HISTORY MEME | FASCINATING WOMEN [8/10} → Anne, Queen of Great Britain l (1665 – 1714)

Anne was born at 11:39 pm, 6 February 1665 in London, the second daughter of James, Duke of York, brother of Charles II. She spent her early years in France living with her aunt and grandmother. Although Anne’s father was a Catholic, on the instruction of Charles II Anne and her sister Mary were raised as Protestants. In 1683, Anne married Prince George of Denmark. It was to be a happy marriage, although marred by Anne’s frequent miscarriages, still births and the death of children in infancy.

Her sister Mary married William of Orange but Anne was forbidden by her father to visit her in the Netherlands. When William landed in England in 1688 to take the throne, Anne on the influence of her close friend Sarah Churchill (1650–1744) the wife of John Churchill (1650–1722), supported her sister and brother-in-law against her father James. Churchill was created Duke of Marlborough by William when he was crowned King William III and her sister Queen Mary II. Anne detested her brother-in-law and she was led by Churchills’ influence to briefly engage in Jacobite intrigues during William’s reign.

Mary died in 1694 and on William’s death in 1702 Anne succeeded to the throne as Queen Anne. When she was crowned in April 1702 Anne was 37 years old and after her many pregnancies had poor health and no longer her youthful figure. She was shy and stubborn and very different from her outgoing sister Mary. Anne and Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, remained close friends – Anne addressed Sarah as ‘Mrs Freeman’ and she called Anne ‘Mrs Morley’. Sarah’s husband the Duke of Marlborough commanded the English Army in the War of Spanish Succession. The influence of the Churchill’s however began to decline and after a violent quarrel in 1710, Sarah Churchill was dismissed from court. Abigail Masham succeeded the duchess as Anne’s favourite, using her influence to further the Tories.

Towards the end of her life, Anne suffered from gout and she could hardly walk. On her death in 1714 her body had swollen so large that she was buried in an almost square coffin. On the question of succession, Anne’s family loyalty had convinced her that this should fall to her father’s son by his second wife (Mary of Modena), James Edward Stuart, known as the Old Pretender. However, the Act of Settlement in 1701 ensured Protestant succession to the throne, and Anne was succeeded by George I, great-grandson of James I.


Kings and Queens of England (and Scotland): The Stuart Dynasty

  • James I                                                         [1603 - 1625]
  • Charles I                                                         [1625 - 1649]
  • Charles II                                                        [1660 - 1685]
  • James II                                                        [1685 - 1688]
  • Mary II and William III (as Joint Monarchs)  [1689 - 1694]
  • William III (Own rule)                                       [1694 - 1702]
  • Anne                                                                [1702 - 1714]

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Queen Anne & George of Denmark’s Issue
At-least 17 Children Conceived from 1684-1700 

12 May 1684 - Stillborn Daughter ● 2 June 1685 - 8 February 1687 - Mary ● 12 May 1686 - 2 February 1687 - Anne Sophia ● 21 January 1687 - Miscarriage ● 22 October 1687 - Stillborn Son ● 16 April 1688 - Miscarriage ● 24 July 1689 - 30 July 1700 - William, Duke of Gloucester ● 14 October 1690 - Mary ● 17 April 1692 - George ● 23 March 1693 - Stillborn Daughter ● 21 January 1694 - Stillbirth ● 17 or 18 February 1696 - Miscarried Daughter ● 20 September 1696 - Miscarriage/Stillbirth (twins) ● 25 March 1697 - Miscarriage ● Early December 1697 - Miscarriage ● 15 September 1698 - Stillborn Son ● 24 January 1700 - Stillborn Son 


Charles Stuart (1600 – 1649)

Charles I was born in Fife on 19 November 1600, the second son of James VI of Scotland and Anne of Denmark. On the death of Elizabeth I in 1603 James became king of England and Ireland. Charles’s popular older brother Henry, whom he adored, died in 1612 leaving Charles as heir, and in 1625 he became king. Three months after his accession he married Henrietta Maria of France. They had a happy marriage and left five surviving children.

When Charles I succeeded his father in 1625, friction with Parliament began at once. Charles believed in his divine right as king and struggled to control Parliament who resented his attempts at absolute rule. One of his first acts was to dissolve parliament in 1625, and again in 1626 after attempts to impeach the Duke of Buckingham over war against Spain and support of the French Huguenots. Charles forced an unpopular ‘Ship Money’ tax to raise funds without the consent of Parliament. In 1628 Charles was presented with the Petition of Right a declaration of the “rights and liberties of the subject", which he reluctantly agreed to. However, in 1629 he dissolved Parliament again, imprisoned its leaders and ruled without a Parliament from 1629 to 1640. His advisers Earl Strafford and Archbishop Laud persecuted the Puritans, and provoked the Presbyterian Scots Covenanters to revolt when Laud attempted to introduce the English Book of Common Prayer.

