star forming gas

Herschels Eagle Nebula : A now famous picture from the Hubble Space Telescope featured Pillars of Creation, star forming columns of cold gas and dust light-years long inside M16, the Eagle Nebula. This false-color composite image views the nearby stellar nursery using data from the Herschel Space Observatorys panoramic exploration of interstellar clouds along the plane of our Milky Way galaxy. Herschels far infrared detectors record the emission from the regions cold dust directly. The famous pillars are included near the center of the scene. While the central group of hot young stars is not apparent at these infrared wavelengths, the stars radiation and winds carve the shapes within the interstellar clouds. Scattered white spots are denser knots of gas and dust, clumps of material collapsing to form new stars. The Eagle Nebula is some 6,500 light-years distant, an easy target for binoculars or small telescopes in a nebula rich part of the sky toward the split constellation Serpens Cauda . via NASA

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Black-hole-powered jets forge fuel for star formation

Astronomers using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) have discovered a surprising connection between a supermassive black hole and the galaxy where it resides.

Powerful radio jets from the black hole - which normally suppress star formation - are stimulating the production of cold gas in the galaxy’s extended halo of hot gas. This newly identified supply of cold, dense gas could eventually fuel future star birth as well as feed the black hole itself.

The researchers used ALMA to study a galaxy at the heart of the Phoenix Cluster, an uncommonly crowded collection of galaxies about 5.7 billion light-years from Earth.

The central galaxy in this cluster harbors a supermassive black hole that is in the process of devouring star-forming gas, which fuels a pair of powerful jets that erupt from the black hole in opposite directions into intergalactic space. Astronomers refer to this type of black-hole powered system as an active galactic nucleus (AGN).

Earlier research with NASA’s Chandra X-ray observatory revealed that the jets from this AGN are carving out a pair of giant “radio bubbles,” huge cavities in the hot, diffuse plasma that surrounds the galaxy.

These expanding bubbles should create conditions that are too inhospitable for the surrounding hot gas to cool and condense, which are essential steps for future star formation.

The latest ALMA observations, however, reveal long filaments of cold molecular gas condensing around the outer edges of the radio bubbles. These filaments extend up to 82,000 light-years from either side of the AGN. They collectively contain enough material to make about 10 billion suns.

“With ALMA we can see that there’s a direct link between these radio bubbles inflated by the supermassive black hole and the future fuel for galaxy growth,” said Helen Russell, an astronomer with the University of Cambridge, UK, and lead author on a paper appearing in the Astrophysical Journal. “This gives us new insights into how a black hole can regulate future star birth and how a galaxy can acquire additional material to fuel an active black hole.”

The AGN and Galaxy Growth Connection
The new ALMA observations reveal previously unknown connections between an AGN and the abundance of cold molecular gas that fuels star birth.

“To produce powerful jets, black holes must feed on the same material that the galaxy uses to make new stars,” said Michael McDonald, an astrophysicist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge and coauthor on the paper. “This material powers the jets that disrupt the region and quenches star formation. This illustrates how black holes can slow the growth of their host galaxies.”

Without a significant source of heat, the most massive galaxies in the universe would be forming stars at extreme rates that far exceed observations. Astronomers believe that the heat, in the form of radiation and jets from an actively feeding supermassive black hole, prevents overcooling of the cluster’s hot gas atmosphere, suppressing star formation.

This story, however, now appears more complex. In the Phoenix Cluster, Russell and her team found an additional process that ties the galaxy and its black hole together. The radio jets that heat the core of the cluster’s hot atmosphere also appear to stimulate the production of the cold gas required to sustain the AGN.

“That’s what makes this result so surprising,” said Brian McNamara, an astronomer at the University of Waterloo, Ontario, and co-author on the paper. “This supermassive black hole is regulating the growth of the galaxy by blowing bubbles and heating the gases around it. Remarkably, it also is cooling enough gas to feed itself.”

This result helps astronomers understand the workings of the cosmic “thermostat” that controls the launching of radio jets from the supermassive black hole.

“This could also explain how the most massive black holes were able to both suppress run-away starbursts and regulate the growth of their host galaxies over the past six billion years or so of cosmic history,” noted Russell.

