
il punto e virgola - semicolon
i due punti - colon, two points
la virgola - comma
i puntini di sospensione - dots, ellipsis
il punto esclamativo - exclamaton point
il punto di domanda - question mark
la lettera maiuscola - capital letter
le sillabe - syllables
monosillabo - monosyllable
trittongo - triphthong

dividere in sillabe, sillabare - to syllabify
(andare) a capo - to start a new line 
parlare - to speak, to talk, to make a speech
raccontare, narrare - to tell, to narrate
dire, esporre, enunciare - to say, to express
chiacchierare, discorrere - to chat, to converse 
balbettare, tartagliare - to stutter
borbottare, mormorare, biascicare - to mutter
spifferare - to blab, to tell tales
sussurrare, mormorare, bisbigliare - to whisper, to murmur
urlare - shout, scream, cry out
sbandierare, vantarsi - to flaunt, to spread
discutere - discuss 
discutere, litigare - to argue, to disagree, to fight
aprire bocca - open your mouth, speak
scrivere - to write
leggere - to read
comporre - to compose, to arrange

non aprire bocca! / acqua in bocca! - don’t speak!, don’t say anything!
chiudi la bocca! / stai zitto! - shut up! 
Luca mi ha raccontato la tua storia. - Luca told me your story
Ho parlato con Lucia - I spoke with Lucia
La mamma ha detto che non dovremmo non litigare. - Mum said we should not fight.
Con chi ho il piacere di parlare? - With whom I have the pleasure of speaking?
Asino di natura chi non sa leggere la sua scrittura (saying) - literally: dunce by nature s/he who cannot read her/his own writing
Come dice il proverbio …. - As the saying goes…

Spanish grammar

Sentence structure

Relative clauses

Relative clauses are subordinate clauses that provide information about a noun or pronoun from the main clause. They allow us to include additional information without having to start a new sentence. A relative clause can be introduced by a pronoun, determiner or relative adverb.

What are relative clauses?

Relative clauses allow us to combine two sentences to provide additional information about an element in the main clause. Relative pronouns and adverbs serve as the link between the main clause and the relative clause. For example, Antonio está en mi clase + Antonio lleva gafas Antonio, que lleva gafas, está en mi clase (Antonio, who wears glasses, is in my class).

Types

There are two types of relative clauses:

  1. Defining relative clauses identify the thing being described. In Spanish as in English, these relative clauses are not written between commas. If you remove a defining relative clause from the sentence, the meaning is changed or becomes unclear. For example, El chico que lleva gafas es Antonio (The boy who wears glasses is Antonio)
  2. Non-defining relative clauses only provide additional information; you can remove a non-defining relative clause from a sentence and the meaning will stay the same. In Spanish as in English, these relative clauses are written between commas. For example, Lucas, a quien conozco desde hace tiempo, es muy divertido (Lucas, whom I’ve known for a long time, is very funny).

If you are not sure whether the relative clause should be written between commas, try removing it from the sentence to see if the meaning changes or becomes ambiguous. If so, then the relative clause is defining and does not require commas. If the sentence still makes sense without the relative clause, it requires commas.

How to form relative clauses

Relative clauses are formed using relative pronouns or relative adverbs. They refer to something in the main clause which can be explicit or not.

  • relative clauses that refer to something that is explicitly stated in the main clause: El chico que lleva gafas (The boy who wears glasses)
  • relative clauses that do not refer to something explicitly stated in the main clause are introduced by the relative pronouns como (how), cuando (when), cuanto (how much/many), donde (where), el que (the one who), and quien (who): Quienes nos conocen saben que somos muy buenos amigos (The ones who know us know that we are very good).

Relative pronouns and adverbs

Relative pronouns

  • person or thing - que: Antonio, que lleva gafas, está en mi clase (Antonio, who wears glasses, is in my class); el que/la que/los que/las que: Lucas, al que conozco desde hace tiempo, es muy divertido (Lucas, whom I’ve known for a long time, is very funny); el cual/la cual/los cuales/las cuales: Estos son los amigos con los cuales paso mi tiempo (These are the friends with whom I spend my time)
  • person - quien/quienes: Mis amigos, a quienes conozco desde la infancia, son estupendos (My friends, whom I’ve known since childhood are fantastic)
  • amount - cuanto: Aprecio cuanto mis amigos hacen por mí (I appreciate everything my friends do for me)
  • possession - cuyo/cuya/cuyos/cuyas: Laura, cuya sonrisa es magnífica, baila muy bien (Laura, whose smile is magnificient, dances really well)
  • amount - cuanto/cuanta/cuantos/cuantas: Mis amigos y yo nos vemos cuantos días tenemos libres (My friends and I see each other when we are off)

