“Opening night of the Ringling Brothers circus at Madison Square Garden, on March 30, was a benefit for the Arthritis and Rheumatism Foundation. Among all the stars who turned out none was more visible or roaringly approved by the eighteen thousand spectators than Marilyn[…], she made a grand entrance in a tight, sexy outfit of feathers and spangles, riding atop an elephant painted shocking pink (x). "It meant a lot to me because I’d never been to a circus as a kid,” she told the nation a week later.“ - Donald Spoto

Kennedy, John Fitzgerald (1917 - 1963)

So much has been said about relations between Mr. President and Marilyn that the truth is well and truly buried beneath layers of speculation and supposition. The consensus view is that they had a weekend together in March 1962, though some people, such as Marilyn’s friend and movie stand-in Evelyn Moriarty, say they never saw any evidence of a relationship with either of the Kennedy brothers. 

According to Fred Lawrence Guiles, Marilyn’s affair with JFK continued through the last year of her life, especially when she went on trips to New York. Then again, there are those who discount anything more than a one night stand. Donald Spoto writes “no serious biographer can identify Monroe and Kennedy as partners in a love affair. All that can be known for certain is that on four occasions between October 1961 and August 1962, the president and the actress met, and that during one of those meetings they telephoned one of Marilyn’s friends from a bedroom soon after, Marilyn confided this one sexual encounter to her closest confidants, making clear that it was the extent of their involvement.”

The first of the four occasions documented by Spoto was in October 1961, when Marilyn and fellow leading ladies were invited to Peter Lawford’s beach house to attend a dinner in honor of Patricia Lawford’s brother, President Kennedy. The second was in early 1962, a dinner party for the president in New York. Encounter number three took place on March 24, 1962. This was at Bing Crosby’s home in Palm Springs. This was where they shared a bedroom and Marilyn made a call to Ralph Roberts, who later said, “Marilyn told me that this night in March was the only time of her ‘affair’ with JFK. Of course she was titillated beyond belief, because for a year he had been trying, through Lawford, to have an evening with her. A great many people thought, after that weekend, that there was more to it. But Marilyn gave me the impression that it was not a major event for either of them: it happened once, that weekend, and that was that.”

Two more of Marilyn’s close friends agree. It is Susan Strasberg’s opinion that, “Not in her worst nightmare would Marilyn have wanted to be with JFK on any permanent basis. It was OK for one night to sleep with a charismatic president - and she loved the secrecy and drama of it. But he certainly wasn’t the kind of man she wanted for life, and she was very clear to us about this.” Sidney Skolsky has said, “For Marilyn, what counted was the idea of ‘the little orphan waif indulging in free love with the leader of the free world.’”

It was during the Palm Springs weekend that Marilyn agreed to attend the Democratic Gala planned for May 1962 at Madison Square Garden, and promised to personally lead the “Happy Birthday” chorus. She did not know that fulfilling this promise would be seized on by Twentieth Century-Fox as an excuse to close down production of Something’s Got To Give, the film she was working on at the time. This was the last documented occasion Marilyn and JFK met. Marilyn gave her inimitable breathy rendition of “Happy Birthday” before 17,000 Democrats and a huge assortment of stars who had gathered to fund JFK’s successful presidential campaign. Marilyn also paid the $1,000 admission price. Hosting the evening’s entertainment - which included Ella Fitzgerald, Peggy Lee, Henry Fonda, Maria Callas, and Harry Belafonte - was entertainer Jack Benny. Late as usual, and rather drunk, Marilyn was ushered on stage by Peter Lawford, who announced her as “the late Marilyn Monroe.” In a dress that veteran diplomat Adlai Stevenson described as “skin and beads - only I didn’t see the beads,” Marilyn sang the first verse of “Happy Birthday” and then waved her arms to encourage the audience to sing along for a reprise as a six-foot cake with forty-five oversized candles was carried on stage by two chefs. Marilyn then sang (to the tune of “Thanks for the Memory”):

Thanks, Mr. President
For everything you’ve done,
The battles that you’ve won - 
The way you deal with U.S. Steel
And our problems by the ton,
We thank you - so much.

At the end of the event, Kennedy thanked the evening’s performers: “I can now retire from politics after having had ‘Happy Birthday’ sung to me in such a sweet, wholesome way.”

According to biographer Donald Wolfe, a week after the birthday event Marilyn was informed by Lawford that JFK no longer wanted to have anything to do with her. Wolfe is one of many to assert that this was the end of an affair that had been going on for eight years or more. Marilyn and JFK are said to have met as early as 1951, though 1954 is more commonly cited, at a party thrown by Charles Feldman, Marilyn’s agent at the time. Reportedly during a period of hospitalization in October 1954, Kennedy hung a poster of Marilyn wearing blue shorts, upside down opposite his bed - a story very similar to an apocryphal tale about Howard Hughes. Under this scenario Marilyn was sneaking off to motels in Malibu with Kennedy during the last couple of months of her marriage to Joe DiMaggio. Allegedly throughout the course of Marilyn’s marriage to Arthur Miller, she continued to meet the future president for rendezvous at his habitual New York hotel, the Carlyle, or at Lawford’s Santa Monica beach home.

Marilyn was reputedly flown from New York to Los Angeles by Kennedy to provide him with a celebratory romantic interlude after his triumphant 1960 Democratic Convention. After delivering his “New Frontier” acceptance speech, he met up with Marilyn, who had been brought to the celebration party by Sammy Davis Jr. Part of the evening’s entertainment for the future president, reportedly, was when he put his hand up Marilyn’s dress under the table - and found out that she did not wear anything underneath. Later that night they went skinny dipping in the ocean. There have been allegations too that Kennedy asked Lawford to accompany Marilyn to the East Coast on Air Force One, and that once Jackie Kennedy was enraged to find blonde hairs in the presidential bed.

Rumors about a romance between JFK and Marilyn began to surface in the press during 1960. Late that year, influential columnist Art Buchwalf penned a piece entitled “Let’s Be Firm on Monroe Doctrine.” The article read: “Who will be the next ambassador to Monroe? This is one of the many problems which president-elect Kennedy will have to work on in January. Obviously you can’t leave Monroe adrift. There are too many greedy people eyeing her, and now that Ambassador Miller has left she could flounder around without any direction.”

Kennedy aide Pete Summers told biographer Anthony Summers (no relation) that Marilyn was a frequent visitor to the Lawford beach house during the presidential campaign: “They were very close friends. I would say she was a very special guest - the president was really very, very fond of Marilyn….I did feel that she was so impressed by Kennedy’s charm and charisma that she was almost starry-eyed….But she was totally able to hold her own conversationally; she was very bright.”