A problem in Scotland brought an abrupt end to Charles’ 11 years of personal rule and unleashed the forces of civil war upon England. Charles attempted to force a new prayer book on the Scots, which resulted in rebellion. Charles’ forces were ill prepared due to lack of proper funds, causing the king to call, first, the Short Parliament, and finally the Long Parliament. King and Parliament again reached no agreement; Charles foolishly tried to arrest five members of Parliament on the advice of Henrietta Maria, which brought matters to a head. The struggle for supremacy led to civil war. Charles raised his standard against Parliamentary forces at Nottingham in 1642.

The Royalists were defeated in 1645-1646 by a combination of parliament’s alliance with the Scots and the formation of the New Model Army. In 1646, Charles surrendered to the Scots, who handed him over to parliament. He escaped to the Isle of Wight in 1647 and encouraged discontented Scots to invade. This ‘Second Civil War’ was over within a year with another royalist defeat by Parliamentarian general Oliver Cromwell. Convinced that there would never be peace while the king lived, a rump of radical MPs, including Cromwell, put him on trial for treason. He was found guilty and executed on 30 January 1649 outside the Banqueting House on Whitehall, London.


Today, my friend, lets call her Katie, and my other friend, lets call her Beth, were in an argument. Being the nosy person I am, I asked what the argument was about about. Katie said that Mary I of England was called “Bloody Mary”. Beth insisted that it was Mary Tudor, Queen of Scots who was “Bloody Mary." 
I immediately stopped what I was doing and, being the history freak everyone knows I am, stated that Katie was correct. I then lectured Beth for a whole 30min;
*Mary, Queen of Scots was NOT a Tudor. Her grandmother Margaret Tudor was a Tudor, but Mary, Queen of Scots was of the House of Stuart. 
*Mary I of England was Mary Tudor
*Why Mary Tudor was called "Bloody Mary”
*What happened to Mary Tudor 
*What happened to Mary Stuart 
*How they were related
*Mary Stuart was Queen of Scotland 
*Mary Tudor was Queen of England 
Afterwords I was yelled at for being to loud and not doing my work. But I think that simply because I had to explain this, is extremely sad. How is that people now a days cannot differ between Mary Tudor and Mary Stuart? Two totally different women, two totally different countries but in somewhat similar situations. I understand that not everyone is a history buff, but people should at least know the difference between these two very powerful women who had a profound impact on history.  

Lieutenant Colonel Doctor Archibald Cameron of Lochiel
- The Last Jacobite To Be Executed -

In a letter from Glengarry dated “Boulogne-sur-Mer, 16th January 1750 (Stuart Papers), it gives an account of a visit which Dr. Cameron had paid to the Highlands; after all hope of restoration of the Stuart dynasty was abandoned. The letter further states that Doctor Cameron took possession of 6,000 louis-d'ors, out of the large sum which he had concealed near Loch Arkaig; Cluny McPherson being unable to prevent his doing so, though he obliged Cameron to give him a receipt for that sum. With this money, it was said that Dr. Cameron was to enter into a mercantile project in Dunkirk. Though when he revisited Scotland in 1751 the spy "Pickle" (believed to be MacDonell of Glengarry) was sickened by the Jacobitism, and had reported the movements to the British Government.

In March 1753, Cameron was arrested and taken prisoner to Edinburgh Castle, charged under the 1746 Act of Attainder for his part in the 1745 uprising. He was conveyed to Tower Hill in London and sentenced to die the death of a traitor. His wife came to London from Lille in Flanders to plead for mercy unsuccessfully. On 7 June, 1753 at Tyburn, he was drawn on a sledge, and hanged for 20 minutes before being cut down and beheaded. His remains were buried in the Savoy Chapel. He was, in fact, the last Jacobite to be executed. In his final papers, written from prison, he still protested his loyalty to the Jacobite cause and his Episcopalian principles.

Anne of Denmark: 1574-1619

The Danish-born consort of King James VI/I of Scotland and England. With her marriage to James in 1589, Anne became the Queen of Scotland and Queen-in-Waiting of England. She bore a total of seven living children, but only three survived childhood. When James’ cousin Elizabeth I of England died her ascended the English throne with, thanks to Queen Anne, a ready-made royal family including two male heirs. Though she has been passed over by history as a frivolous and empty headed Queen, Anne was actually a formidable woman who fought vigorously for herself and her children and had great influence over Jacobean culture. She was a patron of the arts and enjoyed extravagant balls and masques. Her own vivacity and wit was a factor in shaping the Stuart court’s tone for a century to come.

Queen Anne can be considered as the mother of the Stuart dynasty in England. Her second son would go on to become King Charles I and through him Anne would be the grandmother of two kings (Charles II and James II) and great-grandmother of two queens (Mary II and Anne). Through her only surviving daughter Queen Elizabeth of Bohemia, Anne is also a great-grandmother to King George I of England, who established the Hanoverian dynasty, and therefore is a direct ancestress of the current Queen, Elizabeth II.