List of Cardiac Defects and Their Associated Repairs

Please note: This is by no means a comprehensive list. There are other surgical procedures so please don’t treat this post like the Bible of cardiac defect repairs. Every child is different, every anatomy is different, and many patients will require nontraditional repairs. I did not mention certain procedures (such as the hemi-Fontan or Sano modification, etc) because that’s just too much information. One day I may make a surgical repair post for each defect (and at that time would detail modified, Hybrid, non-traditional approaches, etc), but until then: keep in mind that these are not the ONLY options.

Atrial Septal Defect/Ventral Septal Defect - Self-resolving, simple suture or patch repair.

Coarctation of the Aorta - End-to-end anastomosis, subclavian flap angioplasty

Double Inlet Left Ventricle - Damus-Kaye-Stansel procedure, single ventricle palliation

Double Outlet Right Ventricle - Rastelli procedure, RV to PA conduit

Ebstein’s Anomaly of the Tricuspid Valve - Blalock-Taussing shunt, Carpentier’s procedure, Tricuspid valve repair, Starnes procedure

Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome - Norwood procedure, Bidirectional Glenn procedure, Fontan procedure

Pulmonary Atresia with Intact Ventricular Septum - Balloon atrial septostomy, pulmonary valvotomy, PDA stent

Pulmonary Atresia with Ventricular Septal Defect - RV to PA conduit and VSD repair

Transposition of the Great Arteries - Arterial switch operation


This animation tells the story of how a young girl and her father overcome the death of a loved one and conquer fear as they brave through the transition to a new future. It is a fantastic story that involves chasing, falling from the sky, and a grand surprise in the end!

Written & Directed by Gary Blackburn
Character Design by Sofia Alexander
Airship Design & Model by Kersti Kodas
Airship Texture Art by Fenway Fan
Color Concept Art Steven Roberson, Gary Blackburn
Line Concept Art by Lauren Rasmussen
Matte Painting by Sofia Alexander, Gary Blackburn, Mirror Su, Maria Venegas, Meng Yao Zhang, Rebecca Stansell, Ru Xu.
Set Models by Yizhe Jiang, Gary Blackburn
Compositing by Gary Blackburn, Andrew Finley