JFK’s name has been often mentioned in connection with the last weeks of Marilyn’s life too. Although nobody has yet leveled the accusation that they met up at this time, some biographers believe that Marilyn’s trip to the Cedars of Lebanon Hospital on July 20 (or the following weekend in some accounts) was to abort JFK’s love child.

The mot stalwart accusers of JFK claim that he was the man who decided that Marilyn had to be silenced. Stories have circulated that the president’s sexual escapades with Marilyn at Lawford’s home had been bugged - either by the FBI, Mafia boss Sam Giancana, or even Teamsters’ boss Jimmy Hoffa. Conspiracy theories of this type frame Lawford as the hit-man, in league with Dr. Ralph Greenson to prescribe Marilyn an unusually large quantity of Seconal and then force her to take an overdose.

- The Marilyn Encyclopedia by Adam Victor.
History of violence against LGBT people in the United States (Timeline is incomplete)


  • March 1970 – Howard Efland, a gay man who had checked into the Dover Hotel, under the pseudonym J. McCann, was beaten to death by officers of the Los Angeles Police Department.[7]
  • June 24, 1973 – An arsonist burned the Upstairs Lounge in New Orleans, a gay bar, killing 32 people.[8]
  • June 21, 1977 – Robert Hillsborough was stabbed to death in San Francisco by a man shouting “faggot”.[9]
  • July 5, 1978 – A gang of youths armed with baseball bats and tree branches assaulted several men in an area of Central Park in New York City known to be frequented by homosexuals. The victims were assaulted at random, but the assailants later confessed that they had deliberately set out to the park to attack homosexuals. One of those injured was former figure skater Dick Button, who was assaulted while watching a fireworks display in the park.[10][11]
  • November 27, 1978 – Openly gay San Francisco city supervisor Harvey Milk, along with Mayor George Moscone, was assassinated by political rival Dan White at San Francisco City Hall. Outrage over the assassinations and the short sentence given to White (seven years) prompted the White Night riots.[12]
  • January 1979 – Tennessee Williams was beaten by five teenage boys in Key West. He escaped serious injury. The episode was part of a spate of anti-gay violence inspired by an anti-gay newspaper ad run by a local Baptist minister.[13]
  • June 5, 1979 – Terry Knudsen was beaten to death by three men in Loring Park in Minneapolis, Minnesota.[14]
  • September 7, 1979 – Robert Allen Taylor was stabbed to death near Loring Park in Minneapolis. A local reporter interviewed the murderer from jail and was told, “I don’t like gays. Okay?”[14]
  • October 7, 1979 – 17-year-old Steven Charles of Newark was beaten to death in New York City by Robert DeLicio, Costabile “Gus” Farace, Farace’s cousin Mark Granato, and David Spoto. They also beat Charles’ friend, 16-year-old Thomas Moore of Brooklyn. Moore was critically injured but managed to get help at a nearby residence. Moore identified the four men via a lineup four days after the incident. Farace, the leader of the attack, pled guilty to first-degree manslaughter and was paroled after eight years, in 1988. He, himself was murdered on November 17, 1989.[15]
  • 1984 – Charlie Howard was drowned in Bangor, Maine for being “flamboyantly gay”.[16]
  • May 13, 1988 – Rebecca Wight was killed when she and her partner, Claudia Brenner, were shot by Stephen Roy Carr while hiking and camping along theAppalachian Trail. Carr later claimed that he became enraged by the couple’s lesbianism when he saw them having homosexual relations.[17]
  • May 15, 1988 - Tommy Lee Trimble and John Lloyd Griffin, two gay men, were harassed and later shot by Richard Lee Bednarski in Dallas, Texas. Bednarski is later convicted of the two murders but is sentenced to 30 years rather than life in prison. The judge who issued the sentence, Jack Hampton, said later that he did so because the victims were homosexuals who wouldn’t have been killed if they “hadn’t been cruising the streets” for men. Hampton’s comments cause controversy and he is later censured for his remarks. He loses a judicial re-election in 1992.[18][19]
  • 1990 – James Zappalorti, a gay Vietnam veteran, was stabbed to death.[20]
  • July 2, 1990 – Julio Rivera was murdered in New York City by two men who beat him with a hammer and stabbed him with a knife because he was gay.[21]
  • 1991 – Paul Broussard, a Houston-area banker, was murdered. He was attacked by 10 young men along with Clay Anderson and Richard Delaunay, who survived. All ten of the attackers were eventually convicted, with sentences ranging from a probation and fine for the respective hospitalization and funeral bills to the 45-year imprisonment of Jon Buice, who confessed to inflicting the fatal stab wound.[22]
  • October 27, 1992 – U.S. Navy Petty Officer Allen Schindler was murdered by a shipmate who stomped him to death in a public restroom in Japan.[23] Schindler had complained repeatedly about anti-gay harassment aboard ship.[23] The case became synonymous with the gays in the military debate that had been brewing in the United States culminating in the “Don’t ask, don’t tell” bill.[24]
  • 1993 – Brandon Teena, a trans man, was raped and later killed when his birth gender was revealed by police to male friends of his.[25] The events leading to Teena’s death were depicted in the movie Boys Don’t Cry.[26]
  • March 9, 1995 – Scott Amedure was murdered after revealing his attraction to his friend Jonathan Schmitz on a The Jenny Jones Show episode about secret crushes. Schmitz purchased a shotgun to kill Amedure and did so after Amedure implied he still was attracted to him; Schmitz then turned himself in to police.[27][28]
  • November 20, 1995 – Chanelle Pickett, 23, an African American trans woman, died at the home of William C. Palmer after a fight that ensued after Palmer discovered that she was transgender and he demanded she leave his home.
  • December 4, 1995 – Roxanne Ellis and Michelle Abdill, a lesbian couple in Medford, Oregon, were murdered by a man who said he had “no compassion” for bisexual or homosexual people.[29] Robert Acremant was convicted and sentenced to death by lethal injection.[30]
  • January 4, 1996 – Fred Mangione, a gay man, was murdered in Texas by two Neo-nazi brothers. His partner, Kenneth Stern was also attacked, but survived. One of the attackers, Ronald Henry Gauthier, later received at 10-year probation sentence.[31]
  • May 1996 - Julianne Williams, 24 and Lollie Winans, 26 were murdered at their campsite along the Appalachian Trail on Virginia’s Skyline Drive in Shenandoah National Park. They were bound and gaged and their throats were slit. To date, there has been no conviction in the murders.
  • August 1, 1996 – Nick Moraida, a 34-year-old Latino gay man, was murdered during a robbery. His murderer, Richard Cartwright, was sentenced to death penalty.
  • February 21, 1997 – The Otherside Lounge, a lesbian nightclub in Atlanta, was bombed by Eric Robert Rudolph, the “Olympic Park Bomber;” five bar patrons were injured. In a statement released after he was sentenced to five consecutive life terms for his several bombings, Rudolph called homosexuality an “aberrant lifestyle”.
  • October 7, 1998 – Matthew Shepard, a gay student, in Laramie, Wyoming was tortured, beaten severely, tied to a fence, and abandoned; he was found 18 hours after the attack and succumbed to his injuries less than a week later, on October 12. His attackers, Russell Arthur Henderson and Aaron James McKinney, are both serving two consecutive life sentences in prison.[32]
  • February 19, 1999 – Billy Jack Gaither, a 39-year-old gay man, was brutally beaten to death in Rockford, Alabama. His attackers, Steve Mullins and Charles Monroe Butler, were found guilty of murder and were both sentenced to life imprisonment without parole.[33]
  • July 1, 1999 – Gay couple Gary Matson and Winfield Mowder were murdered by white supremacist brothers Matthew and Tyler Williams in Redding, California. Tyler Williams was sentenced to a minimum of 33 years in prison, to be served after his completion of a 21-year sentence for firebombing synagogues and an abortion clinic.[34] Benjamin Williams claimed that by killing the couple he was “obeying the laws of the Creator”.[35] He committed suicide in 2003 while awaiting trial. Their former pastor described the brothers as “zealous in their faith” but “far from kooks”.[36]
  • July 6, 1999 – U.S. Army Pfc. Barry Winchell was murdered in Fort Campbell, Kentucky by fellow soldier Calvin Glover. Winchell was beaten to death with a baseball bat after rumors spread on base of his relationship with transgendered author Calpernia Addams. Glover was sentenced to life in prison.[37] The events that lead up to Winchell’s death are depicted in the movie Soldier’s Girl.
  • September 1999 – Steen Fenrich was murdered, apparently by his stepfather, John D. Fenrich, in Queens, New York. His dismembered remains were found in March 2001, with the phrase “gay nigger number one” scrawled on his skull along with his social security number. His stepfather fled from police while being interviewed, then committed suicide.[38]
  • October 15, 1999 – Sissy “Charles” Bolden was found shot to death in Savannah, Georgia. Police arrested Charles E. Wilkins, Jr., in July 2003; he admitted the killing, and was charged in two other homicides, according to the Savannah Police Department.

