Perhaps the most iconic Soviet weapon of World War II, the PPSh-41 was also wildly popular among German forces who captured tens of thousands of the submachine guns and put them to good use. Among German soldiers they were popular for their ruggedness and their 71 round drum magazine. Chambered for 7.62x25mm Tokarev, the Germans lucked out in that they could used the German 7.63x25mm Mauser cartridge which was dimensionally similar. In it’s standard caliber, in German service it was called the MP717®.
While the MP717® was popular, there was a problem in that it’s 7.63x25mm Mauser ammunition was not so common. Most German pistols and submachine guns used 9x19mm Parabellum. The 7.63 Mauser cartridge was developed for the C96 Broomhandle pistol, which was popular during World War I but not as common during World War II. As a result, the Germans developed a 9mm conversion of the PPSh-41 called the MP-41®.
The conversion was produced by replacing the extractor and changing out the barrel for one used on the German MP 40 submachine gun. The weapon used MP 40 magazines which were fitted with a special adapter. Supposedly, around 4,000 of these conversions were made, although it is unknown how many were actually produced.
As a technical term, the “high” in High German is a geographical reference to the group of dialects that forms “High German” (i.e. “Highland” German), out of which developed Standard German, Yiddish, and Luxembourgish. It refers to the Central Uplands (Mittelgebirge) and Alpine areas of central and southern Germany, it also includes Luxembourg, Austria, Liechtenstein, and most of Switzerland. This is opposed to Low German, which is spoken on the lowlands and along the flat sea coasts of the North German Plain. High German in this broader sense can be subdivided into Upper German (Oberdeutsch, this includes Austrian and Swiss German dialects), Central German (Mitteldeutsch, this includes Luxembourgish, which itself is now a standard language), and High Franconian which is a transitional dialect between the two. High German (in the broader sense) is distinguished from other West Germanic varieties in that it took part in the High German consonant shift (c. AD 500). To see this, compare English/Low German (Low Saxon) pan/Pann with Standard German Pfanne ([p] to [p͡f]), English/Low German two/twee with Standard German zwei ([t] to [t͡s]), English/Low German make/maken with Standard German machen ([k] to [x]). In the southernmost High Alemannic dialects, there is a further shift; Sack (like English/Low German “sack/Sack”) is pronounced [z̥ak͡x] ([k] to [k͡x]).
Divisions between subfamilies within Germanic are rarely precisely defined, because most form continuous clines, with adjacent dialects being mutually intelligible and more separated ones not. In particular, there has never been an original “Proto-High German”. For this and other reasons, the idea of representing the relationships between West Germanic language forms in a tree diagram at all is controversial among linguists. What follows should be used with care in the light of this caveat.
in sentences with a conjugated modal verb and one infinitive, the infinitive can be omitted if its meaning can be assumed by the relationship between the subject(s) and object(s) sie will ein glas milch haben. > sie will ein glas milch. kann er deutsch sprechen? > kann er deutsch? wir wollen nach deutschland reisen. > wir wollen nach deutschland. ich will zu dir gehen. > ich will zu dir. das kind muss ins bett gehen. > das kind muss ins bett. das darf ich nicht machen. > das darf ich nicht.
the verb infinitive ending -en can become -’n gehen > geh’n sehen > seh’n wollen > woll’n lecken > leck’n
-e can be removed from the end of conjugated verbs habe > hab’ hätte > hätt’ trage > trag’ wäre > wär’
es can be reduced to -’s on the end of the preceding word du es > du’s ich es > ich’s los geht es > los geht’s was gibt es? > was gibt’s?
the ei- can be removed from the beginning of the indefinite article ein > ’n eine > ’ne einen > ’nen einem > ’nem einer > ’ner irgendeine > irgend’ne etc.
if du proceeds its conjugated verb, it can be reduced to -e on the end of thepreceding verb bist du > biste hast du > haste kannst du > kannste warst du > warste
after prepositions, ein/den/einen becomes -’n, dem becomes -’m and das becomes -’s auf dem > auf’m durch das > durch’s für das > für’s für ein/den/einen > für’n hinter dem > hinter’m mit dem > mit’m (> mim) unter das > unter’s etc.
dar- becomes dr- and her- becomes r- darin > drin darauf > drauf heraus > raus herein > rein etc.
in questions with a second or third person singular conjugated verb, “denn” can be moved to directly proceed the verb, where it is reduced to -’n, causing the t sound to be reduced to a glottal stop when pronounced was ist das denn? > was is(t)’n das? wie heißt du denn? > wie heiß(t)’n du?
the above contractions/reductions are often used together das wäre es > das wär’s ich habe es > ich hab’s
some other words that can be reduced/contracted andere > andre besondere > besondre gerade > grade > grad irgendetwas > irgendwas/etwas > was irgendwelche > welche ist > is’ ist so > isso nicht > nich (north) or net/nit (south) nichts > nix mal > ma schonmal > schoma so ist es > so isses
corresponding relative pronouns instead of third person pronouns sie > die / ihr > der er > der / ihn > den / ihm > dem sie > die / ihnen > denen
instead of “ja” jap jepp jo joa ju jupp
instead of “nein” nee/ne nöö/nö
instead of “oder?” at the end of a sentence to make it a question ne? (north) gell? (south) nicht wahr? stimmt’s?
