The German Captured PPSh-41

Perhaps the most iconic Soviet weapon of World War II, the PPSh-41 was also wildly popular among German forces who captured tens of thousands of the submachine guns and put them to good use. Among German soldiers they were popular for their ruggedness and their 71 round drum magazine. Chambered for 7.62x25mm Tokarev, the Germans lucked out in that they could used the German 7.63x25mm Mauser cartridge which was dimensionally similar. In it’s standard caliber, in German service it was called the MP717®.

While the MP717® was popular, there was a problem in that it’s 7.63x25mm Mauser ammunition was not so common.  Most German pistols and submachine guns used 9x19mm Parabellum. The 7.63 Mauser cartridge was developed for the C96 Broomhandle pistol, which was popular during World War I but not as common during World War II. As a result, the Germans developed a 9mm conversion of the PPSh-41 called the MP-41®. 

The conversion was produced by replacing the extractor and changing out the barrel for one used on the German MP 40 submachine gun.  The weapon used MP 40 magazines which were fitted with a special adapter.  Supposedly, around 4,000 of these conversions were made, although it is unknown how many were actually produced.

The High German languages or High German dialects (Hochdeutsche Dialekte) comprise the varieties of German spoken south of the Benrath and Uerdingen isoglosses in central and southern Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, Switzerland, and Luxembourg as well as in neighboring portions of Belgium (Eupen-Malmedy) and the Netherlands (Southeast Limburg), France (Alsace and northern Lorraine), Italy (South Tyrol), and Poland (Upper Silesia). They are also spoken in diaspora in RomaniaRussia, the USA, Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, Chile, and Namibia. The High German languages are marked by the High German consonant shift, separating them from Low German and Low Franconian (Dutch) within the continental West Germanic dialect continuum.

As a technical term, the “high” in High German is a geographical reference to the group of dialects that forms “High German” (i.e. “Highland” German), out of which developed Standard German, Yiddish, and Luxembourgish. It refers to the Central Uplands (Mittelgebirge) and Alpine areas of central and southern Germany, it also includes Luxembourg, Austria, Liechtenstein, and most of Switzerland. This is opposed to Low German, which is spoken on the lowlands and along the flat sea coasts of the North German Plain. High German in this broader sense can be subdivided into Upper German (Oberdeutsch, this includes Austrian and Swiss German dialects), Central German (Mitteldeutsch, this includes Luxembourgish, which itself is now a standard language), and High Franconian which is a transitional dialect between the two. High German (in the broader sense) is distinguished from other West Germanic varieties in that it took part in the High German consonant shift (c. AD 500). To see this, compare English/Low German (Low Saxon) pan/Pann with Standard German Pfanne ([p] to [p͡f]), English/Low German two/twee with Standard German zwei ([t] to [t͡s]), English/Low German make/maken with Standard German machen ([k] to [x]). In the southernmost High Alemannic dialects, there is a further shift; Sack (like English/Low German “sack/Sack”) is pronounced [z̥ak͡x] ([k] to [k͡x]).

Old High German evolved from about 500 AD, around 1200 the Swabian and East Franconian varieties of Middle High German became dominant as a court and poetry language (Minnesang) under the rule of the House of Hohenstaufen. The term “High German” as spoken in central and southern Germany (Upper Saxony, Franconia, Swabia, Bavaria) and Austria was first documented in the 15th century. Gradually driving back Low German variants since the Early modern period, the Early New High German varieties, especially the East Central German of the Luther Bible, formed an important basis for the development of Standard German.

Family tree

Divisions between subfamilies within Germanic are rarely precisely defined, because most form continuous clines, with adjacent dialects being mutually intelligible and more separated ones not. In particular, there has never been an original “Proto-High German”. For this and other reasons, the idea of representing the relationships between West Germanic language forms in a tree diagram at all is controversial among linguists. What follows should be used with care in the light of this caveat.

in sentences with a conjugated modal verb and one infinitive, the infinitive can be omitted if its meaning can be assumed by the relationship between the subject(s) and object(s)
sie will ein glas milch haben. > sie will ein glas milch.
kann er deutsch sprechen? > kann er deutsch?
wir wollen nach deutschland reisen. > wir wollen nach deutschland.
ich will zu dir gehen. > ich will zu dir.
das kind muss ins bett gehen. > das kind muss ins bett.
das darf ich nicht machen. > das darf ich nicht.