On April 29, 2009, The U.S. House of Representatives voted to extend federal law to classify as “hate crimes” attacks based on a victim’s sexual orientation or gender identity (as well as mental or physical disability).[39] The U.S Senate passed the bill on October 22, 2009.[40] The Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act was signed into law by President Barack Obama on October 28, 2009.[41]

  • July 3, 2000 – Arthur “J.R.” Warren was punched and kicked to death in Grant Town, West Virginia by two teenage boys who reportedly believed Warren had spread a rumor that he and one of the boys, David Allen Parker, had a sexual relationship. Warren’s killers ran over his body to disguise the murder as a hit-and-run. Parker pleaded guilty and was sentenced to “life in prison with mercy”, making him eligible for parole after 15 years.[42] His accomplice, Jared Wilson, was sentenced to 20 years.[43]
  • September 22, 2000 – Ronald Gay entered a gay bar in Roanoke, Virginia and opened fire on the patrons, killing Danny Overstreet, 43 years old, and severely injuring six others. Ronald said he was angry over what his name now meant, and deeply upset that three of his sons had changed their surname. He claimed that he had been told by God to find and kill lesbians and gay men, describing himself as a “Christian Soldier working for my Lord;” Gay testified in court that “he wished he could have killed more fags,” before several of the shooting victims as well as Danny Overstreet’s family and friends.[44]
  • June 16, 2001 – Fred Martinez, a transgender and two-spirit student was bludgeoned to death near Cortez, Colorado by 18-year-old Shaun Murphy, who reportedly bragged about attacking a “fag”.[45][46]
  • June 12, 2002 – Philip Walsted, a gay man, was fatally beaten with a baseball bat. According to prosecutors, the neo-Nazi views of Walsted’s assailant’s, David Higdon, led to what was originally a robbery escalating to murder. Higdon was sentenced to life in prison, plus an additional sentence for robbery.[47]
  • August 6, 2002 – Rodney Velasquez, a 26-year-old Latino gay man was found murdered in the bathtub of his Bronx apartment.[48]
  • October 3, 2002 – Gwen Araujo, a trans woman, was murdered by at least three men who were charged with committing a hate crime. Two were convicted of murder, the third manslaughter; however, the jury rejected the hate crime enhancement.
  • December 24, 2002 – Nizah Morris, a 47-year-old black trans woman, was possibly murdered in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.[49]
  • December 12, 2002 – Terrianne Summers, a 51-year-old trans woman and activist for transgender rights, was shot and killed in her front yard in Florida. No arrests were made and police did not investigate her murder as a hate crime.[50] Terriane’s high visibility as a trans woman due to her activist role has led her to be included in lists of anti LGBT hate crimes, although lack of police interest in her murder means the motives behind the killing may never be known.
  • May 11, 2003 – Sakia Gunn, a black 15-year-old lesbian, was murdered in Newark, New Jersey. While waiting for a bus, Gunn and her friends were propositioned by two men. When the girls rejected their advances, declaring themselves to be lesbians, the men attacked them. One of the men, Richard McCullough, fatally stabbed Gunn. In exchange for his pleading guilty to several lesser crimes including aggravated manslaughter, prosecutors dropped murder charges against McCullough, who was sentenced to 20 years.[51][52]
  • June 17, 2003 – Richie Phillips of Elizabethtown, Kentucky was killed by Joseph Cottrell. His body was later found in a suitcase in Rough River Lake. During his trial, two of Cottrell’s relatives testified that he lured Phillips to his death, and killed him because he was gay.[53] Cottrell was convicted of manslaughter and sentenced to 20 years in prison.[54]
  • July 23, 2003 – Nireah Johnson and Brandie Coleman were shot to death by Paul Moore, when Moore learned after a sexual encounter that Johnson wastransgender.[55] Moore then burned his victims’ bodies. He was convicted of murder and sentenced to 120 years in prison.[56]
  • July 31, 2003 – 37-year-old Glenn Kopitske was shot and stabbed in the back by 17-year-old Gary Hirte, a straight-A student, star athlete and Eagle Scout,[57] inWinnebago County, Wisconsin. Prosecutors contended that Hirte murdered Kopitske to see if he could get away with it.[58] Hirte pleaded insanity, claiming he killed Kopitske in a murderous rage after a consensual sexual encounter with the victim, because he felt a homosexual act was “worse than murder”. The ‘temporary insanity’ mitigation plea was not upheld, he was found guilty, and received a life sentence.
  • August 2003 – Emonie Spaulding, a black 25-year-old trans woman, was shot to death in Washington DC by Derrick Antwan Lewis after he discovered she was trans.[59]
  • July 22, 2004 – 18-year-old Scotty Joe Weaver of Bay Minette, Alabama, was murdered. His burned and partially decomposed body was discovered a few miles from the mobile home in which he lived. He was beaten, strangled and stabbed numerous times, partially decapitated, and his body was doused in gasoline and set on fire.
  • October 2, 2004 – Daniel Fetty, a gay man who was hearing-impaired and homeless was attacked by multiple assailants in Waverly, Ohio. Fetty was beaten, stomped, shoved nude into a garbage bin, impaled with a stick, and left for dead; he succumbed to his injuries the next day. Prosecuters alleged a hate crime. Three men received sentences ranging from seven years to life.[60]
  • January 28, 2005 – Ronnie Antonio Paris, a three-year-old boy living in Tampa, Florida, died due to brain injuries inflicted by his father, Ronnie Paris, Jr. According to his mother and other relatives, Ronnie Paris, Jr., repeatedly slammed his son into walls, slapped the child’s head, and “boxed” him because he was concerned the child was gay and would grow up a sissy. Paris was sentenced to thirty years in prison.[61][62]
  • On February 27, 2005, in Santa Fe, New Mexico, 21-year-old James Maestas was assaulted outside a restaurant, then followed to a hotel and beaten unconscious by men who called him “faggot” during the attack. Although all of his attackers were charged with committing a hate crime, none was sentenced to prison.[citation needed]
  • March 11, 2005 – Jason Gage, an openly gay man, was murdered in his Waterloo, Iowa, apartment by an assailant, Joseph Lawrence, who claimed Gage had made sexual advance to him. Gage was bludgeoned to death with a bottle, and stabbed in the neck, probably post-mortem, with a shard of glass.[63] Lawrence was sentenced to fifty years in prison.
  • February 2, 2006 – 18-year-old Jacob D. Robida entered a bar in New Bedford, Massachusetts, confirmed that it was a gay bar, and then attacked patrons with a hatchet and a handgun, wounding three.[64] He fatally shot himself three days later.[65]
  • June 10, 2006 – Kevin Aviance, a female impressionist, musician, and fashion designer, was robbed and beaten in Manhattan by a group of men who yelled anti-gay slurs at him. Four assailants pleaded guilty and received prison sentences.[66]
  • July 30, 2006 – Six men were attacked with baseball bats and knives after leaving the San Diego Gay Pride festival. One victim was injured so severely that he had to undergo extensive facial reconstructive surgery. Three men pleaded guilty in connection with the attacks and received prison sentences. A 15-year-old juvenile also pleaded guilty.[67][68]