Relative adverbs

  • place - donde, adonde: El colegio donde estudié organiza una fiesta de antiguos alumnos todos los años (The school where I studied organizes a school reunion every year)
  • manner - como: Laura baila como lo hacen los ángeles (Laura dances like an angel does)
  • time - cuando: A Lucas y a Antonio los conocí cuando íbamos al colegio (I met Lucas and Antonio when we went to school)
  • amount - cuanto: Veo a mis amigos cuanto puedo (I see my friends as much as I can)

Que

In Spanish, the relative pronoun que is the most common because it can refer to people, things, concepts, and events. It can introduce defining and non-defining relative clauses and can be translated as “who/what/which” in English.

If the relative clause is introduced by a preposition, we also need an article before que: Estamos en la tienda en la que compramos las botas de invierno (We are in the shop in which we bought winter boots).

El que/la que/los que/las que

The pronouns el que/la que/los que/las que can refer to people as well as things.

If there is no preposition before them, it can only be used in non-defining relative clauses: Antonio, el que lleva gafas, va a mi clase (Antonio, the one who wears glasses, is in my class). If there is a preposition, it can be used in both defining and non-defining relative clauses.

El cual/la cual/los cuales/las cuales

The relative pronouns el/la cual, los/las cuales can be used instead of el que/la que/los que/las que in a non-defining relative clause. These relative pronouns are mainly used in formal speech.

Without a preposition, they can only be used in non-defining relative clauses. With a preposition, they can be used in both defining and non-defining relative clauses.

Lo que, lo cual

The relative pronouns lo que and lo cual refer to a complete sentence or to an idea. Lo cual always refers to something that is explicitly stated in the main clause: Hoy vienen mis amigos a cenar, lo que/lo cual me alegra mucho (My friends are coming to dinner tonight, which makes me very happy).

Quien

The relative pronoun quien (who) always refers to a person and is only used in written Spanish. If there is no preposition, it can be used instead of que in non-defining relative clauses. If there is a preposition, quien can be used instead of el que or el cual and their variants in both defining and non-defining relative clauses.

Quien can also refer to something that is not explicitly stated in the sentence: Quien avisa no es traidor (Whoever informs is not a traitor).

Cuyo/a/os/as

While in English the word “whose” has only one form, the Spanish possessive form is variable and agrees in gender and number with the possession, not with the owner: Antonio, cuyas gafas son nuevas, es miope (Antonio, whose glasses are new, is short-sighted).

Cuyo/a/os/as sounds very formal, so in general we prefer to use it only in written Spanish. In spoken Spanish we rephrase the sentence to avoid using a relative clause in this context.

Cuanto

The Spanish relative pronoun cuanto is very formal. In English, we translate this relative pronoun as “everything/everyone/all”: Le contó a la policía cuanto recordaba (He/she told the police everything he/she remembered).

Donde

The relative adverb donde (where) is invariable and is used to refer to place. Depending on the preposition it is combined with it can refer to origin (de donde), departure point (desde donde), location (en donde), transit (por donde) or destination (a donde/adonde). It is interchangeable with en el que or al que and their variants: Esa es la tienda (en) donde Antonio compró sus gafas (That’s the store where Antonio bought his glasses).

Como

The relative adverb como gives information about the manner in which the action of the main clause is performed: Baila como sabes (Dance like you know how).

Cuando

The relative adverb cuando refers to time. It can be translated with the English “when” or “as”: La semana pasada, cuando volví de vacaciones, llovió sin parar (Last week, when I returned from my vacation, was raining non-stop).

Indicative or subjunctive in relative clauses

Non-defining relative clauses are formed with the verb in the indicative. Defining relative clauses can be formed with the indicative, the infinitive or the subjunctive.

We have to use the subjunctive in relative clauses when the relative clause

  1. comes after a negation: No hay ninguna amiga que me comprenda como Laura (There’s no friend that understands me like Laura)
  2. expresses a wish, permission, prohibition, or a subjective evaluation: Me gustaría tener una bicicleta que me permitiese ir a visitarla (I would like to have a bike that allowed me to go visit her)
Goal-Achieving Proposal for Witches

I’m listening to Atomic Habits by James Clear right now (as an audiobook), and his theory on how identity impacts habit-creation intrigued me. He claims that if you identify as a person who performs a healthy habit–such as saying “I’m a healthy eater” rather than “I’m trying to eat healthy”–you are more likely to fulfill that habit. Our self-identity motivates our actions, which in turn gives us evidence to reinforce our identity. When we write, we’re writers. We are writers because we have written works. The action and identity must support each other. I’m thinking that this can apply to magical paths, especially for those just starting out.