make sure you know how to use these words, they will help make you sound less sharp and robotic aber auch bloß doch eben eh einmal erst etwa gerade halt ja mal na naja nun nur ohnehin schon sowieso vielleicht wohl
fillers/expressions of surprise ach/achso - aha/i see/oh okay alter/digga/mann - dude/man/bro/mate ah/äh/eh/oh - ah/oh ahm/ähm/ehm/öhm - um/erm au/aua/autsch - ow/ouch bäh/igitt/pfui - ew/ugh/yuck boah - wow ey - hey/jeez hä? - huh? och - ach/ugh oha - wow (oh mein) gott - (oh my) god was zur hölle/was zum teufel - what the hell/what the fuck
abbreviations bb - bis bald bd - bis dann bissn/bissl - bisschen/bissel dad - denk an dich eig - eigentlich einf - einfach ev - eventuell gn8 - gute nacht hdf - halt die fresse hdl - hab dich lieb hdgdl - hab dich ganz doll lieb hdgdlfiuebaedwuwz - hab dich ganz doll lieb für immer und ewig bis ans ende der welt und wieder zurück ida - ich dich auch ild - ich liebe dich irgendwann - iwann irgendwo - iwo irgendwer - iwer etc. jz - jetzt ka - keine ahnung kb - kein bock kd - kein ding kp - kein plan/kein problem lg - liebe grüße lw - langweilig mfg - mit freundlichen grüßen mmn - meiner meinung nach vllt - vielleicht wg - was geht? wmds - was machst du so?
-en, -em and -el are pronounced as n m and l respectively
heißen > heißn diesem > diesm vogel > vogl
short i can sound like an unstressed ü or like it has been omitted altogether schwimmen > schwümmn sind > sünt ich habe es > chaps
the combinations ls and ns can sound like there is a t before the s als > alts ich will es > chwüllts eins > eints übrigens > übrignts
-en before d and t is pronounced as n duden > dudn schneiden > schneidn t is reduced to a glottal stop braten > bra’n retten > re’n in the case of words that end in -nden, d is sometimes reduced to a glottal stop finden > findn > fin’n
-en after g and k is pronounced as ng magen > magng flaggen > flaggng k is reduced to a glottal stop packen > pa’ng zocken > zo’ng in the case of words ending in -nken, n is pronounced as ng sinken > sing’ng
-en after b and p is pronounced as m krabben > krabbm mobben > mobbm p is reduced to a glottal stop waschlappen > waschla’m klappen > kla’m in the case of haben, b is sometimes omitted altogether haben > habm > ham
i feel like if our schools got a wider variety of languages to choose from, instead of the standard spanish, french or german, and taught more about the culture and the way that natives actually speak, students would be more interested in it.
In German linguistics, the Benrath Linie is the maken-machen isogloss: dialects north of the line have the original /k/ in maken (to make), while those to the south have /x/ (machen). The Line runs from Benrath (part of Düsseldorf) and Aachen to eastern Germany near Frankfurt/Oder in the area of Berlin and Dessau. The High German consonant shift (3rd to 9th centuries AD), in which the Northern Low German dialects for the most part did not participate, affected the Southern varieties of the West Germanic dialect continuum. This shift is traditionally seen to distinguish the High German/Standard German varieties (Hochdeutsch) from the other West Germanic languages. The impact of the High German consonant shift increases gradually to the South. The Benrath line does not mark the northernmost effect of the High German consonant shift, since the Uerdingen line, the ik-ich isogloss, lies slightly further north; and some of the peripheral changes associated with the shift did affect Low German. Read about High German hereandhere.
in standard german the digraph ch is used to transcribe both the the ich-laut (unvoiced palatal fricative /ç/) and the ach-laut (unvoiced velar fricative /x/). its very easy to tell how its pronounced by looking at the vowel which precedes it
light (front) vowels e - short like e in pet* i - short like i in sit^ ä - like ai in air^ ö - like i in bird* ü - like ee in sheep but with lips in a little o shape ei/ai - a followed by i eu/äu - o followed by i ie - like ee in sheep ur - u followed by i
dark (back) vowels a - like a in bath* o - like o in pot* u - like oo in book* au - a followed by u
*australian english ^british english
ich-laut ch is pronounced /ç/ when preceded by a light vowel g is pronounced /ç/ when preceded by a single i at the end of a syllable 1. put your tongue in the position for /j/. the tip should be touching the inside of the bottom teeth and the sides should be gently touching the roof of your mouth. 2. breath out gently. the airflow should be about the same as if you were pronouncing /f/ (its the same sound as the h in english huge)
ach-laut ch is pronounced /x/ when preceded by a dark vowel 1. put your tongue in the position for /k/. the tip should be touching the inside of the bottom teeth and the back should be close to or gently touching the roof of your mouth 2. breath out gently. the airflow should be about the same as if you were pronouncing /h/ but held for a little longer (its the same sound as the ch in scottish loch)
I want to discuss something not often talked about today. Often times we forget that English Bulldogs and Pugs are not the only breeds being bred into unhealthy standards.