the verb infinitive ending -en can become -’n
gehen > geh’n
sehen > seh’n
wollen > woll’n
lecken > leck’n

-e can be removed from the end of conjugated verbs
habe > hab’
hätte > hätt’
trage > trag’
wäre > wär’

es can be reduced to -’s on the end of the preceding word
du es > du’s
ich es > ich’s
los geht es > los geht’s
was gibt es? > was gibt’s?

the ei- can be removed from the beginning of the indefinite article
ein > ’n
eine > ’ne
einen > ’nen
einem > ’nem
einer > ’ner
irgendeine > irgend’ne

if du proceeds its conjugated verb, it can be reduced to -e on the end of the preceding verb
bist du > biste
hast du > haste
kannst du > kannste
warst du > warste

after prepositions, ein/den/einen becomes -’n, dem becomes -’m and das becomes -’s
auf dem > auf’m
durch das > durch’s
für das > für’s
für ein/den/einen > für’n
hinter dem > hinter’m
mit dem > mit’m (> mim)
unter das > unter’s

dar- becomes dr- and her- becomes r-
darin > drin
darauf > drauf
heraus > raus
herein > rein

in questions with a second or third person singular conjugated verb, “denn” can be moved to directly proceed the verb, where it is reduced to -’n, causing the t sound to be reduced to a glottal stop when pronounced
was ist das denn? > was is(t)’n das?
wie heißt du denn? > wie heiß(t)’n du?

the above contractions/reductions are often used together
das wäre es > das wär’s
ich habe es > ich hab’s

some other words that can be reduced/contracted
andere > andre
besondere > besondre
gerade > grade > grad
irgendetwas > irgendwas/etwas > was
irgendwelche > welche
ist > is’
ist so > isso
nicht > nich (north) or net/nit (south)
nichts > nix
mal > ma
schonmal > schoma
so ist es > so isses

corresponding relative pronouns instead of third person pronouns
sie > die / ihr > der
er > der / ihn > den / ihm > dem
sie > die / ihnen > denen

instead of “ja”

instead of “nein”

instead of “oder?” at the end of a sentence to make it a question
ne? (north)
gell? (south)
nicht wahr?

make sure you know how to use these words, they will help make you sound less sharp and robotic

fillers/expressions of surprise
ach/achso - aha/i see/oh okay
alter/digga/mann - dude/man/bro/mate
ah/äh/eh/oh - ah/oh
ahm/ähm/ehm/öhm - um/erm
au/aua/autsch - ow/ouch
bäh/igitt/pfui - ew/ugh/yuck
boah - wow
ey - hey/jeez
hä? - huh?
och - ach/ugh
oha - wow
(oh mein) gott - (oh my) god
was zur hölle/was zum teufel - what the hell/what the fuck

bb - bis bald
bd - bis dann
bissn/bissl - bisschen/bissel
dad - denk an dich
eig - eigentlich
einf - einfach
ev - eventuell
gn8 - gute nacht
hdf - halt die fresse
hdl - hab dich lieb
hdgdl - hab dich ganz doll lieb
hdgdlfiuebaedwuwz - hab dich ganz doll lieb für immer und ewig bis ans ende der welt und wieder zurück
ida - ich dich auch
ild - ich liebe dich
irgendwann - iwann
irgendwo - iwo
irgendwer - iwer
jz - jetzt
ka - keine ahnung
kb - kein bock
kd - kein ding
kp - kein plan/kein problem
lg - liebe grüße
lw - langweilig
mfg - mit freundlichen grüßen
mmn - meiner meinung nach
vllt - vielleicht
wg - was geht?
wmds - was machst du so?

haha - normal laugh
hihi - giggle
hehe - cute/evil/annoying laugh
höhö/hühü - cute/annoying/sarcastic/satirical/stupid laugh

