List of Cardiac Defects and Their Associated Repairs

Please note: This is by no means a comprehensive list. There are other surgical procedures so please don’t treat this post like the Bible of cardiac defect repairs. Every child is different, every anatomy is different, and many patients will require nontraditional repairs. I did not mention certain procedures (such as the hemi-Fontan or Sano modification, etc) because that’s just too much information. One day I may make a surgical repair post for each defect (and at that time would detail modified, Hybrid, non-traditional approaches, etc), but until then: keep in mind that these are not the ONLY options.

Atrial Septal Defect/Ventral Septal Defect - Self-resolving, simple suture or patch repair.

Coarctation of the Aorta - End-to-end anastomosis, subclavian flap angioplasty

Double Inlet Left Ventricle - Damus-Kaye-Stansel procedure, single ventricle palliation

Double Outlet Right Ventricle - Rastelli procedure, RV to PA conduit

Ebstein’s Anomaly of the Tricuspid Valve - Blalock-Taussing shunt, Carpentier’s procedure, Tricuspid valve repair, Starnes procedure

Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome - Norwood procedure, Bidirectional Glenn procedure, Fontan procedure

Pulmonary Atresia with Intact Ventricular Septum - Balloon atrial septostomy, pulmonary valvotomy, PDA stent

Pulmonary Atresia with Ventricular Septal Defect - RV to PA conduit and VSD repair

Transposition of the Great Arteries - Arterial switch operation


This animation tells the story of how a young girl and her father overcome the death of a loved one and conquer fear as they brave through the transition to a new future. It is a fantastic story that involves chasing, falling from the sky, and a grand surprise in the end!

Written & Directed by Gary Blackburn
Character Design by Sofia Alexander
Airship Design & Model by Kersti Kodas
Airship Texture Art by Fenway Fan
Color Concept Art Steven Roberson, Gary Blackburn
Line Concept Art by Lauren Rasmussen
Matte Painting by Sofia Alexander, Gary Blackburn, Mirror Su, Maria Venegas, Meng Yao Zhang, Rebecca Stansell, Ru Xu.
Set Models by Yizhe Jiang, Gary Blackburn
Compositing by Gary Blackburn, Andrew Finley

Report in the cardiac ICU can sometimes be very confusing! Not just because the diagnoses are complicated, but they’re often given almost entirely in abbreviations. For example: prenatally diagnosed with d-TGA + IVS, BAS on DOL 1, PGE for PDA started in NICU. Now s/p ASO. Off CBP, DSC 2 days ago. CTs, DRA, PD D/Cd. Huh?!

Here are some common cardiac abbreviations, decoded!

RV - right ventricle
LV - left ventricle
RA - right atrium
LA - left atrium
PA - pulmonary artery
LPA - left pulmonary artery
RPA - right pulmonary artery
PA - pulmonary atresia
PV - pulmonary veins
PS - pulmonary stenosis
AS - aortic stenosis
MS - mitral stenosis
IVC - inferior vena cava
SVC - superior vena cava
SA - subclavian artery
AO - aorta
COA - coarctation
LCA - left coronary artery
RCA - right coronary artery
MAPCAS - major aortopulmonary collateral arteries
ASD - atrial septal defect
VSD - ventral septal defect
AVSD - atrioventricular septal defect
PDA - patent ductus arteriosis
PFO - patent foramen ovale
TGA - transposition of the great arteries
DORV - Double Outlet Right Ventricle
DILV - Double Inlet Left Ventricle
TAPVR - total anomalous pulmonary venous return
HLHS - hypoplastic left heart syndrome
IAA - interrupted aortic arch
BT shunt - Blalock Taussing shunt
DSC - delayed sternal closure
TOF - Tetralogy of Fallot
IVS - intact ventricular septum
BAS - balloon atrial septostomy
DOL - day of life
ROM - rupture of membranes
IUGR - intrauterine growth restriction
LGA - large for gestational age
MBM - mother’s breast milk
ASO - aterial switch operation
DKS - Damus Kaye Stansel procedure
CPB - cardiopulmonary bypass
POD - post-op day
PGE/PGE1 - prostaglandin
MSI - midsternal incision
CT - chest tube
AMCT - anterior mediastinal chest tube
PMCT - posterior mediastinal chest tube
UAC - umbilical aterial catheter
UVC - umbilical venous catheter
EJ - external jugular
DRA - direct right atrium (line)
PD - peritoneal dialysis
RAP - right atrium pressure
CVP - central venous pressure
MAP - mean arterial pressure
JET - junctional ectopic tachycardia
SVT - supraventricular tachycardia