  • October 8, 2006 – Michael Sandy was attacked by four young heterosexual men who lured him into meeting after chatting online, while they were looking for gay men to rob. He was struck by a car while trying to escape his attackers, and died five days later without regaining consciousness.[69][70]
  • February 27, 2007 – Andrew Anthos, a 72-year-old disabled gay man, was beaten with a lead pipe in Detroit, Michigan by a man who was shouting anti-gay names at him. Anthos died 10 days later in the hospital.[71]
  • March 15, 2007 – Ryan Keith Skipper, a 25-year-old gay man was stabbed to death in Wahneta, Florida. Four suspects were arrested for the crime. The Sheriff is calling it a hate crime.[72]
  • March 16, 2007 – Ruby Ordeñana, a 24-year-old Latina transgender woman, was found naked and strangled to death in San Francisco, CA at 5:40 am.[73][74]Donzell Francis, who was suspected of raping and strangling Ordeñana, was convicted on December 23, 2009 and sentenced to 17 years and 18 months in prison for forcible oral copulation, robbery, assault causing great bodily injury, and false imprisonment of another transgender woman.[75]
  • May 12, 2007 – Roberto Duncanson was murdered in Brooklyn, New York. He was stabbed to death by Omar Willock, who claimed Duncanson had flirted with him.[76]
  • May 16, 2007 – Sean William Kennedy, 20, was walking to his car from Brew’s Bar in Greenville, SC when Stephen Andrew Moller, 18, got out of another car and approached Kennedy. Investigators said that Moller made a comment about Kennedy’s sexual orientation, and threw a fatal punch because he didn’t like the other man’s sexual preference.[77]
  • October 2007 – Steven Domer, a 62-year-old gay man, was murdered in Oklahoma.[78]
  • December 8, 2007 – 25-year-old gay man Nathaniel Salerno was attacked by four men on a Metro train in Washington, DC. The men called him “faggot” while they beat him.[79]
  • January 8, 2008 – Stacey Brown, a black 30-year-old trans woman, was found dead in her apartment. She had been shot in the head.[80]
  • July 1, 2008 – Ebony Whitaker, an African American trans woman, was shot and killed in Memphis.[81]
  • February 2008 – Duanna Johnson, a trans woman, was beaten by a police officer while she was held in the Shelby County Criminal Justice Center in Tennessee. Johnson said the officers reportedly called her a “faggot” and “he-she,” before and during the incident.[82] In November 2008, she was found dead in the street, reportedly gunned down by three unknown individuals.[83]
  • February 4, 2008 – Ashley Sweeney, a trans woman, was shot in the head. Her body was found in Detroit, Michigan.[84]
  • February 10, 2008 – Sanesha Stewart, a 25-year-old black trans woman was stabbed to death in Bronx, New York.[85]
  • February 12, 2008 – Lawrence “Larry” King, a 15-year-old junior highschool student was shot twice by a classmate at E.O. Green School in Oxnard, California. He was taken off life support after doctors declared him brain dead on February 15.[86] According to Associated Press reports, “prosecutors have charged a 14-year-old classmate with premeditated murder with hate-crime and firearm-use enhancements”.[87][88][89]
  • February 22, 2008 – Simmie Williams Jr. was a black gender-nonconforming 17-year-old, who was shot dead on a street corner in Broward County, Florida.[90]
  • March 16, 2008 – Police say Lance Neve was beaten unconscious in Rochester, New York because Neve was gay. A man attacked Neve at a bar leaving him with a fractured skull, and a broken nose. Jesse Parsons was sentenced to more than five years in prison for the assault.
  • May 29, 2008 – Eighteen-year-old Steven Parrish, a member of the 92 Family Swans subgroup of the Bloods, was murdered by Steven T. Hollis III and Juan L. Flythe on orders from gang leader Timothy Rawlings Jr., in Baltimore County, Maryland after they found “gay messages” on his cell phone. The felt having a gay member would make their gang appear weak. Hollis III pleaded guilty and was sentenced to life in prison; Flythe was given a life sentence with all but 30 years suspended; and Rawlings was sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole. A fourth man, Benedict Wureh, pleaded guilty to being an accessory after the fact and was sentenced to time served, about 17 months.[91]
  • June 9, 2008 – Jeremy Waggoner, an openly gay hairstylist from Royal Oak, Michigan, was brutally murdered in Detroit. His murder is still unsolved.[92]
  • July 17, 2008 – Eighteen-year-old Angie Zapata, a trans woman, was beaten to death in Colorado two days after meeting Allen Ray Andrade. The case was prosecuted as a hate crime, and Andrade was found guilty of first degree murder on April 22, 2009.[93]
  • August 20, 2008 – Nahkia Williams, a black trans woman, was shot to death in Louisville, Kentucky. Damon Malone was charged with her murder, robbery, and burglary, and sentenced to 35 years in prison.[94]
  • September 7, 2008 – Tony Randolph Hunter, 27, and his partner were attacked and beaten near a gay bar in Washington DC. Hunter later died from his injuries on September 18. Police are investigating it as a possible hate crime.[95]
  • September 13, 2008 – 26-year-old Nima Daivari was attacked in Denver, Colorado by a man who called him “faggot”. The police that arrived on the scene refused to make a report of the attack.[96]
  • September 21, 2008 – 22-year-old trans woman Ruby Molina’s nude body was found facedown on the bank of a river in isolated and undeveloped area in Sacramento, California.[97]
  • November 7, 2008 – The home of openly gay Melvin Whistlehunt in Newton, North Carolina was destroyed by arsonists. Investigators found homophobic graffiti spray-painted on the back of the house.[98]
  • November 14, 2008 – 22-year-old Lateisha Green, a trans woman, was shot and killed by Dwight DeLee in Syracuse, NY because he thought she was gay.[99]Local news media reported the incident with her legal name, Moses “Teish” Cannon.[100] DeLee was convicted of first-degree manslaughter as a hate crime on July 17, 2009, and received the maximum sentence of 25 years in state prison. This was only the second time in the nation’s history that a person was prosecuted for a hate crime against a transgender person and the first hate crime conviction in New York state.[101][102][103]
  • December 7, 2008 – Romel Sucuzhanya, a 31-year-old straight Ecuadorean and his brother Jose, were attacked on a Brooklyn, New York street for appearing to be gay and for being Latino; they were walking arm-in-arm, which is normal for brothers in their culture. Romel later died from his injuries.[104]
  • December 12, 2008 – A 28-year-old lesbian in Richmond, California was kidnapped and gang raped by four men who made homophobic remarks during the attack.[105]
  • December 26, 2008 – Taysia Elzy, a 34-year-old trans woman, was shot to death.[106]
  • December 27, 2008 – 24-year-old Nathan Runkle was brutally assaulted in Dayton, Ohio outside a gay nightclub.[107]
  • January 2009 – Caprice Curry, a trans woman, was murdered.[108]
  • February 15, 2009 – Efosa Agbontaen and Branden McGillvery-Dummett were attacked in New York City by four young men with glass bottles and box cutters who used anti-gay slurs during the attack. Agbontaen and McGillvery-Dummett both required emergency room treatment for their injuries.[109]
  • February 18, 2009 – Two men were arrested in Stroudsburg, PA for the stabbing death of gay veteran Michael Goucher.[110]
  • March 1, 2009 – Three men entered a bar in Galveston, Texas and attacked patrons with rocks. One of the victims, Marc Bosaw, was sent to the emergency room to have twelve staples in his head.
  • March 14, 2009 – A gay couple leaving a Britney Spears concert in Newark, New Jersey were attacked by 15 teens. Josh Kehoe and Bobby Daniel Caldwellwere called “faggots” and beaten. Caldwell suffered a broken jaw.[111]
