structure paper

the-spockicorn  asked:

Hi, I’ve been considering starting a book in the fantasy genre. I really wanted to give some Native American representation in it, since it's something that I rarely see. However, this story wouldn't take place in America, it would be in a completely different world (though one loosely based off of earth in the 14 hundreds ish?) This is similar to your mixing cultures post, but I wanted to know: is there a good way to give Native American representation in stories that aren’t historical fiction?

Representing PoC in Fantasy When Their Country/Continent Doesn’t Exist

The core of this question is something we’ve gotten across a few different ethnicities, and it basically boils down to: “how can I let my readers know these people are from a certain place without calling them by this certain place?” Aka, how can I let people know somebody is Chinese if I can’t call them Chinese, or, in your case, some Native American nation without having a North America.

Notes on Language

As I have said multiple times, there is no such thing as “Native American culture”. It’s an umbrella term. Even if you are doing fantasy you need to pick a nation and/or confederacy.

Step One

How do you code somebody as European?

This sounds like a very silly question, but consider it seriously.

How do you?

They probably live in huts or castles; there are lords and kings and knights; they eat stew and bread and drumsticks; they celebrate the winter solstice as a major holiday/new year; women wear dresses while men wear pants; there are pubs and farms and lots of wheat; the weather is snowy in winter and warm in summer.

Now swap all those components out for whatever people you’re thinking about.

Iroquois? They live in longhouses; there is a confederacy and democracy and lots of warriors from multiple nations; they eat corn, beans, and squash (those three considered sacred and grown together), with fish and wild game; they wear mostly leather garments with furs in winter; there are nights by the fire and cities and the rituals will change by the nation (remember the Iroquois were a confederacy made up of five or six tribes, depending on period); the weather is again snowy in winter and warm in summer.

Chinese? They harvest rice; there is an emperor appointed by the gods and scholars everywhere; they use a lunar calendar and have a New Year in spring; their trade ships are huge and their resources are plenty; they live in wood structures with paper walls or mud brick; they use jade and ivory for talismans; their culture is hugely varied depending on the province; their weather is mostly tropical, with monsoons instead of snow on lowlands, but their mountains do get chilly.

You get the gist.

Break down what it is that makes a world read as European (let’s be honest, usually English and Germanic) to you, then swap out the parts with the appropriate places in another culture.

Step Two

Research, research, research. Google is your friend. Ask it the questions for “what did the Cree eat” and “how did Ottoman government work.” These are your basics. This is what you’ll use to figure out the building blocks of culture.

You’ll also want to research their climate. As I say in How To Blend Cultures, culture comes from climate. If you don’t have the climate, animals, plants, and weather down, it’ll ring false.

You can see more at So You Want To Save The World From Bad Representation.

Step Three

Start to build the humans and how they interact with others. How are the trade relations? What are the internal attitudes about the culture— how do they see outsiders? How do outsiders see them? Are there power imbalances? How about greed and desire to take over?

This is where you need to do even more research on how different groups interacted with others. Native American stories are oftentimes painful to read, and I would strongly suggest to not take a colonizer route for a fantasy novel.

This does, however, mean you might not be researching how Natives saw Europeans— you’ll be researching how they saw neighbours. 

You’ll also want to look up the social rules to get a sense for how they interacted with each other, just for character building purposes.

Step Four

Sensitivity readers everywhere! You’ll really want to get somebody from the nation to read over the story to make sure you’ve gotten things right— it’s probably preferable to get somebody when you’re still in the concept stage, because a lot of glaring errors can be missed and it’s best to catch them before you start writing them.

Making mistakes is 100% not a huge moral failing. Researching cultures without much information on them is hard. So long as you understand the corrections aren’t a reflection on your character, just chalk them up to ignorance (how often do most writers get basic medical, weapon, or animal knowledge wrong? Extremely often). 

Step Five

This is where you really get into the meat of creating people. You’ve built their culture and environment into your worldbuilding, so now you have the tools you need to create characters who feel like part of the culture.

