stimulis

Here’s Which Myers-Briggs Type You’re Most Likely To Mistype As: ISTP

Most likely to mistype as: INTP

Why this mistype happens: ISTPs are incredibly analytical and spend the majority of their time analyzing external stimuli. This type refuses to rest until their introverted thinking understands each of the individual parts that make up the whole in a given situation. This is a trait that they share with their close cousin type the INTP. The difference between the two types occurs in their auxiliary function – where the INTP prefers to dwell in the world of theoretical possibilities, the ISTP is more grounded in the here-and-now: they analyze situations as they are, whereas INTPs analyze situations as they could be.

Also likely to mistype as: INTJ

Why this mistype happens: ISTPs can be fiercely introverted, and may call on their introverted intuition to help them analyze a given situation. An ISTP with highly developed tertiary Ni can actually resemble an INTJ in their approach – focused on predicting the future based on the information that is objectively available to them. It is their auxiliary function, extroverted sensing, that provides the clue to their true personality – extroverted sensing is often underdeveloped in INTJs but highly prevalent in ISTPs.

Types that are most likely to mistype as ISTP: ISFP, ISTJ

anonymous asked:

Ooh! Do you prefer painless or painful gore? Like, someone who watches curiously and happily while their innards are explored, or someone sobbing and vomiting all over the place while they thrash violently in pain?

crying boys. crying boys that have to be held down and gagged so they stay still as they nearly choke on their own sobs, literally choke anf they scream so much at the end of it their voices are frail and scratchy and eventually they’ve had so much that their protests gradually wind down to a weak, pathetic mewl or whimper whenever new pain is inflicted, just kind of silently moaning and twitching their body in response to the painful stimuli. god. God. Go d   i jus

Why do we commit sins in Ramadan?

Sins are sourced in four places:

1 nafs (ego/self): this is the center of where desires come from. Can be trained to exhort to goodness or command body to evil.

2 hawa (desires): byproduct of nafs, sort of like remnants of the self that leave trace temptations in us. Strength depends on health of heart and state of nafs.

3 dunya (world): filled with stimuli toward bad and good, temptations and desire. Opportunity for bad is there.

4 Shaytan/shayaateen (devil/s): uses all of the above in conjunction with whispering to achieve his goals of destroying your relationship with Allah.

Just because one of them is temporarily absent (4) doesn’t mean that we haven’t been conditioned to sin during the other 11 months. This month shows us what the state of our soul and the health of our heart is without active Shaytan influence. This is who we are. Time to fight back.

How the Brain Learns to Distinguish Between What Is Important and What Is not

Traffic lights, neon-lit advertisements, a jungle of road signs. When learning to drive, it is often very difficult to distinguish between important and irrelevant information. How the brain learns the importance of certain images over others is being investigated by Prof. Sonja Hofer at the Biozentrum of the University of Basel. In a recently published study in “Neuron”, the neuroscientist and her team show that learning the relevance of images considerably modifies neuronal networks in the brain. These changes might help our brain to process and classify the overload of stimuli in our environment more effectively.

How we perceive our environment greatly depends on what we have previously seen and learnt. For example, expert drivers do not need to think twice about the meaning of different road signs and are experienced in assessing traffic situations. They can filter out relevant information from a flood of other irrelevant stimuli and thus react quickly. In contrast, beginners need much longer to process the new information. Prof. Sonja Hofer’s team at the Biozentrum of the University of Basel and University College London addressed the question of how processing of sensory stimuli is optimized in the brain through learning.

The brain learns to discriminate between images

To do this, Prof. Hofer’s team investigated the visual cortex of mice. This part of the brain is responsible for the processing and perception of visual stimuli. Mice ran through a virtual-reality environment where they encountered various images, one of which was paired with a reward. Within one week, the animals had learnt to discriminate between the images and to respond accordingly. This learning was reflected in the activity of nerve cells in the visual cortex whose responses were recorded and tracked over the course of learning. While the responses in the brain to the relevant visual stimuli were quite unspecific in beginner mice, many more neurons reacted specifically to the shown images after one week of training.