TOP IMAGE….This is a composite image showing how powerful radio jets from the supermassive black hole at the center of a galaxy in the Phoenix Cluster inflated huge “bubbles” in the hot, ionized gas surrounding the galaxy (the cavities inside the blue region imaged by NASA’s Chandra X-ray observatory). Hugging the outside of these bubbles, ALMA discovered an unexpected trove of cold gas, the fuel for star formation (red). The background image is from the Hubble Space Telescope. Credit ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO) H.Russell, et al.; NASA/ESA Hubble; NASA/CXC/MIT/M.McDonald et al.; B. Saxton (NRAO/AUI/NSF)


CENTRE IMAGE….
This is an ALMA image of cold molecular gas at the heart of the Phoenix Cluster. The filaments extending from the center hug enormous radio bubbles created by jets from a supermassive black hole. This discovery sheds light on the complex relationship between a supermassive black hole and its host galaxy. Credit ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO), H. Russell et al.; B. Saxton (NRAO/AUI/NSF)


LOWER IMAGE….
This is an artist impression of galaxy at the center of the Phoenix Cluster. Powerful radio jets from the supermassive black hole at the center of the galaxy are creating giant radio bubbles (blue) in the ionized gas surrounding the galaxy. ALMA has detected cold molecular gas (red) hugging the outside of the bubbles. This material could eventually fall into the galaxy where it could fuel future star birth and feed the supermassive black hole. Credit B. Saxton (NRAO/AUI/NSF)

The Pelican Nebula - IC 5070

The Pelican Nebula is located in the constellation Cygnus and is filled with heating gas and new stars. This nebula is a popular target for astronomers because it has an intense mix of evolving gasses and stars. As stars form within gas clouds they heat the surrounding gas and cause it to emit light at various wavelengths. This processes is not entirely uncommon and puts the Pelican Nebula into a classification of nebulae known as emission nebulae. 

Credit: NASA/Miodrag Sekulic

The Great Orion Nebula M42 : The Great Nebula in Orion, also known as M42, is one of the most famous nebulas in the sky. The star forming region’s glowing gas clouds and hot young stars are on the right in this sharp and colorful image that includes the bluish reflection nebulae NGC 1977 and friends on the left. Located at the edge of an otherwise invisible giant molecular cloud complex, these eye-catching nebulas represent only a small fraction of this galactic neighborhood’s wealth of interstellar material. Within the well-studied stellar nursery, astronomers have also identified what appear to be numerous infant planetary systems. The gorgeous skyscape spans nearly two degrees or about 45 light-years at the Orion Nebula’s estimated distance of 1,500 light-years. via NASA

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Infrared Orion from WISE
Image Credit: WISE, IRSA, NASA; Processing & Copyright : Francesco Antonucci

Explanation: The Great Nebula in Orion is an intriguing place. Visible to the unaided eye, it appears as a small fuzzy patch in the constellation of Orion. But this image, an illusory-color four-panel mosaic taken in different bands of infrared light with the Earth orbiting WISE observatory, shows the Orion Nebula to be a bustling neighborhood or recently formed stars, hot gas, and dark dust. The power behind much of the Orion Nebula (M42) is the stars of the Trapezium star cluster, seen near the center of the above wide field image. The orange glow surrounding the bright stars pictured here is their own starlight reflected by intricate dust filaments that cover much of the region. The current Orion Nebula cloud complex, which includes the Horsehead Nebula, will slowly disperse over the next 100,000 years.

Stripping ESO 137-001 : Spiral galaxy ESO 137-001 hurtles through massive galaxy cluster Abell 3627 some 220 million light years away. The distant galaxy is seen in this colorful Hubble/Chandra composite image through a foreground of the Milky Way’s stars toward the southern constellation Triangulum Australe. As the spiral speeds along at nearly 7 million kilometers per hour, its gas and dust are stripped away when ram pressure with the cluster’s own hot, tenuous intracluster medium overcomes the galaxy’s gravity. Evident in Hubble’s near visible light data, bright star clusters have formed in the stripped material along the short, trailing blue streaks. Chandra’s X-ray data shows off the enormous extent of the heated, stripped gas as diffuse, darker blue trails stretching over 400,000 light-years toward the bottom right. The significant loss of dust and gas will make new star formation difficult for this galaxy. A yellowish elliptical galaxy, lacking in star forming dust and gas, is just to the right of ESO 137-001 in the frame. via NASA

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NGC 6559 is a chaotic star-forming region of gas and dust located at a distance of about 5,000 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Sagittarius.