You’ll really want to keep in mind that every culture has a variety of people. While your research will say people roughly behave in a certain way, people are people and break cultural rules all the time. Their background will influence what rules they break and how they relate to the world, but there will be no one person who follows every cultural rule down to the letter. 

Step Six

Write!

Step Seven

More sensitivity readers! See step 4 for notes.

Step Eight

Rewrite— and trust me, you will need to. Writing is rewriting.

Repeat steps seven and eight until story is done.

Extra Notes

I’ll be honest— you’re probably going to need a certain amount of either goodwill (if you’re lucky enough to make friends within the group you’re trying to represent— but seriously, please do not make friends with us for the sole purpose of using us as sensitivity readers. It’s not nice) and/or money to get to publishing level. 

The good part is the first three steps are free, and these first three steps are what will allow you to hurt others less when you approach. While you’ll still likely make mistakes, you’ll make a few less (and hopefully no glaring ones, but it can/does happen) so long as you do your due diligence in making sure you at least try to understand the basics.

And once you feel like you’ve understood the basics… dive down even deeper because chances are you’re about to reach a tipping point for realizing how little you know.

People will always find you did something wrong. You will never get culture 100% accurate— not even people who were born and raised in it will, because as I said in step five: cultures have a huge variety of people in them, so everyone will interact with it differently. But you can work your hardest to capture one experience, make it as accurate as possible, and learn more for next time.

~ Mod Lesya 

my english teacher, writing grades&comments for my thesis: Eli– this is a nicely structured paper with some moments of insightful analysis, but I question the academic necessity of referring to Oscar Wilde as “[your] smoll queer trash babby [sic]” and “posh lil achillean prince”

anonymous asked:

Hello, why is it wrong to laminate those documents?

This was asked in response to this post, methinks.

Just in case anyone is confused, lamination is NOT the same as encapsulation. Encapsulation seals the document in a sandwich of stable plastic sheets, but only the edges of the plastic are sealed and nothing is directly attached to the document during the process. Lamination adheres the plastic TO the object itself, via heat.

Lamination is a terrible thing to do to historical or important documents because….

  • lamination is what we call an irreversible treatment because it is fundamentally impossible to remove without causing great risk to the item that was laminated (the plastic actually melts *into* the structure of the paper fibers themselves). Removing it often requires the use of solvents or other chemicals that can also damage the inks, the paper, or the conservator during treatment.
  • lamination restricts further scientific analysis of the document by preventing immediate access to the document’s actual surface and inks
  • the plastics used in lamination are themselves inherently unstable (cellulose acetate was a very popular choice when lamination was first considered an acceptable “preservation” method for documents) and over time can deteriorate and cause more damage to the documents within. As the lamination plastic breaks down, it can also produce harmful chemicals that will damage nearby, non-laminated, items stored next to the laminated item.
  • the process of lamination itself can cause damage to the item, by solubilizing inks and causing them to become blurry, melting wax seals or other heat-sensitive attachments to the document, or even burning the paper itself
  • it looks bad and has a negative effect on the aesthetic of the document- it gives a shiny surface to the document that is always there (unlike with encapsulation, where you can easily slip a document in and out of the plastic sleeve) and also makes it hard to get a good image during digitization


Here are some links to more examples of why lamination is no longer considered an acceptable preservation method for archival documents or anything else that we would like to keep around long-term in our collections. 

In conclusion, I’ll say it again..

IF YOU LOVE IT, DON’T LAMINATE IT!

Writing An Academic Essay (Tips & Advice)

1) Have a good great introduction - The most obvious make or break portion of your essay will be your thesis/opening statement. You want to sum up your entire essay in your intro so the reader will understand the basis of your essay beforehand. An introduction can range from one sentence to a whole paragraph- use what works best for your paper!

2) Transitions - You want your reader to smoothly go from one paragraph to another. For example, if you’re writing about food and say, “There are many components of food that make it so appetizing, such as flavor, appearance, and scent,” you want to go on to break down these components. Explain it. Use transition words.