Learning optimizes stimulus processing

“From day to day, the response of the neurons to the images became increasingly distinguishable and reliable”, says Adil Khan, one of the two first authors. He speculates that such changes in the brain might also allow us to process important information from our environment more efficiently, and perhaps underlies our ability to react promptly to important visual stimuli. The scientists also demonstrated that diverse internal and external signals affect the processing of the visual stimuli. “We observed that the response of the nerve cells to the same visual stimuli became less accurate when the mice where engaged in another task, such as having to discriminate between different smells. The visual stimuli then lose their relevance and are no longer so effectively analyzed by the brain”, says Khan. “Remarkably, the expectation of a stimulus even before it appears, and the anticipation of a reward also altered the activity of specific brain cells. This means that from one moment to the next our brain might process the same stimulus quite differently depending on its importance and relevance.”

Internal signals influence visual perception

Traditionally it was thought that the visual cortex exclusively processes visual information. This study, however, corroborates that during learning also many other signals from various brain regions influence activity in this brain area. “This means that our previously learnt knowledge, our expectations and the context we are in can have a great impact on our visual perception of the environment”, explains Hofer.

anonymous asked:

An antichoicer tried to tell me that since foetuses have reactions to stimuli that that proves they are sentient and aware. When I pointed out that there are plants that respond to touch and they are not sentient they called me a "fucking pro-sciencer" and "all science does is hurt people." Laughed my arse off at that one! I love being a 'pro-sciencer ' lol

When in doubt, just get mad at science.
-V

…the president’s Council of Economic Advisers estimated that between 2.5 million and 3.6 million jobs were created or saved by the stimulus through the fourth quarter of 2010. Separately, the council’s report cited four independent analyses by the Congressional Budget Office and three private economic analysis companies.

Here’s what the groups found:

  • CBO: Between 1.3 million and 3.6 million jobs saved or created.
  • IHS/Global Insight: 2.45 million jobs saved or created.
  • Macroeconomic Advisers: 2.3 million jobs saved or created.
  • Moody’s Economy.com: 2.5 million jobs saved or created.

Another Politifact article. Sources to remember whenever you hear that “the stimulus failed” or that “government doesn’t create jobs”.

PolitiFact | Rick Perry says the 2009 stimulus ‘created zero jobs’

Often I see these things online about various causes: “If you’re not angry then you’re not paying attention,” “How can you even enjoy ____ when ____,” and so on. I’m deeply uncomfortable with framing anger as the only legitimate response to injustice, just as I’m uncomfortable with framing anger as an illegitimate response to injustice. Remember neurodiversity. Different people have a whole range of emotional responses to the same stimuli and that doesn’t make any of them necessarily wrong or broken. For instance, I almost never get angry, and when I do, it’s only when some specific individual has treated me badly. Does this mean I have no place in the fight for social justice?

We say all the time that you’re not a bad person if you feel sad when others think you shouldn’t be, so how could you be a bad person if you feel happy when others think you shouldn’t be? We don’t control our emotions. We control our actions.
Interactions between cortical and subcortical regions important in hypersensitivity in ASD

The increased interaction between cortical and subcortical brain regions highlights the central role of hypersensitivity and other sensory symptoms in defining Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This is presented in research performed by a team led by Christian Keysers and Leonardo Cerliani at the Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience in Amsterdam. This finding provides a key to understand the often underestimated sensory hypersensitivity in autism and to seed a scientific understanding of how to tackle this hypersensitivity. The research was published in JAMA Psychiatry on June 10.

People with ASD are known for their unusual behavior in the social environment. Moreover, they often report other traits, linked to the sensory environment: for instance the ability to perceive small details in a picture or to detect a very soft sound coming from a distance. “This hypersensitivity, however, is not always a gift: being captured by the myriad of sensory stimuli we continuously receive from the environment can be distracting and even overwhelming, and prevents us to focus on what we care most,” says Cerliani. The scientists present in their research that increased interaction between the cortical ad subcortical brain regions is at the root of this hypersensitivity.

Brain activity

Brain regions that are strongly coupled have brain activity that goes up and down together, even while relaxing, while regions that are not coupled will have their brain activity fluctuate independently from each other. By comparing how this spontaneous brain activity synchronizes across various brain regions the team identified an abnormally high synchrony between the sensory cortices involved in perception and subcortical regions relaying information from the sensory organs to the cortex. They found that a higher synchrony was associated with a higher severity of autistic traits.

