Our Voyager 1 spacecraft officially became the first human-made object to venture into interstellar space in 2012.
Whether and when our Voyager 1 spacecraft broke through to interstellar space, the space between stars, has been a thorny issue.
In 2012, claims surfaced every few months that Voyager 1 had “left our solar system.” Why had the Voyager team held off from saying the craft reached interstellar space until 2013?
Basically, the team needed more data on plasma, which is an ionozied gas that exists throughout space. (The glob of neon in a storefront sign is an example of plasma).
Plasma is the most important marker that distinguishes whether Voyager 1 is inside the solar bubble, known as the heliosphere. The heliosphere is defined by the constant stream of plasma that flows outward from our Sun – until it meets the boundary of interstellar space, which contains plasma from other sources.
Adding to the challenge: they didn’t know how they’d be able to detect it.
No one has been to interstellar space before, so it’s like traveling with guidebooks that are incomplete.
Additionally, Voyager 1’s plasma instrument, which measures the density, temperature and speed of plasma, stopped working in 1980, right after its last planetary flyby.
When Voyager 1 detected the pressure of interstellar space on our heliosphere in 2004, the science team didn’t have the instrument that would provide the most direct measurements of plasma.
Voyager 1 Trajectory
Instead, they focused on the direction of the magnetic field as a proxy for source of the plasma. Since solar plasma carries the magnetic field lines emanating from the Sun and interstellar plasma carries interstellar magnetic field lines, the directions of the solar and interstellar magnetic fields were expected to differ.
Voyager 2 Trajectory
In May 2012, the number of galactic cosmic rays made its first significant jump, while some of the inside particles made their first significant dip. The pace of change quickened dramatically on July 28, 2012. After five days, the intensities returned to what they had been. This was the first taste test of a new region, and at the time Voyager scientists thought the spacecraft might have briefly touched the edge of interstellar space.
By Aug. 25, when, as we now know, Voyager 1 entered this new region for good, all the lower-energy particles from inside zipped away. Some inside particles dropped by more than a factor of 1,000 compared to 2004. However, subsequent analysis of the magnetic field data revealed that even though the magnetic field strength jumped by 60% at the boundary, the direction changed less than 2 degrees. This suggested that Voyager 1 had not left the solar magnetic field and had only entered a new region, still inside our solar bubble, that had been depleted of inside particles.
Then, in April 2013, scientists got another piece of the puzzle by chance. For the first eight years of exploring the heliosheath, which is the outer layer of the heliosphere, Voyager’s plasma wave instrument had heard nothing. But the plasma wave science team had observed bursts of radio waves in 1983 and 1984 and again in 1992 and 1993. They determined these bursts were produced by the interstellar plasma when a large outburst of solar material would plow into it and cause it to oscillate.
It took about 400 days for such solar outbursts to reach interstellar space, leading to an estimated distance of 117 to 177 AU (117 to 177 times the distance from the Sun to the Earth) to the heliopause.
Then on April 9, 2013, it happened: Voyager 1’s plasma wave instrument picked up local plasma oscillations. Scientists think they probably stemmed from a burst of solar activity from a year before. The oscillations increased in pitch through May 22 and indicated that Voyager was moving into an increasingly dense region of plasma.
The above soundtrack reproduces the amplitude and frequency of the plasma waves as “heard” by Voyager 1. The waves detected by the instrument antennas can be simply amplified and played through a speaker. These frequencies are within the range heard by human ears.
When they extrapolated back, they deduced that Voyager had first encountered this dense interstellar plasma in Aug. 2012, consistent with the sharp boundaries in the charged particle and magnetic field data on Aug. 25.
In the end, there was general agreement that Voyager 1 was indeed outside in interstellar space, but that location comes with some disclaimers. They determined the spacecraft is in a mixed transitional region of interstellar space. We don’t know when it will reach interstellar space free from the influence of our solar bubble.
Voyager 1, which is working with a finite power supply, has enough electrical power to keep operating the fields and particles science instruments through at least 2020, which will make 43 years of continual operation.
Voyager 1 will continue sending engineering data for a few more years after the last science instrument is turned off, but after that it will be sailing on as a silent ambassador.
In about 40,000 years, it will be closer to the star AC +79 3888 than our own Sun.
And for the rest of time, Voyager 1 will continue orbiting around the heart of the Milky Way galaxy, with our Sun but a tiny point of light among many.