Flavor makes food appealing because…

For example, the colorful aspects of candy draw in people by…

The smell that complements a big, juicy burger captures one’s attention through…

3) Layer your paragraphs - You want to use parallel structure throughout your paper and write evenly. If you have an opening sentence, three details, and a concluding sentence for each paragraph, make sure you keep that pattern for the rest of your essay. It creates a rhythm for the reader to follow and makes your essay more readable.

4) Be concise - Eliminate everything you think your essay doesn’t really need. Avoid being repetitive. The person reading your essay will most likely grow bored if you say “For example…” a lot or if you keep bringing up the same points. A thesaurus is handy in cases like these!

5) Make your conclusion memorable - Your conclusion should be what you expect the reader to get out of the information you supplied. “These aspects are important because…” Sum up everything in a few points. Your conclusion should be a reworded version of your introduction, but with extra details and finality. If you connect things in your essay in the end, it’ll make the reader go “Hmm, I understand,’’ but do not add anything that wasn’t originally in your essay. Remember- be concise!

Happy essay writing, and if you need any help or have a question, feel free to shoot me an ask! This is just a few basics but I’m considering going deeper with this in a few upcoming posts. Stay tuned!

How to go through your readings

I am the kind of person who likes to do things systematically, so here’s kind of a routine of how I go through my readings (this is applicable to all readings, and if you are wondering, I study law (thus this includes cases) and social sciences.

1. Glance through your reading once - look at the titles, have a brief idea of the structure of it.

  • Philosophical papers (social sciences readings), for example, typically have a structure and a main idea throughout the paper. This is the step where you try to figure out its structure and the point that the author is trying to illustrate. 
  • For cases, you can have a look at how many judgements and a brief look at the facts to know what you are about to read.

2. Highlight your reading - colour coding is fundamental. It will help you to keep track of the structure and main point of the readings. 

  • This is my system:
    • Red: main/central idea of the article
    • Pink: subsequent point
    • Orange: subsequent point of the points in pink
    • Yellow: other important information
    • Green: key words
    • Blue: conclusion

3. Type an outline of the article - you may skip this part if you want, but if your exams syllabus include that reading, it will be very handy for you to have an outline so that you don’t have to go back and read the reading once again.

  • Basically this part is where you type/write the information you deem important or that will be examined. You should do it in an outline format so that it will be easier for you to study.

4. Summarise the outline/reading on an index card - this is a way to show yourself that you have truly completed the reading. Have the very important information on index card will recall your memory regarding the reading, and the more index cards you got, the higher the motivation you will have to complete the readings since you can see tangible progress. It’s also a great way to review the information especially before/after lectures or before exams.

So I’m no studyblr, but for anybody who has trouble figuring out the structure of their research paper, I highly recommend an approach I was taught way back in middle school. I mean even music majors have to do this shit eventually.

Just start collecting random facts and quotes relevant to your paper. Seriously. Figure it’ll fit in somewhere, but not sure where? Put it on an index card. Write that shit down on the front, and put your in-text citation on the back. Start collecting that shit till you have a fair amount of relevant index cards.

Then start organizing. Re-read your thesis and decide on a few “buckets” you want to dump your information into. For me, that was “Cage’s Intention/Philosophy Regarding Music,” “Nature of the 4'33” Premier Leading to Reaction,“ and “Modern Opinions/Interpretations and Pieces that Followed.” These will probably become your body paragraphs. Organize your index cards into each subcategory and color coordinate so you don’t get mixed up. I also like to pull out some cards that fit into multiple buckets, that way I can use this information as a segway or connecting point from one body paragraph to another.

Sweet, you’re on your way, now keep collecting facts with the intention of filling in each “bucket!”
Once you feel you have enough, reorganize each card into an efficient stream of information that makes sense.

You have a literal, physical outline of your paper, now. All that is left is to write it all into a document. Remember to properly cite, don’t plagiarize, and avoid the phrasing “I think/I feel.”

BAM YOU HAVE A PAPER

4

Sunset lamp by Cartunia Design

The Italian Cartunia Design company has set their own mission to emphasize the characteristics of cardboard by pushing it beyond common applications. Their first focus is on table lamps. Their last creation is the Sunset lamp, with its moveable cardboard sun, working as a reflector of the light, emitted by the latest LED technology. The lamp uses the structure of the corrugated paper beautifully to its advantage.