“During the development from childhood to adolescence, the spontaneous activity of cortical regions involved in basic sensory perception decouples from the activity of subcortical structures relaying sensory information from the sensory organs to the cortex,” explains Keysers. “This decoupling is thought to reflect the increasing ability to block out irrelevant sensory information from perception, allowing people to focus on their stream of thoughts and actions. In ASD this process appears to be altered: their sensory cortex appears to be abnormally coupled to subcortical structures.”

Large database

The team made these observations using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from the largest neuroimaging database on ASD aggregated so far: the ABIDE, founded and coordinated by Dr. Adriana Di Martino, Dr. Stuart Mostofsky and Dr. Michael Milham. The team of Keysers and Cerliani also contributed to the aggregation of this database with the neuroimaging data acquired by Dr. Marc Thioux.

Autism Spectrum Disorder

ASD is an umbrella name for a number of developmental disorders, including classic autism and Asperger syndrome. The number of people with ASD is almost eightfold in the last twenty years and is seen in more than 1% of the children.

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The Art Assignment: Become a science fiction character.

The psionics hardware (the Sanctuary-disc) provides both physical and mental sense of safety, By numbing effects of stimuli that induce stress, the wearer is able to observe the world calmly and more clearly. 

It is often used in crowded marketplaces, hospitals, and during examinations (although the Sanctuary-disc tends to incinerate exam papers as they are dangerous stressors).

The depicted character is a student trying out the disc for the first time during the exam period. Shortly after he’ll develop an addiction for a stress free environment that will persuade him to run away from the city.

Paul R. 2015

ideas.aeon.co
Consciousness is a life-transforming illusion
From the moment we wake we are bombarded with stimuli. Electromagnetic radiation floods our eyes, pressure waves hit our ears, surfaces press against our skins, molecules adhere to the membranes of our noses and tongues. Our sense organs react, se...

 By Keith Frankish, PhD

From the moment we wake we are bombarded with stimuli. Electromagnetic radiation floods our eyes, pressure waves hit our ears, surfaces press against our skins, molecules adhere to the membranes of our noses and tongues. Our sense organs react, sending nerve impulses to our brains, where they trigger waves of neural activity, which may culminate in motor commands to our muscles (shielding our eyes from the light, for example). But something else happens, too. We have conscious experiences. We see a bright light, hear a scream, feel the roughness of a surface. There is something it is like to detect the stimuli; each experience has a distinctive qualitative aspect – a quale in philosopher’s jargon (plural qualia). Such experiences constitute what we call consciousness. But what is consciousness for? What do qualia do?

This may seem an odd question. The answer, surely, is that qualia carry information about the world. A red visual sensation tells us there is something red present; an acrid smell tells us something is burning; a pain tells us our body is damaged. There’s a problem, however. For we could get this information without qualia. Engineers build robots with computer vision systems that can detect and classify colours, shapes, and movements with considerable accuracy. They don’t need to give the robots qualia. Indeed, sometimes we behave in a robotic way ourselves. Most drivers have had the experience of driving absentmindedly, without paying attention to the road.

Yet during these spells we must still be taking in visual information or we would crash. Or consider blindsight, a condition discovered in the 1970s by the psychologist Nicholas Humphrey. Humphrey studied a macaque monkey, Helen, whose primary visual cortex had been surgically removed. By the usual tests Helen was blind, but Humphrey discovered that, with encouragement, she could detect a range of visual stimuli, and in time she was able to interact with her surroundings almost as if fully sighted. (See a video of Helen and read Humphrey’s report.) Blindsight has been discovered in humans too, and the patients confirm that, though they can accurately ‘guess’ shapes and colours, they have no conscious visual sensations.


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very specific sensory stimuli i enjoy
  • toast so dark it’s nearly burnt
  • scalding hot showers
  • very loud thunder
  • the smell of laundry soap
  • discovering where exactly the bumps of your mosquito bites are and running your fingers around them
  • heavy blankets or coats, or having pillows stacked on top of you
  • the smell of ozone
  • trumpet sections
  • popping edamame out of the pod