  • March 23, 2009 – Two gay men were attacked in Seaside, Oregon and left lying unconscious on a local beach. The men regained consciousness and were treated at a nearby hospital.[112]
  • April 6, 2009 – Carl Joseph Walker-Hoover, an 11-year-old child in Springfield, Massachusetts, hanged himself with an extension cord after being bullied all school year by peers who said “he acted feminine” and was gay.[113]
  • April 11, 2009 – A gay man in Gloucester, Massachusetts was attacked and beaten by as many as six people outside a bar. Justin Goodwin, 36, of Salem suffered a shattered jaw, broken eye socket, broken nose and broken cheekbone.[114]
  • June 18, 2009 – Patti Hammond Shaw, an African-American trans woman, turned herself into a police station in Washington DC after receiving a letter saying there was a warrant for her arrest on charges of making a false police report. Despite producing documents supporting her right to be housed with other women, she was placed in a men’s facility. According to her suit, officers “groped her breasts, buttocks and between her legs repeatedly and excessively”. She is now suing Washington D.C. Metropolitan Police Department and the U.S. Marshals service for the treatment she received.[115]
  • June 30, 2009 – Seaman August Provost was found shot to death and his body burned at his guard post on Camp Pendleton. LGBT community leaders “citing military sources initially said that Provost’s death was a hate crime.”[116] Provost had been harassed because of his sexual orientation.[116] Military leaders have since explained that “whatever the investigation concludes, the military’s “Don’t ask, don’t tell” policy prevented Provost from seeking help.”[116] Family and friends believe he was murdered because he was openly gay (or bisexual according to some family and sources);[117][118][119][120][121] the killer committed suicide a week later after admitting the murder, the Navy have not concluded if this was a hate crime.[122]
  • October 25, 2009 – Dee Green, a trans woman, was found by police unconscious, stabbed in the heart, and bleeding on a street in Baltimore, Maryland. She was taken to a hospital where she died half an hour later. Larry Douglas was charged with first-degree murder in April 2010.[123]
  • November 2009 – Jason Mattison Jr., an openly gay 15-year-old boy, was violently murdered and raped at his aunt’s house by 35-year-old Dante Parrish, a family friend who had been in prison for murder previously.[124]
  • December 9, 2009 – Mariah Malina Qualls’ body was found in a San Francisco hotel.[125] She was a 23-year-old transgender woman who volunteered and was a member of the Asian & Pacific Islander Wellness Center’s TRANS:THRIVE community.
  • January 18, 2010 – The half-naked corpse of Myra Chanel Ical, 51, a trans woman of color, was found in a vacant lot in Houston, Texas.[126]
  • March 30, 2010 – Amanda Gonzalez-Andujar, a 29-year-old Latina trans woman, was found dead in her Queens, New York apartment. The autopsy found that her attacker, Rasheen Everett, had strangled her then doused her body with bleach.[127]
  • April 3, 2010 – Toni Alston, a black 44-year-old transgender woman, was shot in the front door of her home in West Charlotte, North Carolina.[128]
  • May 7, 2010 – Dana A. “Chanel” Larkin, a 26-year-old black trans woman who worked as a prostitute, was shot three times in the head by her client, Andrew Olacirequi, after she asked him if he was okay with them having sex despite her male genitalia. She was found dead on the pavement of a Milwaukee street.[129]
  • June 21, 2010 – Sandy Woulard, a 28-year-old trans woman, was shot in the chest in South Side, Chicago. A passing motorist found her lying in the street, and she was pronounced dead at the hospital.[130]
  • October 3, 2010 – A 30-year-old male known as “la Reina” (the Queen), Bryan Almonte, 17, and Brian Cepeda, 17, were kidnapped by a homophobic group of youths calling themselves the Latin King Goonies, sodomized by foreign objects including a plunger and baseball bat, burned with cigarettes, and tortured for hours. One of the teenage victims had wanted to join the gang the attackers were part of, but when members saw him with the 30-year-old, they later picked him up and took him to an abandoned apartment and asked him if the two had had sex. When the teenager responded positively, he was beaten and sodomized. The gang later picked up the second teenager whom they had also seen with the 30-year-old and repeated the process. They then lured the 30-year-old to the building with the promise of a party. When he arrived with alcohol, the gang tied him up and tortured him and made the 17-year-old burn him with cigarettes. They then robbed the man’s 40-year-old brother, coercing him by putting a cellphone to his ear so he could hear his brother beg to pay them.[131][132][133]
  • September 11, 2010 – Victoria Carmen White, a 28-year-old black transgender woman, died of bullet wounds in her New Jersey apartment. It is believed she was targeted by her killer, Alrashim Chambers, for her gender identity.[134]
  • October 14, 2010 – Stacey Blahnik Lee, a 31-year-old black trans woman, was found murdered in her Philadelphia home by her boyfriend.[135]
  • November 17, 2010 – 18-year-old Joshua Wilkerson was found dead in a field in Pearland, Texas, after being beaten to death and set on fire by a friend of 5 years, Hermilio Moralez. This was supposedly a retaliation to unwanted sexual advances.[136]
  • January 11, 2011 – Chrissie Bates, a 45-year-old transgender woman, was stabbed to death in her downtown Minneapolis apartment. Arnold Darwin Waukazo was sentenced to 367 months in prison for the murder.[137]
  • February 19, 2011 – Tyra Trent, a black 25-year-old trans woman, was found strangled to death in a vacant house.[138]
  • April 4, 2011 – Quinn Matney suffered 3rd and 4th degree burns to his wrist after being branded by an unidentified man for being gay. The attack happened while he was taking a night time stroll on his university campus in North Carolina.[139]
  • April 2011 – Kevin Pennington, a gay 28-year-old male, was kidnapped and severely beaten in a Kentucky park by two men shouting anti gay epithets. David Jason Jenkins and Anthony Ray Jenkins face possible life sentences for anti gay hate crime.[140] On March 15, 2012, the Kentucky State Police assisted the FBI in arresting David Jenkins, Anthony Jenkins, Mable Jenkins, and Alexis Jenkins of Partridge, KY for the beating of Kevin Pennington during a late-night attack in April 2011 at Kingdom Come State Park,[141][142] near Cumberland. The push came from the gay-rights group Kentucky Equality Federation, whose president, Jordan Palmer, began lobbying the U.S. Attorney for the Eastern District of Kentucky in August 2011[143] to prosecute after stating he had no confidence in the Harlan County Commonwealth’s Attorney to act.[144] "I think the case’s notoriety may have derived in large part from the Kentucky Equality Federation efforts,“ said Harvey, the U.S. Attorney for the Eastern District of Kentucky.[145] Mable Jenkins, and Alexis Jenkins plead guilty.[145]
  • April 22, 2011 – Chrissy Lee Polis,[146] a 22-year-old trans woman, was beaten in a violent struggle by two African-American women for entering the women’s bathroom in Baltimore County, Maryland, which triggered her to have a seizure. A McDonald’s employee, who was later fired, filmed the encounter and released the film on the internet; it since went viral. Teonna Monae Brown, 19, pleaded guilty to first-degree assault and a hate crime in the beating, and was sentenced to 5 years in prison, plus three years of supervised probation. The other woman was charged as a juvenile and committed to a juvenile detention facility.[147] See: 2011 Rosedale, Maryland beating