Never Easy (Part Two) - Jughead Jones

I got an overwhelming amount of love for Never Easy, and demands that I write a second one. So I hope you all like this!!

Originally posted by jonesjughead

You tried to look at the bright side; Betty and Jughead were happy together and you helped them maintain that to a degree. This thought was fleeting though, as more tears rolled down your cheeks. It was like you told him, feelings were never easy; they were messy and they stung when they were hurt.


Around a week had passed since ‘The Incident’, as Kevin so respectfully called it. You told Kevin every detail about what happened after you swore him to secrecy. You trusted him to be your sounding board in that, he was friends with both you and Betty. He would help you come to a decision while also taking into account both of your feelings.

“Is there actually anything that can be done, Y/N?” He asked the night you invited him to sleep over. “I just mean that, you told him you didn’t like him like that already.” You let out a groan from where you were laying on your bed.

“I love him Kevin,” you said, turning to look at your friend. He frowned at the defeated look in your eyes. He walked over and sat on the edge of your bed.

“I’m sorry I’m not more of a help,” he said, “I’ve never had to deal with this before.” You nodded against your pillow.

“You are helping Kev,” you whispered, “thanks for being here.” He smiled at you and you sat up. “How’s Joaquin by the way?” A pink blush rose to Kevin’s cheeks at the sound of the boy’s name. You let out a small laugh and Kevin just shook his head.

“I just keep thinking about how pissed my dad is going to be.” You grabbed his shoulder, squeezing it lightly. He glanced towards you and gave you a weak smile.

“It’ll be okay. Your dad will just have to look past the whole Serpent thing and realize you’re happy. You deserve to be happy Kevin, everyone deserves happiness.” Kevin gave you a look with wide eyes and you raised your eyebrows. “What?”

“In a small twist of fate,” he started, “did your advice for my love life give you the answer to yours?” A big smile spread across his features as your brain worked through what you said.

“But he’s already happy,” you muttered and Kevin frowned. Your mind was a mess to feelings; about Jughead, worrying about Betty’s while also trying to repair yours. The rest of the night held conversations about your confusing predicament and the tangled forest of your feelings.


The next day at lunch, you, Kevin, and Archie caught up with one another. You told Archie about what had been bothering Jughead, not caring to mention your own feelings.

“Wait so Jughead liked you and is dating Betty to get over you?” You nodded at Archie’s synopsis. “How do you feel about that, Y/N?” You raised your eyebrow, asking what he was implying. He rolled his eyes and leaned across the table a little.

“It’s obvious that you like him too,” he whispered and your eyes grew wide. Kevin coughed, choking a little on his apple juice.

“Okay, Mr. Love Detector, what do you suggest I do?” Archie frowned in thought, then shrugged. You groaned and rested your head against the table.

“I’d tell him how you feel,” Archie said suddenly and you lifted your head quickly.

“What about Betty?” You asked, trying to keep your voice down. It was hard to though, you had grown angry about your situation and was getting fed up.

“If Jughead is dating her to get over you, what does that say about the base of their relationship? Is it sturdy or weak?” Archie said and Kevin nodded along. “I’m just saying, if your feelings can topple it, was it really that strong in the first place?” Surprisingly, Archie’s words made sense to you as he spoke. 

“Ginger bull makes sense,” Kevin added and you glanced at your friend, giving him a teasing look. When you lifted your head you saw Jughead and Betty walking towards the table, unreadable looks on their faces.

“Hey guys,” Betty said as she sat down next to Kevin. Jughead squeezed in between Betty and yourself, giving you a weak smile. A silence fell over you until Archie broke the awkward quiet.

“Hey Jughead, do you think you can help me with my English paper,” Archie asked and you tensed up.

“I thought Y/N helped you finish it last week?” You swallowed hard, wondering where Archie was taking this. You glanced down the row at Kevin who looked at you with panicked eyes.