One of the most common questions I receive is where an aspiring magician can start. Many have a vague goal in mind, such as “I want to work with the ocean”. That’s a start. But what if you narrow it to what kind of person you want to become? Or more specifically, what kind of magician you want to become? A good way to determine this is to fill in this sentence: “I want to be a ______ who ______________.”

I’ll use the ‘working with the ocean’ example. “I want to be a sea witch.” A sea witch who what? “I want to be a sea witch who heals using water magic.” This narrows down what kind of person you’re aiming to become: an ocean magician, and a healer. It also gives you a starting point in your studies. To achieve this goal, you’ll want to focus on healing folklore that involves the sea or water. 

In order for this to really work, you’ll need to keep the subordinate clause action-based. In other words, stay away from the phrase “who is”. “I want to be a ceremonial magician who is knowledgeable and powerful” doesn’t give you a good starting point. It’s too vague. Instead, make it action-based: “I want to be a ceremonial magician who gains prosperity through planetory magic.” That gives you a direction. 

Some more useful examples of this:

  • “I want to be a death witch who heals souls of the dead.”
  • “I want to be a chaote who achieves gnosis consistently to improve my spell results.”
  • “I want to be a spirit worker who communicates with my local plant spirits for protection and aid in my spellwork.”

The more specific you can get, the better idea you’ll have of your current goal. These goals can also change over time as well, so it may benefit you to fill out this sentence every couple of months.

I feel the need to clarify that this exercise is only a starting point. I know tumblr is big on the whole “call yourself a witch and you are one” thing, but I think it’s common sense that just saying you’re effective cursemage doesn’t automatically make you good at cursing. You do have to put in the study and effort consistently. This exercise is designed to give you the motivation and direction required to begin your work. 

This is just a brainstorming idea. Feel free to discard or use as you will. Hope this helps, and see you lovelies soon!

a day is long.

Sunday morning. Chanyeol makes breakfast and you make love, in that order. happy chanvember!

Rating: MA. Fluffy talk. Grinding. Sex. Explicit language.

Warning: Allusions to recovering agoraphobia.

Pairing: chanyeol (exo) xfem. reader

Words: 3890

[A\N]: Published 25.11.19. Update 26.11.19. I came back to it and rewrote some parts. I’m definitely happier with the finished outcome. As you see I’ve put in a teensy warning. It’s not said outright that the reader has agoraphobia. However if you read this and then the fic you’d think ‘no brainer!’  Thank you so much to all the people who liked and reblogged my little piece! Happy Birthday Chanyeol you fine hunk of man.

tagging @thisisgospelofthehorizon​ and @typicalpeople even though it is so laaatei hope you enjoy kbye.

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Chill Sunday morning, a weak sun turning your skin a hue unlike usual, and the world is pastels and autumn shade sheets. It is a good linen rustling against your thighs- your boyfriend has been spoiled for linen sheets; the luxury of them sends him to sleep like a babe in arms. Yet the chill breaching even the protection of the comforter you surround yourself with is no staid thing, to compliment the Instagram-worthy moment. You almost whimper as you realise the reason you can’t quite feel your extremities isn’t for lack of circulation- something as simple as sleeping on your arms. It’s just plain bloody cold.

And then you realise why. The space beside you is indented, but not fresh. No answering slide up your thigh to greet you into morning, no spit-roughened voice against your neck to shock you out of sleep. And no warmth. No tall body fitting around the curve of your back and tucked up legs with the familiarity and comfort of practiced routine. Unusual, your body sings.

You get up, one foot stumbling over the other as your limbs struggle for autonomy. Eight thirty is not a good, respectable Sunday time, you think. You slip your feet into slippers and rub your arms together, half of a mind to drag the blanket of the bed and wrap it around you.

“Chanyeol?”

“In here,” his deep voice floats back from the sitting room.

“What’s the temp?” You call blearily, reaching for a sweater instead.

“Seventeen degrees!”

“Fiend,” you mutter and abandon the sweater, pulling on socks.

Keep reading

anonymous asked:

Bonjour !!! Can I get some advice on the usage of "ce que" and "ce qui" please?? Thank you so much!!!

hello, first of you can check the post about relative pronouns. second, :

CE QUI/CE QUE/CE DONT :

WHAT :

They mean what/the thing that or which, introduce a conjunctive subordinate clause (proposition subordonnée conjonctive) and are never linked to people ; you’d use ‘celui/celle/ceux/celles que, qui, dont-’.