This is a great example of what I mean when I talk about the symptoms of personality disorders. Lots of people have the traits described in personality disorders. Most people have them at the “adaptive” or “subclinical” levels. Not many people experience these things to the “disordered” or “severely disordered” level described above.
Note - these specific examples are not enough in and of themselves to diagnose a personality disorder; a personality disorder is a collection of many different traits that all must be experienced at the disordered or severely disordered levels.
Theodore Millon, Personality Disorders in Modern Life (second edition), 2004.
Okay I remember that post that went around for a while about how artists aren’t always going around drawing the object of their desire and so Steve wouldn’t necessarily have whole sketchbooks devoted to Bucky and now I’m just thinking about Bucky always posing and stretching and trying to look Very Art-able so that Steve will draw him and Steve being completely oblivious and like “wtf Bucky why are you standing like that lol”
Summary: That Spider-Man kiss video was definitely cliché
and cheesy, which is exactly the reason that Spidey and Y/N have to do it.
Word Count: 2235
Warnings: Heights and Swearing.
A/N: casually drops this after almost a year without writing like okay!! okay!! please enjoy this (it has good format!!) :0 and thank you to @buckys-fossil for actually tolerating me and proofreading this, i love you!!! also this is a gender neutral fic!!!! if you followed me when i was strictly an aesthetic blog well then, hello i write fics too
Summer weather was the worst.
Summer holiday wasn’t that much better, what with having cabin fever and all. It had been a week since you had left the comfort of your apartment and three hours since you flopped onto the couch and lay there. All of your friends had been busy, Michelle doing her protesting, Liz with college preparation. It left you with nothing much to do other than lounge around your home.
The fan placed on the coffee table was set on revolve and hit your body with cool breezes. Laying on your side and absentmindedly watching season three of Phineas and Ferb, you felt jealous that those children were creative enough to make the most of your summer. It was a big contrast to you, as you hadn’t done anything the entire few weeks of summer there had been.
A thought suddenly came to mind and you decided to act on it. Shutting off the TV and fan, you put on actual clothes and took care of your hygiene before fixing your hair and pulling on your sneakers. Making sure to had some money and the house key, you texted your mom.
to: mom hey i’m leaving the apartment for the first time in days are you proud of me
It didn’t take her long to reply.
from: mom Fine with me, I was about to kick you out and make you do something.
You laughed at her text before tucking your phone away and leaving the apartment and locking the door.
Here’s just soome glo up stuff. Lately I’ve been working on glowing the fuck up. Y’all kno what i mean, so imma tell yall some glo tips.
That one person in ya life that you still fuck with but not really. You know the one. They lie to you, hurt you, but then they cry and do something bad & you just keep em bc you love them? REMOVE them from your life completely. Literally, like, drop they ass. It may hurt but boo cry and then look urself in the mirror and say that you got this bc you’re free af. You’re no longer held down by their petty ass judgements and arguments.
If you’re into makeup, get hella with it. Do makeup that makes you feel confident as fuck. For me? I like to do highlighter. I glow. I LITERALLY SPARKLE SIS. Makes me feel good.
Take care of your skin.
Clean your house
Drink green tea & take ur vitamins
Do your assignments for class & check them
Write your notes pretty and neat af. u will feel gr8 aout them
If you wanna healthily change your body. do it right. start. do it.
Stop letting people push you around
WORK WORK WORK WORK WORK BABY
Put away extra money to treat yourself with
Don’t let a man tell you what to wear and what to do. dont settle for less, either. you deserve more than “what you can get” or “settling for average” YOU DESERVE TO B TREATED LIKE A QUEEN.
When a challenge comes by, wink.
ORGANIZE YO BAGS AND PURSES
Wear clothes that make you feel sexy as fuck
Stop drinking so many sodas babe. Soda is great but drink water & natural teas for wonderful skin
Fruit will high key help yo kitty smell AND taste great
If you wanna fuck? fuck who you want. Do it safe. alwys have emergency contraceptives & condoms.
Taako and Lup are excellent cooks and know their shit, but also they probably learned a lot of what they know on the road and from caravans, so one of two possibilities might happen whenever they’re in the kitchen: they use the technical term for everything, get really detailed with the chef jargon and the proper names of ingredients and cooking techniques, and no one knows what they’re talking about.