“Yeah, but Y/N recommended you have a final look at it. Maybe the three of us can meet up at Pop’s after school?” You looked up at Archie and glared; but the redheaded boy ignored you and looked to Jughead. The boy next to you nodded response.

“Sure I don’t see why not.” Jughead said and nudged you with his shoulder. “Are you in Y/N?” You looked into his eyes, and nodded against your will. You just couldn’t say no to Jughead Jones.

“Great, I’ll see you both there!” Archie said, standing up from his seat. “I’m going to say to Valerie real quick.” Archie walked off to The Pussycat’s table and left the remaining four of you in silence.

“Do you have any plans after school Betts?” Kevin spoke up, breaking the silence. The blonde looked up at her friend and shook her head.

“I was actually hoping I could hang out with you and Veronica after school.” You felt Jughead tense beside you and you fought the urge you comfort him with a hand on his back.

“Okay, Veronica’s house I’m assuming? Since your mother is crazy,” Kevin asked and Betty nodded softly. Luckily for you, the bell rang very soon. You stood up quickly, grabbing your bag and heading off to your next class. You felt a warm hand brush against yours and you glanced over and saw Jughead walking near you.

“What’s up Jughead,” you asked calmly and he shrugged. Your hands brushed again and you pulled you away. “Shouldn’t you be walking your girlfriend to her class?” Your tone was more harsh than you intended and Jughead stopped walking alongside you. You however, kept going, leaving your crush in the dust. When you reached your class and sat down, you realized that you had been quite bitter. As your teacher started up notes, Archie rushed into the class and found a seat next to you.

“Busy with Val?” You teased him and Archie blushed. He pulled out his notebook and got ready to write down the lesson.

“I saw you and Jughead,” he whispered, “what happened?” You glanced at him, remembering the moment with Jughead.

“Nothing, but what were you thinking about Pop’s after school?!” Despite your whisper yelling, another classmate shushed you. You rolled your eyes and Archie stayed silent. “Don’t worry Y/N,” he whispered, “it’ll all turn out fine”


You met up with Archie and Jughead outside of the main doors after school. Archie greeted who with a grin but Jughead remained silent upon your arrival. It was like last week didn’t happen; the steps you took the week before to repair your friendship with Jughead had melted away. You swallowed hard through your nerves. Archie was planning something, which was scary to you. You often underestimated your friend, so when he had a plan it often caught you off guard.

“Alright let’s go to the diner,” Archie said, leading the way for you and Jughead. On the walk to the diner, Archie tried to lighten the mood that was so obviously dark between you and Jughead. You would try to appease Archie by speaking but Jughead remained quiet.

When the three of you arrived, you ordered some snacks and found a booth. You slid into the booth, Jughead sliding into the one across from you. Archie sat next to you, pulling out his English materials and explained what you had gone over with him before. He had really put on a show for this lie and some part of you was grateful. Jughead talked to him about the structure of his paper, pointed out grammar errors, and mentioned small changes he could make. You chimed in now and again, but let Jughead talk the most. You had missed the sound of his voice and the way his hands moved when he spoke about something his was passionate about.

When he had finished critiquing Archie’s paper, Jughead grew silent again. You glanced up at him and saw that his blueish-green eyes were already on you. You felt your heart flip in your chest, but looked out the window quickly.

“Well I’m going to go pay for our food and use the bathroom. I’ll be back,” Archie said, sliding out of the booth. He left you and Jughead in a heavy silence, one that you wanted to break. Your anxiety fought against you; you’ll only make things worse for you. He’ll choose Betty over you and you’ll be left more hurt than before. You could at least try to repair your friendship again, that was worth a try.

“Jughead,” you started and the boy looked up at you, “what happened?” You lifted your gaze from the table and met his eyes. You saw something flicker in them, but you couldn’t place it. A frown etched on his lip as he remained quiet. You bit your lip nervously, wondering if you should just leave. 

“After we talked last week, I told Betty about what we talked about.” He paused and looked back up at your face. “I told her yesterday and she,” his curled his lips together, “she ended it.” You studied his face, trying to read his emotions but you couldn’t see them. “I told Archie about it and he was there for me. I wanted to talk to you though.”