-en, -em and -el are pronounced as n m and l respectively

heißen > heißn
diesem > diesm
vogel > vogl

short i can sound like an unstressed ü or like it has been omitted altogether
schwimmen > schwümmn
sind > sünt
ich habe es > chaps

the combinations ls and ns can sound like there is a t before the s
als > alts
ich will es > chwüllts
eins > eints
übrigens > übrignts

-en before d and t is pronounced as n
duden > dudn
schneiden > schneidn
t is reduced to a glottal stop
braten > bra’n
retten > re’n
in the case of words that end in -nden, d is sometimes reduced to a glottal stop
finden > findn > fin’n

-en after g and k is pronounced as ng
magen > magng
flaggen > flaggng
k is reduced to a glottal stop
packen > pa’ng
zocken > zo’ng
in the case of words ending in -nken, n is pronounced as ng
sinken > sing’ng

-en after b and p is pronounced as m
krabben > krabbm
mobben > mobbm
p is reduced to a glottal stop
waschlappen > waschla’m
klappen > kla’m
in the case of haben, b is sometimes omitted altogether
haben > habm > ham

In German linguistics, the Benrath Linie is the maken-machen isogloss: dialects north of the line have the original /k/ in maken (to make), while those to the south have /x/ (machen). The Line runs from Benrath (part of Düsseldorf) and Aachen to eastern Germany near Frankfurt/Oder in the area of Berlin and Dessau. The High German consonant shift (3rd to 9th centuries AD), in which the Northern Low German dialects for the most part did not participate, affected the Southern varieties of the West Germanic dialect continuum. This shift is traditionally seen to distinguish the High German/Standard German varieties (Hochdeutsch) from the other West Germanic languages. The impact of the High German consonant shift increases gradually to the South. The Benrath line does not mark the northernmost effect of the High German consonant shift, since the Uerdingen line, the ik-ich isogloss, lies slightly further north; and some of the peripheral changes associated with the shift did affect Low German. Read about High German here and here.

how is ch pronounced in german?

in standard german the digraph ch is used to transcribe both the the ich-laut (unvoiced palatal fricative /ç/) and the ach-laut (unvoiced velar fricative /x/). its very easy to tell how its pronounced by looking at the vowel which precedes it

light (front) vowels
e - short like e in pet*
i - short like i in sit^
ä - like ai in air^
ö - like i in bird*
ü - like ee in sheep but with lips in a little o shape
ei/aia followed by i
eu/äuo followed by i
ie - like ee in sheep
ur u followed by i

dark (back) vowels
a - like a in bath*
o - like o in pot*
u - like oo in book*
au - a followed by u

*australian english
^british english

ch is pronounced /ç/ when preceded by a light vowel
g is pronounced /ç/ when preceded by a single i at the end of a syllable
1. put your tongue in the position for /j/. the tip should be touching the inside of the bottom teeth and the sides should be gently touching the roof of your mouth.
2. breath out gently. the airflow should be about the same as if you were pronouncing /f/ (its the same sound as the h in english huge)

ch is pronounced /x/ when preceded by a dark vowel
1. put your tongue in the position for /k/. the tip should be touching the inside of the bottom teeth and the back should be close to or gently touching the roof of your mouth
2. breath out gently. the airflow should be about the same as if you were pronouncing /h/ but held for a little longer (its the same sound as the ch in scottish loch)


I want to discuss something not often talked about today. Often times we forget that English Bulldogs and Pugs are not the only breeds being bred into unhealthy standards. 

At present German Shepards are not bred to function as working dogs but to win in the show ring regardless of whether it improves the dog’s original purpose or not.Breeding a dog solely for its flying trot has left the American German Shepherd (GSD) wobbly and easily taken off balance. This breed features an attractive fault which pleases the ‘fancy’ but is, in fact, a detriment to its original function. The main point of concern is agility and balance in the structure of these dogs. Out of the herding group the GSD stands apart with an exaggerated top line and extremely long stride.

There should be balanced angulation for dogs designed to be endurance trotters such as the GSD. That means the angle at the point of shoulder should be nearly equal to the angle at the stifle and the angle at the elbow should be nearly equal to that of the hock joint. One definition of “Balanced Angulation” is whatever angulation is needed for the function of the breed during locomotion.