  • Ce qui : the relative pronoun has the function of subject. Ex : J’ai eu un accident, ce qui explique pourquoi je suis en retard - I got in an accident, which explains why I’m late
  • Ce que : the relative pronoun has the function of direct object. Ex : C’est ce que je voulais dire - That’s what I meant
  • Ce dont : used with adjectives, verbs, nouns/nominal groups followed by the preposition de. Ex : C’est précisément ce dont je veux te parler - That is precisely what I want to talk to you about 

WHEN :

  • To address the subject of the previous sentence without repeating it. Ex : - J’ai recommencé à courir - Ce qui est une bonne chose (- I started running again - Which is a good thing)
  • To stress a point. Ex : Ce qui me déplaît, c’est son agressivité (What I dislike like is his temper)

HOW :

  • CE QUI is the subject of the verb that follows it.
  • CE QUE is often used as a direct object and followed by subject + verb.
  • CE DONT is the object of the preposition de (c’est précisément ce dont je veux te parler : c’est précisément de ça que je veux te parler)
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Originally posted by forfoxesonly

Hope this helps! x

anonymous asked:

hi can u make a post about the sentence structure of subordinate clauses unless u've done that already

Sure thing! c:

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Subordinate Clauses in Norwegian

#1. What is a subordinate clause?

A subordinate clause can sometimes be called a dependent clause - simply because they’re not independent sentences. While a main clause makes perfect sense by itself, a subordinate clause is merely a phrase that gives the main clause extra information - and, consequently, it can’t be used as an independent sentence. 

This would be a main clause - a sentence that makes sense by itself:

“He needs to eat.”

This, on the other hand, would be a subordinate clause - a phrase that makes little sense when it’s by itself:

“Because he’s still growing.”

(It doesn’t really make sense by itself, right? Sure, if someone asked you “Why does he need to eat”, then this could be an adequate answer - but the phrase alone doesn’t carry much of a meaning - and unless you’re answering a question, you wouldn’t really say this phrase by itself.)

So, subordinate clauses are phrases that you add to your main clause to give people that tiny bit of additional information, like this:

“He needs to eat, because he’s still growing.”
(Main clause, subordinate clause.)

I know, it might seem like I’m spoon-feeding you this right now, but being able to tell a subordinate clause and the main clause apart is essential when you’re speaking Norwegian - as you’ll see in #4

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#2 The sentence structure of a Norwegian subordinate clause

Here’s a post about the sentence structure of Norwegian main clauses.

Most of the time, the structure of a subordinate clause and a main clause will be the same - - - except for this:

- A subordinate clause usually starts with a subordinating conjunction (”because”, “when”, “that”)

- When negating subordinate clauses, “ikke” comes before the verb, not after. 

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#3. Common subordinating conjunctions 

Some of the more common subordinating conjunctions (”subjunksjoner”) in Norwegian would be:

- som (”which/as/that” - as in “the guy that didn’t come….”)
- at (”that” - as in “he said that he couldn’t come…”)
- om (”if”)
- fordi (”because”)
- da (”when” - non-recurring)
- når (”when” - recurring)

*!! - When speaking, it’s sometimes common to omit the subordinating conjunction - because a native Norwegian speaker will automatically be able to tell which part is a subordinate clause - whiiiiich of course makes things a bit trickier for those of you who’re trying to learn Norwegian as a second (or third…or fourth..) language. (but hey, practice makes perfect amirITE–)

Here are some examples that might make things a bit easier to understand:

“Han sa at han kommer. - “He said that he’s coming.” 

“Jeg liker ikke hunder som bjeffer. - “I don’t like dogs that bark.”

“Han sa det da han gikk.- “He said so when he left.”

*!! - keep in mind that sentences starting with normal conjunctions such as “and” or “but” aren’t necessarily subordinate clauses, but two connected main clauses - so these rules won’t apply there.  

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#4. Negation

Now this is where it really gets tricky. 

You see, a negated main clause in Norwegian will usually have the word “ikke” placed after the verb - however, if there’s a negated subordinate clause in a sentence, “ikke” will be placed before the verb. 

In other words:

“Jeg liker ikke hunder som bjeffer.” - “I don’t like dogs that bark.
(Negated main clause, subordinate clause = “ikke” after “liker”.)

“Jeg liker hunder som ikke bjeffer.“I like dogs that don’t bark.”
(Main clause, negated subordinate clause = “ikke” before “bjeffer”.

Does that make sense? Here’s another example:

“Han er ikke på skolen fordi han er syk.” - “He’s not at school because he’s sick.”

- “Ikke” after “er” because it’s a negated main clause, but not a negated subordinate clause. 

“Han er på skolen fordi han ikke er syk.” - “He’s at school because he’s not sick.”

- “ikke” before “er” because it’s a negated subordinate clause, but not a negated main clause.

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I really hope that makes sense!! ;;v;;