“I’m sorry Jughead,” you whispered, not reaching out to comfort him like your heart told you to. You just watched as your friend collected himself and looked back up at you. He wasn’t crying like you thought he was; his eyes were still unreadable to you.

“I’m not that upset about it though,” he said, “and it’s strange.” You nodded and smiled to yourself. You met his gaze and saw that the same smile was on his face. “Like you said, feelings are never easy.” You nodded and Jughead looked back down at the table again. You felt the pit in your stomach lurch a little when you thought of telling him the truth. That you had lied about your feelings that night in the very same booth you were sitting in now.  

“I lied,” you whispered out, wondering for a moment if Jughead even heard you speak. His head lifted and you found yourself looking into his perfect eyes. “That night, I thought if I did you’d be happier. I guess I was wrong.”

“Are you saying that you do like me?” Jughead asked carefully, as if trying to dance on glass. You shook your head and looked down at you lap.

“I’m saying that I don’t like you Jughead,” you whispered, “I’m saying that I love you.” You took a long, shaky breath before going on. “I’ve loved you since we were kids, I think. I just never figured it out until last summer. I shouldn’t have lied about it, but I was scared for what friendship we had left and, yeah.” You looked up at him, ready to gauge his reaction. When you looked up he was gone Your eyebrows knitted together and you were about to get up to find him. When you turned to exit the booth, you almost collided with him. He had moved to sit by you in the moments you were lost in thought and rambling on. 

“I’ve been waiting for years for you to finally say that,” he whispered and you gave him a shy smile. “It took you so damn long.” He smiled at you before his hands cupped your jaw, pulling your lips to his. Your hands reached for the trim of his jacket, pulling him even closer and deepening the kiss. You two were too busy to notice Archie standing near the door with his backpack on and his phone out. He snapped a picture of the two of you and smiled widely before leaving. He had tack when it came to romance, although Valerie would argue that he didn’t when it came to his own relationship.

When Archie was safely out the door, Jughead pulled back breathless. You rested your forehead against his and smiled. He let out a sigh and finally opened his eyes to look at you again.

“Way too long” he whispered and you let out a small laugh. You moved your head, pressing a kiss against his lips once more. Before it could get heated, you pulled away.

“I’ll try to plan it better next time,” you murmured against his lips. He smiled at you, pecking your cheek and then your lips again. Now that he could, Jughead never wanted to stop kissing you. You smiled into the kiss, your fingers tangling into his hair. If you your phone hadn’t buzzed with a text notification, who knows how far the kiss would’ve gone. You glanced around the near empty diner and raised your eyebrow. “Where’d Archie go?” Jughead simply huffed as you picked up your phone to look at the text message.

Archie : You’re welcome.

You laughed and Jughead, who had been peppering kisses along your jaw, glanced at your phone. He shook his head and leaned against your side.

“He really knows us better than we know ourselves,” you whispered and Jughead nodded. You were about to return to kissing when you phone buzzed again.

Kevin : UH, ARCHIE JUST SENT ME A PICTURE OF YOU AND JUGHEAD FULL ON MAKING OUT.

Kevin : DID ‘THE INCIDENT’ HAVE A HAPPY ENDING?

You let out a giggle and Jughead smiled. “The Incident,” he asked and you nodded. He shook his head again and pressed another kiss to your cheek.

Kevin : Betty said she ended it between her and Jughead! You got your man!

You ignored that last text though. You were too far gone in the feeling of Jughead’s lips on yours again. Honest feelings seemed to right your past wrongs in the best way. You had only wished you explained your feelings sooner.

my favorite professor for a paper-writing class gave us a template for how he wanted us to structure our papers and my autistic ass with adhd is forever grateful that he did that. the papers were hard but I’m glad the instructions were absolutely clear. this was one of the few professors who didn’t think i was lazy and he supported me as a disabled person before i got diagnosed with anything. he worked with me and accommodated my needs. he was a rare gem. he never gave me any trouble about using my preferred name & pronouns either.