so there are a lot of you on here from different states and countries, and i’m genuinely curious to know who is from where. bold which applies to you and reblog. it’s super simple and takes little time to do. you never know who could be your neighbor.
Alabama | Alaska | Arizona | Arkansas | California | Colorado | Connecticut | Delaware | Florida | Georgia | Hawaii | Idaho | Illinois | Indiana | Iowa | Kansas | Kentucky | Louisiana | Maine | Maryland | Massachusetts | Michigan | Minnesota | Mississippi | Missouri | Montana | Nebraska | Nevada | New Hampshire | New | Jersey | New Mexico | New York | North Carolina | North Dakota | Ohio | Oklahoma | Oregon | Pennsylvania | Rhode Island | South Carolina | South | Dakota | Tennessee | Texas | Utah | Vermont | Virginia | Washington | West Virginia | Wisconsin | Wyoming | Austria | Italy | Belgium | Latvia | Bulgaria | Lithuania | Croatia | Luxembourg | Cyprus | Malta | Czech Republic | Netherlands | Denmark | Poland | Estonia | Portugal | Finland | Romania | France | Slovakia | Germany | Slovenia | Greece | Spain | Hungary | Sweden | Ireland | United Kingdom | Andorra | Armenia | Azerbaijan | Belarus | Georgia | Iceland | Liechtenstein | Moldova | Monaco | Norway | Russia | San Marino | Switzerland | Argentina| Bolivia | Brazil | Chile | Colombia | Ecuador | French Guiana | Guyana | Paraguay | Peru | Suriname | Uruguay | Venezuela | Belize | Costa Rica | El Salvador | Guatemala | Honduras | Mexico | Nicaragua | Panama | Antigua & Barbuda | Aruba | Bahamas | Barbados | Cayman Islands | Cuba | Dominica | Dominican Republic | Grenada | Guadeloupe | Haiti | Jamaica | Martinique | Puerto Rico | Saint Barthélemy | St. Kitts & Nevis | St. Lucia | St. Vincent and the Grenadines | Trinidad & Tobago | Turks & Caicos Islands | Virgin Islands | Afghanistan | Armenia | Azerbaijan | Bahrain | Bangladesh | Bhutan | Brunei | Cambodia | China | Cyprus | India | Indonesia | Iran | Iraq | Israel | Japan | Jordan | Kazakhstan | Kuwait | Kyrgyzstan | Laos | Lebanon | Malaysia | Maldives | Mongolia | Myanmar (Burma) | Nepal | North Korea | Oman | Pakistan | Palestine | Philippines | Qatar | Saudi Arabia | Singapore | South Korea | Sri Lanka | Syria | Taiwan | Tajikistan | Thailand | Timor-Leste | Turkey | Turkmenistan | United Arab Emirates (UAE) | Uzbekistan | Vietnam | Yemen | Algeria | Angola | Benin | Botswana | Burkina Faso | Burundi | Cabo Verde | Cameroon | Central African Republic (CAR) | Chad | Comoros | Democratic | Republic of the Congo | Republic of the Congo | Cote d'Ivoire | Djibouti | Egypt | Equatorial Guinea | Eritrea | Ethiopia | Gabon | Gambia | Ghana | Guinea | Guinea-Bissau | Kenya | Lesotho | Liberia | Libya | Madagascar | Malawi | Mali | Mauritania | Mauritius | Morocco | Mozambique | Namibia | Niger | Nigeria | Rwanda | Sao Tome and Principe | Senegal | Seychelles | Sierra Leone | Somalia | South Africa | South Sudan | Sudan | Swaziland | Tanzania | Togo | Tunisia | Uganda | Zambia | Zimbabwe | Alberta | British Columbia | Manitoba | New Brunswick | Newfoundland and Labrador | Northwest Territories | Nova Scotia | Nunavut | Ontario | Prince Edward Island | Quebec | Saskatchewan | Yukon
A most violent & destructive Hurricane happened the 31st August in the West Indies. Antigua, St. Kitts, Nevis, Tortola, Montserrat (English), St. Thomas’s & St. Croix (Danish), St. Eustatia (Dutch Islands have suffered beyond the effects of any former Tempest & some of the French at St. Domingo. This will produce new Bankruptcies in England. Very large Sums have been lent upon Mort[g]ages of Estates in those Islands & a vast Amount is due to England in the common course of commerce much of which will now be for ever lost.