  • June 2011 – Rosita Hernandez, a Cuban trans woman, was stabbed to death in Miami.[148]
  • June 5, 2011 – CeCe McDonald, a young African American trans woman, was attacked outside a tavern shortly after midnight in Minneapolis, Minnesota.[149]CeCe fatally stabbed her attacker with a pair of scissors.[150] She was subsequently convicted of manslaughter and jailed for 19 months in a men’s prison.[151]
  • July 20, 2011 – Lashai Mclean, a 23-year-old African American trans woman, was shot to death in Northeast Washington DC.[152]
  • August 11, 2011 – Camila Guzman, a Latina transgender woman, was found murdered in her apartment in East Harlem, Manhattan.[153]
  • September 8, 2011 – Cameron Nelson, a 32-year-old gay man, was attacked at his place of employment in Utah.[154]
  • October 11, 2011 – Shelley Hilliard, a black transgender teen who had been reported missing, had her burnt torso identified by police in Detroit.[155] Her killer, 30-year-old Qasim Raqib, was sentenced on March 6, 2012 to 25–40 years in jail.[156]
  • November 15, 2011 – Danny Vega, a 58-year-old Asian-American gay man who worked as a hairdresser in Rainier Valley, Seattle was beaten and robbed as he was taking a walk. The beating left Vega in a coma from which he later died.[157]
  • November 17, 2011 – Cassidy Nathan Vickers, a 32-year-old black transgender woman, died from a fatal gunshot wound to the chest in Hollywood. Her killer, who is still unidentified, is suspected of also attempting to rob and non-fatally shoot another black transgender woman on the same day.[158]
  • December 17, 2011 – Charlie Hernandez, a 26-year-old who was openly gay, was stabbed to death following a brawl that included anti-gay slurs that occurred with two men after he accidentally stepped on some sunglasses.[159]
  • December 24, 2011 – Dee Dee Pearson, a 31-year-old transgender woman, died from bullet wounds in Kansas City, Missouri. Kenyan L. Jones was charged with second-degree murder and armed criminal action. Jones told police he paid to have sexual relations with Ms Pearson, believing her to be a cisgender woman, but hours after having sex with her, discovered she was not.[160] Angered by what he considered to be a deception, he got a 9mm-caliber handgun, found Ms Pearson, and killed her.[161] Kenyan L. Jones was arrested on suspicion of her murder.[162]
  • December 29, 2011 – The body of Githe Goines, a black 23-year-old trans woman[163] who had been reported missing 2 weeks beforehand, was found in a scrapheap. An autopsy set that the time of her death as much as 2 days before her body was discovered, and that she had been strangled.[164]
  • January 21, 2012 – Crain Conaway, a black 47-year-old trans woman, was found dead in her home in Oceanside, California.[165] Tyree Paschall Monday was arrested in connection with her murder.[166]
  • February 2, 2012 – JaParker "Deoni” Jones, a 23-year-old black trans woman, was stabbed in the head while waiting at a Metro bus stop in Washington DC.[167]
  • February 2012 – Cody Rogers, an 18-year-old teenager, was brutally assaulted and targeted with homophobic slurs at a party after defending a female friend who was also attacked.[168]
  • March 24, 2012 – Several transgender and crossdressing people were shot at and robbed in Florida by a man, suspected to be De Los Santos. 23-year-old Tyrell Jackson was fatally wounded in the shooting, which also injured 20-year-old Michael Hunter.[169]
  • April 3, 2012 – Coko Williams, a black trans woman, was found murdered in East Detroit, Michigan. The homicide may have been related to Coko’s involvement in sex work.[170]
  • April 16, 2012 – Paige Clay, 23, a black trans woman, was found dead, with a bullet wound to her face in West Garfield Park, Chicago. The death was ruled as a homicide.[171]
  • April 21, 2012 – Eric Unger, a 23-year-old gay man living in Illinois, was attacked by a group of men on the way home from a party, while they shouted anti-gay epithets at him. The investigation is ongoing.[172]
  • April 29, 2012 – Brandy Martell, a 37-year-old trans woman of color, was murdered in Oakland, California.[173]
  • May 2012 – Max Pelofske, a 21-year-old gay man, was beaten by a group of youths at a party in Minnesota. Pelofske claims it was a hate crime, but police disagree.[174]
  • June 5, 2012 – Kardin Ulysse, a black 14-year-old boy, was attacked in the cafeteria of Roy Mann Junior High School by another group of boys. He was called anti-gay slurs and sustained damage to the cornea of one of his eyes, leaving him blinded. Ulysse’s parents planned on suing the city for failing to supervise its students properly.[175]
  • June 23, 2012 – Mollie Olgin, 19 years old, and her girlfriend, Kristene Chapa, 18 years old, were found shot in the head near Violet Andrews Park in Portland, Texas. Olgin died at the scene and Chapa survived. Law enforcement has said there is no evidence to suggest that the incident is a hate crime.[176] The Human Rights Campaign and Equality Texas urged a thorough investigation by the U.S. Department of Justice, the FBI and Portland police to find the shooter.[177]
  • July 5, 2012 – Tracy Johnson, a 40-year-old black trans woman, was found dead from gunshot wounds in Baltimore, Maryland.[178]
  • August 14, 2012 – Tiffany Gooden, a 19-year-old black trans woman, was found murdered on the second floor of an abandoned building in Chicago. An autopsy verified that she had been stabbed to death. Notably, the body of Paige Clay, another young black trans woman, was discovered in April 3 blocks away from where Tiffany was found. The pair were known as friends.[179]
  • August 18, 2012 – Kendall Hampton, a 26-year-old black trans woman, died of gunshot wounds. Eugene Carlos Dukes was arrested in early September for her murder, and indicted later that month.[180]
  • August 26, 2012 – Deja Jones, a 33-year-old black trans woman, was shot to death in Miami. No arrest has yet been made.[181]
  • September 3, 2012 – The body of Kyra Cordova, a 27-year-old trans woman, was found in a wooded area in Frankford, Philadelphia.[182]
  • November 15, 2012 – Janette Tovar, a 43-year-old trans woman was murdered by her partner, Jonathan Kenney, according to police, who beat her and slammed her head into concrete. He was later arrested for her murder.[183]
  • March 1, 2013 – Sondra Scarber addressed a parent about her girlfriend’s son being bullied at Seabourn Elementary School in Mesquite, Texas, and was beaten by him when he realized that she was a lesbian.[184]
  • May 17, 2013 – Mark Carson, a 32-year old black gay man,[185] was shot to death by another man who trailed and taunted him and a friend as they walked down the street in Greenwich Village, New York. When the two friends ignored the assailant’s questions, the man began yelling anti-gay slurs and asked one of them, “You want to die tonight?” Elliot Morales, 33, was arrested briefly after the shooting and charged with murder and weapons charges on May 19.[186] According to police, Morales said he shot Carson because he was “acting tough”.[187] Morales pleaded not guilty on June 19, 2013.[188]
  • November 4, 2013 - Sasha Fleischman, an 18-year-old who identifies as agender (neither male nor female), had their skirt set on fire while they were sleeping on an AC Transit bus in Oakland, California. Police arrested 16-year-old Richard Thomas and charged him as an adult with aggravated mayhem, assault by means likely to produce great bodily injury, and hate-crime enhancements. Thomas admitted to police that he had started the fire and that he did it because he was “homophobic.”[189]