Visible above are red glowing emission nebulas of hydrogen, blue reflection nebulas of dust, dark absorption nebulas of dust, and the stars that formed from them. The first massive stars formed from the dense gas will emit energetic light and winds that erode, fragment, and sculpt the region. And then they explode. After tens of millions of years, the dust boils away, the gas gets swept away, and all that is left will be an open cluster of stars.

(Image Credit: Dieter Willasch)

Infrared Orion from WISE

The Great Nebula in Orion is an intriguing place. Visible to the unaided eye, it appears as a small fuzzy patch in the constellation of Orion. But this image, an illusory-color four-panel mosaic taken in different bands of infrared light with the Earth orbiting WISE observatory, shows the Orion Nebula to be a bustling neighborhood or recently formed stars, hot gas, and dark dust. The power behind much of the Orion Nebula (M42) is the stars of the Trapezium star cluster, seen near the center of the above wide field image. The orange glow surrounding the bright stars pictured here is their own starlight reflected by intricate dust filaments that cover much of the region. The current Orion Nebula cloud complex, which includes the Horsehead Nebula, will slowly disperse over the next 100,000 years.

Image credit: WISE, IRSA, NASA; Processing & Copyright : Francesco Antonucci

NGC 6559 is a chaotic star-forming region of gas and dust located at a distance of about 5,000 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Sagittarius.

Visible above are red glowing emission nebulas of hydrogen, blue reflection nebulas of dust, dark absorption nebulas of dust, and the stars that formed from them. The first massive stars formed from the dense gas will emit energetic light and winds that erode, fragment, and sculpt the region. And then they explode. After tens of millions of years, the dust boils away, the gas gets swept away, and all that is left will be an open cluster of stars.

(Image Credit: Dieter Willasch)

Galaxy Wars: M81 versus M82 : In the lower left corner, surrounded by blue spiral arms, is spiral galaxy M81. In the upper right corner, marked by red gas and dust clouds, is irregular galaxy M82. This stunning vista shows these two mammoth galaxies locked in gravitational combat, as they have been for the past billion years. The gravity from each galaxy dramatically affects the other during each hundred million-year pass. Last go-round, M82’s gravity likely raised density waves rippling around M81, resulting in the richness of M81’s spiral arms. But M81 left M82 with violent star forming regions and colliding gas clouds so energetic the galaxy glows in X-rays. This big battle is seen from Earth through the faint glow of an Integrated Flux Nebula, a little studied complex of diffuse gas and dust clouds in our Milky Way Galaxy. In a few billion years only one galaxy will remain. via NASA

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anonymous asked:

So, uh, for a thing I'm writing, I need to know what the fastest-spinning thing in space that could theoretically fly apart/eject matter in such a way that a solid chunk of its material reaches Earth as a meteoroid. It's very important that the meteoroid be from a thing that was spinning very fast. I know millisecond pulsars can eject matter to slow down, but I'm under the impression that would be in the form of star gas? Can you help me?

If a worm hole were to appear in our solar system, it’s possible a spinning object on the other side could fire a chunk of material through that would crash into earth.

Or maybe something else would come through that would be more devastating…

Fun aside, I think you’re right about millisecond pulsars. They seem to be the fastest spinning thing in space that we’ve discovered so far. But to be completely honest, I have no idea what object (spinning that fast of course) could eject an asteroid or meteor with enough force to reach and hit Earth. Apologies for the lack of an answer. I searched fairly hard for an answer to this but I couldn’t really find much information. I even asked my old astronomy teacher and she didn’t really know either!

Since I wasn’t much help, here’s an interesting program (albeit fairly unrelated) that let’s you simulate a meteor impact on earth: http://www.purdue.edu/impactearth/