Henry Laurens to John Laurens, in a letter dated December 15, 1772
The hurricane mentioned here is the one that ultimately prompted Alexander Hamilton’s voyage to the American colonies.
canda nited states of america meico guatemala elize el salvador honduras costa rica nicargaau panama cuba jamaica dominia republic haiti dominica babadog grnada st kitts and nevis st vincent and the grenadines st lcia antigua and barnuda trinidad and tobago colon vebbesyala guyana suriname brazil ecuador peru bolivia uruguay paraguay chile argentina iceland norway sweden finland denark unite dingdom ireland nethlnad s belgium luxembourg france monaco andorra spain portugal germany wterland liechtenstein astria italy san marino vatican city malta poland ceschk republis slovakia ungary romania bulgaria slovenia croatia bosnia and herxrgoina serbia montenegro (osovo) macedoia albaia reece turkey cyprus estonia latvia lithuania belarus ukraine moldova russia kazakhstan armenia georgia azerbaiana uzebekistan turkmenistan tajikistan yrgrgystaztan afhgnastan iran ira kueait bahran awata united arab eirated saui arabia jordan syria lebanon israel palestine egypt libya tuniaia algeria mrocco (western sahara) mauritania lamli senegal gambia cape vese guina-bissau guina sierra leone lieria cote d;ivroie ghana benin tog burkina faso mali niger chad nigeria central afican republic sudan suth sudan eritrea dbirti ethiopias somala gabo equatorial guinea sao tome and pricnipe republic of the congo democrati epulic of the congo rwanda brudngi uganda kenyatanzania xambia ximbbwe angola namibia botswana malaei mozambique south africa swaziland lesotho mauritius madagascar seycheles comoros maldivs sri lanka idia pakistan balngladesh china neal bhutan mongolia north korea south korea japan (taiwan) myanmar caboia lsos thailand vietnam malaysia singapore brunei indonesia east timor pilippines papa neu guinea australia new ealand cook islands niue palau nauru tona samoa solomon ilands federated states if micronesia fiji marshall islands venuatu tuvalu kiribati
Reflections and highlights:
unite dingdom - yes, I do want to unite all of Dingdom
ethiopias - sounds like a canon url from 2014 from the Ethiopia fandom
TWO MALIS except one of them is lamli
Kenya and Tanzania have now merged to form kenyatanzania. They are too strong. All of Africa is now under their control. You’re next.
federated states if micronesia - but what if not Micronesia?
and best of all:
yrgrgystaztan. Pronounce it out loud and try not to laugh. I dare you.
“Any answer to this question basically resolves to:
Did the British-administered Leeward Islands have a distinct accent?
Did Hamilton possess this accent by the time he moved to the mainland colonies?
Would this accent have meaningfully distinguished him from other English speakers in colonial America?
As far as I can tell, there is no extant account of anything unusual regarding Hamilton’s own speech. I checked three separate biographies and found no mention of an unusual accent. The best I can find is an angry “satirical” essay about Hamilton that highlights his alien status but only tangentially refers to a dialect or accent difference.
It is also important to keep in mind that American (or “pre”-American) people did not have a cohesive accent either, given the geographical diversity of immigrants. The divergence of speech into what we think of as “British” accent (which is, of course, really a massively subdivided array of possible accents; someone from London speaks differently than someone from Cumbria) and “American” accent (same deal–does someone from Mississippi sound the same as someone from Wisconsin?) does happen gradually after the Revolution, but the popular notion that 1770s-era colonial America was full of people speaking in received pronunciation is an imaginary construction by more recent popular media.
In most urban centers (and most places the so-called “founding fathers” liked to hang out), English was a mutually intelligible language, regardless of accent. But you’ve also got to consider that Martin Van Buren–who was elected president and was born in America–grew up speaking Dutch as a first language and went through his entire public life with a firmly Dutch accent.
So, to your question:
Since Hamilton came from Nevis, one of the British-administered Leeward Islands (he moved between a number of these during his early life), but moved to St. Croix, which was controlled by the Danish, at 13, his accent formation was probably influenced by his time in both Nevi and St. Croix. We know that accent formation is still particularly malleable into one’s early twenties, but that accent formation comes primarily from peers rather than parents (so Hamilton’s mother, who was French and English, would not have factored particularly heavily into the development of Hamilton’s own accent).