At present German Shepards are not bred to function as working dogs but to win in the show ring regardless of whether it improves the dog’s original purpose or not.Breeding a dog solely for its flying trot has left the American German Shepherd (GSD) wobbly and easily taken off balance. This breed features an attractive fault which pleases the ‘fancy’ but is, in fact, a detriment to its original function. The main point of concern is agility and balance in the structure of these dogs. Out of the herding group the GSD stands apart with an exaggerated top line and extremely long stride.
There should be balanced angulation for dogs designed to be endurance trotters such as the GSD. That means the angle at the point of shoulder should be nearly equal to the angle at the stifle and the angle at the elbow should be nearly equal to that of the hock joint. One definition of “Balanced Angulation” is whatever angulation is needed for the function of the breed during locomotion.
The rear legs don’t give support to the back part of the dog. The rear hip joint has to support this part of the body. This leaves the joint more open to injury with any quick change in direction. The GSD now only achieves real balance when in forward motion.
Even the American White Shepherd Association has a breed standard that emphasizes the working ability and discourages the extreme angulation seen in many colored American GSDs today. “This is a herding dog that must have the agility, freedom of movement and endurance to do the work required of it. When gaiting, the dog should move smoothly with all parts working in harmony. Overall balance, strength and firmness of movement is to be given more emphasis than a side gait showing a flying trot.”
his has been the direction most American Breeders have sadly been going in for much too long now. Some in the study of dog structure and the GSD have raised comment on the apparent concept in the American fancy of “the more angulation, the better.”
As Curtis Brown points out in Dog Locomotion and Gait Analysis “We now have German Shepherds with angulation which can never be used; in the walk they are disgraceful and in the trot, the hock joint never straightens (sickle-hocked).”
listen…listen i know i got a lotta shit to do but……..ive just watched a short bit of (ethnic) Michael Fassbender speaking German (freely) bc i wanted to hear how he, half german half irish, speaks german these days (Assassins creed) bc in my studies i learned that southern parts of Ireland (and michael fassbender grew up in the south west of ireland) just have “clear/light l” and the German language (standard) also just has “clear l” ….anyway….i lost….myself here….. what i wanted to say was that idk i didnt really listen 2 closely ….. i cant really distinguish between “dark l” and “clear l” to be perfectly honest….maybe i could if id invest more time listening to the ethnic man speak but….anyway….. i also watched a Michael Fassbender and James McAvoy (who is Glaswegian) interview and james should have just “dark l” in his speech bc hes a Scot but i didnt watch enough to really compare bc im a lazy shit and unconcentrated and lose interest very quickly and i still find it hard to differentiate between “dark l” and “clear l” when they just speak u know what i mean and im a German from not a weird place like parts of Bavaria who does some sort of “dark l” or “l vocalization”
1. German Shepherd 2. German Dachshund (80% are wirehaired standards) 3. German Wirehair Pointer 4. Labrador Retriever 5. Golden Retriever 6. German Mastiff (aka Great Dane) 7. Boxer 8. Poodle 9. Rottweiler 10. English Cocker Spaniel 11. Giant Schnauzer 12. Bernese Mountain Dog 13. German Shorthair Pointer 14. German Hovawart 15. Collie (Scottish Sheepdog) 16. Miniature Schnauzer 17. Kleiner Münsterländer (medium sized hunting dog similar to the Brittany) 18. West Highland White Terrier 19. Airedale Terrier 20. German Hunting Terrier (only sold to hunters, they don’t make good pets)
I did a “character sheet” of my dirt son, aka aph Rhineland! For anyone unfamiliar with that region, it’s a region in the west of Germany along the river Rhine and is mostly known for its heavy industry. Given that the German siblings all made way for Germany eventually, Ulrich/Rhineland wouldn’t still be alive in modern times. The information given here mostly applies to him during the 1800s.
Elaboration on the personality traits listed under the cut!
Swiss Standard German sometimes uses the suffix -ieren instead of -en, for example grillieren instead of grillen and parkieren instead of parken; still, the suffix is also used in Standard German as well (studieren, funktionieren, einbalsamieren etc.)
'Rumor' has it: German shepherd wins Best in Show at Westminster Dog Show
Rumor has it a German shepherd won Best in Show at the 141st Westminster Dog Show — and that’s exactly who did.
Rumor (official name “Lockenhaus’ Rumor Has It V Kenlyn”) on Tuesday became only the second German shepherd to win the award in the history of the Westminster Dog Show. The first was “Covy Tucker Hill’s Manhattan” in the 1987 competition.
Thomas H. Bradley III, who judged this year’s Best in Show competition at New York’s Madison Square Garden, detailed what made Rumor stand out from her competition — and what pushed her over the top after making the final.