OR they use the colloquial names for everything, or just made-up names that they came up with when they were kids and they discovered a new kind of fruit in the caravan’s supplies and dared each other to eat it. It’s not even coherent, and sometimes it devolves into Lup can you put that stuff in the thing or Taako you’re about to burn the goop but they manage and no one knows what they’re talking about.
Basically no one ever knows what Taako and Lup are saying in the kitchen either because it’s too technical or absolute nonsense, and their extended family considers themselves lucky that the twins are such good cooks because who even knows what they’re eating right now.
I’m gonna be honest. I hate mornings. I’ve always wanted to be a morning person – to wake up early and energized and hop out of bed with no problem. But, instead I wake up most mornings just wanting to go back to bed. Luckily, you don’t have to be a morning person to have a productive morning.
Getting out of bed is the hardest part. Start with a realistic time to set your alarm – the days I set my alarm for 6 with good intentions are the days I turn it off and sleep way late. I’m much more likely to actually get out of bed if I set it for a little later.
I like to use an app like Sleep Cycle that wakes you up gently.
Or go old school and use an actual alarm clock, and kick your phone out of your room altogether.
As soon as you get out of bed, get dressed and make up your bed. You’ll automatically feel more productive and you’ll be way less likely to go back to sleep.
first things first
It’s hard to be productive on an empty stomach – eat some breakfast as soon as you feel up to it.
I find it hard to eat in the mornings, so I’ll usually have a light snack of fruit with coffee when I first wake up, and then eat something a little heavier around 10.
Get moving! whether it’s yoga, a quick run (i salute those of you who can run in the mornings), or just a couple jumping jacks.
Get ready for the day before you get to work. This way you 1) feel more ~human~ and productive right off the bat and 2) won’t have to stop working to get dressed later when you’ve gotten into a groove.
get to work
Check your planner and make plan for the day
Get all your supplies and your space ready
Fill up a water bottle so you can stay hydrated!
Put away distractions (install a site blocker if you need to!)
Put on some music that makes you feel happy
Knock one or two little tasks off your list first, then go on to the hardest task/one you’re dreading
Don’t forget regular breaks so you don’t feel burnt out by lunch!
It’s often said that nobody other than other veterinarians know what we truly go through. This isn’t helped by the fact that we’re often barred from discussing our work in civilized company and so we often don’t talk about these things, even with our nearest and dearest.
As a recent graduate I had explained to my dear Long Suffering Boyfriend (LSB) that my days at work were busy, hectic and fast. The message he absorbed from these descriptions was that I sometimes didn’t manage to eat lunch until 4pm. So he decided one day that he was going to be Best BoyfriendTM and bring me lunch at the clinic. A gourmet sandwich he’d made himself. He was going to show up right on 1pm and make me stop work for five minutes to eat this delicious food, and make all the other staff members insanely jealous.
At least, that was his cunning plan.
When he walked through the staff entrance into the back of the clinic, he was not greeted with adoration and delight.
He was greeted by a stern veterinary nurse with all the attitude of an army sergeant.
“Excellent. You! Take this!” she commanded, whisking my future lunch onto the bench and thrusting a towel into my LSB’s hands. Before he knew what was happening, he was dragged into the surgical suite.
“Here honey, catch!” I greeted him, not bothering to question his unexpected appearance and plopping a fresh bulldog puppy into his hands, still coated in amniotic membranes, before I returned to retrieving its siblings from the caesarean in front of me.
He would go on to describe the subsequent events as “Like 101 Dalmatians but with newborn bulldog puppies!”
He was swiftly educated in puppy resuscitation, learning how to rub them to stimulate breathing and how to make a makeshift oxygen crib out of a rectal glove.
The puppies just kept coming and coming. Twelve bulldog puppies revived by my two nurses and LSB. That uterus was more packed than a clown car. Let me tell you there is an art to stimulating four newborn puppies at a time to breathe properly. There were puppies everywhere, on tables and the counter. The sandwich was swiftly moved as more bench space was required.
While everyone was glad to see him, this was not the outcome he had been expecting when he walked into the clinic.
He did, however, refuse to leave the clinic until I’d eaten at least one bite.
I asked him what the one stand out lesson from the experience was. He said that “they’re weird and gross but it’s strange how quickly they go to cute and snuggly fuzzles as soon as they’re dry”. Also that bringing me lunch was appreciated, but pointnless.