The rear legs don’t give support to the back part of the dog. The rear hip joint has to support this part of the body. This leaves the joint more open to injury with any quick change in direction. The GSD now only achieves real balance when in forward motion.

Even the American White Shepherd Association has a breed standard that emphasizes the working ability and discourages the extreme angulation seen in many colored American GSDs today. “This is a herding dog that must have the agility, freedom of movement and endurance to do the work required of it. When gaiting, the dog should move smoothly with all parts working in harmony. Overall balance, strength and firmness of movement is to be given more emphasis than a side gait showing a flying trot.”

his has been the direction most American Breeders have sadly been going in for much too long now. Some in the study of dog structure and the GSD have raised comment on the apparent concept in the American fancy of “the more angulation, the better.”

As Curtis Brown points out in Dog Locomotion and Gait Analysis “We now have German Shepherds with angulation which can never be used; in the walk they are disgraceful and in the trot, the hock joint never straightens (sickle-hocked).”

listen…listen i know i got a lotta shit to do but……..ive just watched a short bit of (ethnic) Michael Fassbender speaking German (freely) bc i wanted to hear how he, half german half irish, speaks german these days (Assassins creed) bc in my studies i learned that southern parts of Ireland (and michael fassbender grew up in the south west of ireland) just have “clear/light l” and the German language (standard) also just has “clear l” ….anyway….i lost….myself here….. what i wanted to say was that idk i didnt really listen 2 closely ….. i cant really distinguish between “dark l” and “clear l” to be perfectly honest….maybe i could if id invest more time listening to the ethnic man speak but….anyway….. i also watched a Michael Fassbender and James McAvoy (who is Glaswegian) interview and james should have just “dark l” in his speech bc hes a Scot but i didnt watch enough to really compare bc im a lazy shit and unconcentrated and lose interest very quickly and i still find it hard to differentiate between “dark l” and “clear l” when they just speak u know what i mean and im a German from not a weird place like parts of Bavaria who does some sort of “dark l” or “l vocalization” 


What are the most popular dog breeds in Germany?

As per the German Kennel Club from 2008:

1. German Shepherd 
2. German Dachshund (80% are wirehaired standards)
3. German Wirehair Pointer
4. Labrador Retriever
5. Golden Retriever
6. German Mastiff (aka Great Dane)
7. Boxer
8. Poodle
9. Rottweiler
10. English Cocker Spaniel
11. Giant Schnauzer
12. Bernese Mountain Dog
13. German Shorthair Pointer
14. German Hovawart
15. Collie (Scottish Sheepdog)
16. Miniature Schnauzer
17. Kleiner Münsterländer (medium sized hunting dog similar to the Brittany)
18. West Highland White Terrier
19. Airedale Terrier
20. German Hunting Terrier (only sold to hunters, they don’t make good pets)

I did a “character sheet” of my dirt son, aka aph Rhineland! For anyone unfamiliar with that region, it’s a region in the west of Germany along the river Rhine and is mostly known for its heavy industry. Given that the German siblings all made way for Germany eventually, Ulrich/Rhineland wouldn’t still be alive in modern times. The information given here mostly applies to him during the 1800s.

Elaboration on the personality traits listed under the cut!

Keep reading

'Rumor' has it: German shepherd wins Best in Show at Westminster Dog Show

Rumor has it a German shepherd won Best in Show at the 141st Westminster Dog Show — and that’s exactly who did.

Rumor (official name “Lockenhaus’ Rumor Has It V Kenlyn”) on Tuesday became only the second German shepherd to win the award in the history of the Westminster Dog Show. The first was “Covy Tucker Hill’s Manhattan” in the 1987 competition.

MORE: Westminster Dog Show full results

Thomas H. Bradley III, who judged this year’s Best in Show competition at New York’s Madison Square Garden, detailed what made Rumor stand out from her competition — and what pushed her over the top after making the final.

MORE: Adorable photos of dogs at the Westminster Dog Show

“The German shepherd standard talks about quality and nobility, sometimes unrecognizable. But when you recognize it, it hits you home,” Bradley said. “And that’s what it really is.

"She is just magnificent.”