Marilyn: “When you’re on a film you’ve got to look good in the morning so you’ve got to get some sleep. That’s why I take pills.”

John Huston: “The girl was an addict of sleeping tablets and she was made so by the goddamn doctors.”

Arthur Miller: “Doctors had gone along with her demands for new and stronger sleeping pills even though they knew perfectly well how dangerous this was…there were always new doctors willing to help her into oblivion.”

According to Donald Spoto, Marilyn began to be addicted to sleeping pills in early 1954, after she took some to combat jetlag-induced sleeplessness. However, the evidence is that by the time she had already been using pills for as many as eight years - Marilyn told Amy Greene that she had been taking pills since the age of seventeen or eighteen. Certainly by 1950, on the threshold of her big break, Marilyn resorted to drugs to combat the overwhelming anxiety she suffered before screen tests. Since 1950 Marilyn had had a ready source of pills from her friend, confidant, and sometime mouthpiece, columnist Sidney Skolsky, who worked out of Schwab’s drugstore and could be relied on to provide sleeping pills and the like. Joe DiMaggio reputedly referred to Sidney and Marilyn as “pill-pals.”

The use of barbiturates, amphetamines, and narcotics was common in Hollywood. It was an exciting and dangerous thing to do, and there was far less awareness of the harmful long-term effects of substance abuse. Drugs ultimately claimed the careers and lived of many famous stars, from Errol Flynn to Judy Garland and Montgomery Clift.

Marilyn used barbiturates, hypnotics, and anti-anxiety drugs. Apart from one documented occasion in 1962, when she met Dr. Timothy Leary, she did not take pills for recreation or thrill-seeking, but as a way of combating her crippling inability to sleep, to calm her frayed nerves, or to tackle the debilitating fear and anxieties which assailed her. Susan Strasberg writes, “People mixed champagne and pills all the time, to increase the effectiveness of the pills. As for Marilyn, she had the burdens of her fear, her timidity, her insecurity and her unusually agonizing monthly periods that rendered her literally incapable of moving.” Once the addictive spiral began, she began to take yet more pills to counteract the effects of other drugs she had taken.