The best source I can find that discusses English-Caribbean accent among the Leeward Island colonies is in “Euro-Caribbean English varieties,” Jeffrey Williams’ chapter in The Lesser Known Varieties of English: An Introduction, eds. Schreier et al. We read here that “different European ethnic groups settled in different areas of the islands [and] formed their own villages, with each developing its own distinctive accent” (140). Williams also offers a table that identifies the primary ethnic groups that settled in St. Kitts (which contains, as a subcategory, the island of Nevis), as Irish, Scottish, and English, noting the existence of both a local non-creolized dialect, a local creole, and the use of the “standard” English language on the island. (139-140). The primary thing we get out of Williams is the notion that accents are specific to the combination of influences on a given island and that they are all distinct from each other–so Hamilton’s first 13 years in Nevis would have given him a “distinct” accent.
When Hamilton moved to St. Croix, he found an island where, in the words of Hamilton biographer Ron Chernow, “as a rule, the merchants of St. Croix were natives of the British Isles, so that English, not Danish, functioned as the island’s lingua franca.” Hamilton was multilingual (we know he spoke English and French fluently at this point), but his work in a trading company likely put him into contact most regularly with English speakers, many of them from them from London or other large British urban centers.
By the time Hamilton comes to the mainland American colony in 1772, his accent is probably “set.” For the most part, this subject does not generally come up in writing or secondhand accounts (at least as revealed through a few biographies I searched).
One interesting incident comes from Chernow’s biography–he mentions that George Clinton, governor of New York and future Vice President, got into a substantial argument with Alexander Hamilton. At one point, Clinton, in response to a “declaration of war” offered by Hamilton, responded with a pseudonymous series of essays and newspaper articles which featured a caricature of Hamilton–literally named “Tom Shit,” who was a “mustee” (an old derogatory term for a white person with mixed-race ancestry) and produced “Creolian” writing. Tom Shit is also portrayed as a “subject of his Danish Majesty.” So there’s a number of political attacks going on here, but the “Creolian” writing one seems somewhat appropriate for this discussion. Whether Clinton’s responding to an actual tendency in Hamilton’s writing toward unfamiliar English construction as a result of his Caribbean upbringing or whether he’s just trying to slander Hamilton in any way possible is unclear, and Chernow doesn’t offfer much elucidation on this specific point.
By the way, I’d give page numbers for Chernow’s biography, but the electronic copy I’m looking at doesn’t have them and I have no idea why. The book itself is just called Alexander Hamilton.
“Creole” does occasionally reappear as a charge against Hamilton, but it largely seems to be a racial concern rather than a linguistic one. More often, it’s group in with charges alluding to his illegitimacy–basically your run of the mill Revolutionary Era ad hominem attack.
Hamilton’s accent was likely informed by his childhood in both Nevis and St. Croix and would have been “distinct” because of this, along with the relatively advanced age of his migration to the mainland colony.
Hamilton’s accent would not have been particularly out-of-place given the wide array of English accent spoken in colonial America, even among the “founding fathers.”
Evidence of Hamilton’s linguistic difference largely seems to boil down to racialized attacks in service of some larger political agenda, rather than objective commentary on the way he speaks.”
Recap Day Four (St. Kitts and Nevis) - Caribbean Tour 2016
November 23: Prince Harry received an official welcome to St. Kitts and Nevis while inspecting the Guard. Between engagements, Harry made an impromptu visit to Half Way Tree Primary School to greet children who had missed their chance to see him due to the heavy rains. At his next stop, Harry attended a youth rally at Brimstone Hill Fortress where he watched traditional dances, heard Caribbean songs, and listened to local poetry recitals, all led by the inspiring young people of the country. He also unveiled the St Kitts and Nevis dedication to The Queens Commonwealth Canopy Project during which he made a speech emphasizing the importance of the island’s youth. Next, Harry traveled to Charlestown Pier where he was greeted by crowds of local residents who had the opportunity to meet him on a short walkabout. At the local turtle conservation initiative on Lovers Beach which is dedicated to developing a Sea Turtle Conservation Programme, Harry was able to inspect turtle nests and release baby sea turtles into the water. That evening, Harry held an investiture and later attended a reception hosted by the Governor General at Government House where he was able to meet young leaders and people from St Kitts and Nevis.
Bridgetown, St. Kitts, Martinique, Nevis… their magistrates hanged men for piracy. They all receive visits from me. The word went forth… any capital sentence served against a pirate would hear my answer.