subatomic-particles

wiiizerd  asked:

Hi skylar! Neutrons are neutrally charged subatomic particles. A subatomic particle is something smaller than an atom. Neutrons are found in the centre of most stable atoms. Sometimes they're outside the atom but that's usually dangerous to humans.

hi wiiizerd.

Little friend of yours truly live bees a lot why. neutrally? subatomic?

Search for ‘Ghost’ Particles Soon To Be Supercharged

While restarting the Large Hadron Collider in the coming days may be the week’s big theoretical physics story, we’ve also just heard news about another important upgrade on the way. 

The South Pole Telescope, the largest in Antarctica, will be getting a powerful new camera at the end of the year. Researchers at the Department of Energy’s national laboratories and the University of Chicago and University of California, Berkeley are building the super-sensitive instrument right now. 

At almost 33 feet in diameter, the big telescope’s main job is to help scientists learn about the origins and expansion of the universe by reading the cosmic microwave background, the faint thermal radiation left over from the Big Bang. Physicists building the new camera are hoping it will reveal another relic of the universe’s beginning called neutrinos. The tiny subatomic units, called ghost particles because they have no electrical charge and rarely interact with matter, were released in huge quantities during the Big Bang. See pictures and learn more below.

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Small stuff is cool to science.

First we were like “hey there’s these small things that make up everything. Let’s call them atoms.”

Then we were like “hey there’s small things in the small things let’s call them electrons.”

Then were were like “oh there’s other small things in the small things, let’s call them protons and neutrons.”

Then we were like “wait a second those second two small things in the small things are made of even smaller things. Let’s call them quarks. Also, there’s other classes of small things the same size as the small things in the small things but that aren’t in the small things, and they’re made of the small things in the small things in the small things.”

Now we’re like “hey the small things in the small things in the small things are actually made of even smaller things called preons, and these small things in small things in small things in small things are probably made of even smaller things we haven’t discovered yet.”

I’m guessing we’re going to just keep finding smaller things until we reach the Planck length.

(That’s very, very, very much smaller. There would probably be around 15 more small things until we got there.)

Icy Observatory Detects Neutrinos From Outside Our Solar System

“At the bottom of the world, an observatory embedded in ice and designed to catch bountiful but elusive subatomic particles could give astronomers a brand-new look at the universe.

An international team of scientists reported on Thursday that over a two-year period they had detected 28 of these particles, known as neutrinos, that arrived from outside the solar system and possibly from across the universe.”

Hyper-Velocity Planets Powered by Black Holes Hit Speeds Matched Only by SubAtomic Particles.

“Research released earlier this year has found that hypervelocity planets may be flung to the outer reaches of the galaxy by black holes at speeds matched only by subatomic particles, traveling at 1.5 to 30 million miles per hour.

The finding builds on previous work on hypervelocity stars, which appear when a binary star system — two stars orbiting a central point — enter the gravitational well of a black hole, similar to the one at the center of our Milky Way galaxy. The black hole tears the stars apart, sending one of the stars hurtling from the galaxy at very high speeds while the other remains within the gravitational field of the black hole. 

Harvard's Avi Loeb, chair of the Harvard astronomy department, surmised that such planets could be seen through a telescope as “transits,” or traces, as they crossed a star’s light. He subsequently launched his collaboration with Dartmouth’s Ginsburg to examine the possibility of such planets’ existence.”

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So the Higgs Boson discovery comes out of CERN and the Large Hadron Collider. This is a particle accelerator. Particle accelerators take small particles (atoms, ions, sub-atomic particles) and get them moving very very very fast. Then they smash the particles into each other or into targets and measure the energy and particles that result from the collisions. It is like the world’s fastest and tiniest demolition derby.

In high school I used a very small accelerator to demonstrate the Doppler shift with helium ions. One of the benefits of growing up near a national laboratory.

Elements and Compounds; Atoms and Molecules

All substances are made up of basic components called the elements. Elements are composed of tiny particles called atoms, the smallest particles of an element that still retain the chemical properties of that element. When atoms of elements enter into a seemingly infinite variety of chemical combinations, they form compounds. Groups of atoms bonding together make a molecule, which is the smallest particle of a compound that still exhibits the chemical properties of that compound. 

Atoms are composed of neutrons, protons and electrons. Neutrons are electrically neutral particles, protons are positively charged particles and electrons carry negative charge. Protons and neutrons account for virtually the entire mass of an atom, yet they reside in the infinitesimally small atomic nucleus. The nucleus is surrounded by electrons that are equal in number to the protons in the nucleus, thereby imparting neutrality of charge to the atom itself.

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Electrons play an important role in determining the chemical and physical properties of elements and compounds. Chemical compounds are formed by the transfer of electrons from one atom to another to form ions (ionic bonding)

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or by the sharing of electron pairs between atoms (covalent bonding) to form molecules. 

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