Marilyn was visibly affected by the after-effects of sleeping pills in 1954, when she regularly turned up late and groggy to work on There’s No Business Like Show Business - this was a time of high emotional tension as her recent marriage to Joe DiMaggio was running anything but smoothly.

After escaping the immediate danger of Hollywood and moving to New York in late 1954, Marilyn embarked on a year of self-discovery and acting experimentation, but she still needed sedatives and barbiturates to sleep. She continued to wash down the barbiturates with champagne, hoping that this would give her the chance of a good night’s rest. Eight years later, on the set of Something’s Got To Give, Marilyn was still fraught enough to swallow valium pills with champagne.

Despite warnings about the dangers of her drug abuse, Marilyn seemed unable to cut down her intake except for short periods - there was always some new crisis or her perennial insomnia to bring her back. Gynecologist Leon Krohn warned Marilyn that if she wanted to have children, she should do something about her intake of drink and drugs. After her second miscarriage, Marilyn was consumed with fear that she had brought this on by her intake of Amytal, a barbiturate (medical name amobarbital). By the late fifties, Marilyn was trapped in a dangerous spiral of having to take drugs to sleep, different drugs in the morning to battle through the grogginess, and then take more pills during the day to control her anxiety. Typically, Marilyn scheduled no appointments before midday; the hangover from Nembutal took all morning to clear. 

Marilyn’s dependence on barbiturates and sleeping pills increased even further during tumultuous shooting on The Misfits in 1960. Her Los Angeles doctors sent out stringer drugs, 300 milligram doses of Nembutal (sodium pentobarbital), three times the standard dosage for treating insomnia, and so strong that just seven of these pills would have been enough to kill a person without her tolerance. When she felt that these weren’t enough, she persuaded doctors to inject Amytal directly, in quantities not far off the administered for general anesthetics. In the mornings Marilyn was so groggy that makeup man Allan “Whitey” Snyder had to start making her up while she lay in bed. Rumors circulated that Marilyn had to be walked around her bedroom for hours to get her sufficiently clear-headed, and some biographers write that the only way to get her to actually wake up was to put her in the shower. 

In the last years of her life, Marilyn increasingly switched to chloral hydrate, more commonly known as “Mickey Finn” knockout drops. These were prescribed to her by psychoanalyst Ralph Greenson in an attempt to reduce her dependency on the barbiturates she habitually took. Greenson apparently also prescribed Dexamyl, a potent combination of Dexedrine (a now banned stimulant) and amobarbital, a barbiturate. He remarked in correspondence that her dependence was such that she resembled an addict, yet “did not seem to be the usual addict.” There were times, though, when her behavior was very much that of the addict, seeking new ways to administer the drugs she craved, including injection. Reputedly in the last month of her life, Marilyn’s regular doctor, Dr. Hyman Engelberg, attended Marilyn almost daily to give her so-called “youth shots,” which altered her mood and gave her redoubled energy. 

On August 3, 1962, just two days before her death, Marilyn had two prescriptions for Nembutal, her regular barbiturate sleeping pills, filled at her local pharmacy, from two different doctors (Dr. Engelberg and Dr. Seigel) at the San Vicente pharmacy on 12025 San Vicente Boulevard. 

On her last day alive, Marilyn probably took pills of phenobarbital and chloral hydrate. By mid-afternoon that day, she was seen on the beach walking with a little difficulty, and her speech was slurred. The autopsy showed levels 10 times the normal dose of the first drug and 20 times the normal dose of the second drug: blood levels of 4.5 mg Nembutal and 8 mg of chloral hydrate, and a much higher concentration of 13 mg of Nembutal in Marilyn’s liver. Disparities in these figures have been used to support allegations of foul play in Marilyn’s death and speculation that the lethal dose of drugs was administered either by injection or by enema. Controversy has even surrounded the exact list of drugs that Marilyn had in her bedroom at the time, with some commentators suggesting that only half of the pill bottles found on the bedside table were ever listed by the coroner on his toxicology report (Librium, Nembutal, chloral hydrate, Phenergan, and others without labels).

- The Marilyn Encyclopedia by Adam Victor.

Happy 85th Birthday, Grace Kelly!

Early in the morning of Tuesday, November 12, 1929, John B. Kelly escorted his wife, Margaret Majer Kelly, to Hahnemann, where, after an unexceptional labor, she bore her third child and second daughter. On December 1, the Kellys took the baby to St. Bridget’s Roman Catholic Church, a three-minute, half-mile drive from their home in the upscale neighborhood of Philadelphia known as East Falls. The infant was baptized Grace Patricia, in memory of an aunt who had died young, but also (so Grace Kelly believed) ‘because I was Tuesday’s child’ - who, according to Mother Goose, was 'full of Grace.’

- High Society: The Life of Grace Kelly by Donald Spoto

Jackie [Kennedy] conformed to no set standard; indeed, she broke the public mold of what had come to characterize the ideally desirable American woman. The buxom blonde had been America’s fantasy in the 1940s and 1950s, but here was a tall, almost flat-chested brunette whose features were slightly out of proportion. She rode horses; she discussed classical history, music and French novels.
—  from Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy Onassis by Donald Spoto

Character Traits

Marilyn’s single-mindedness in pursuit of a screen career extended to every part of her activities - the people she met and cultivated, the books she read, her physical exercise, the people she slept with - in a constant process of seeking approval, and attention. She could never be satisfied, not even when she achieved what, since a child, she had set as a goal.

Not surprisingly, throughout her life Marilyn suffered from a terrible inferiority complex. More than one biographer notes that from her earliest days, Marilyn’s sense of self worth was undermined by her mother, for whom a fatherless child was a major complication, if not to say an outright source of shame. Marilyn was always extremely conscious of her lack of formal education. She always sought out the educated and intellectual, as if contact with them could fill her with at least some of the knowledge she felt she lacked. Her feelings of intellectual inadequacy were compounded in her starlet years, as she consorted with much older and more worldly-wise men who carelessly belittled anything she said. And yet so many people who met Marilyn had their preconceptions overturned. Photographer Elliott Erwitt, for example, was surprised by how she “had always thought that all those amusing remarks she was supposed to have made for the press had probably been manufactured and mimeographed by her press agent, but they weren’t. She was a very bright person, an instinctive type.”

Marilyn almost always felt uneasy with journalists in “live” situations, despite her skill at using certain columnists to express her opinions. The counterpoint to this personal timidity was a streak of exhibitionism that enabled her to parade in front of photographers and fans in dresses which were scandalously revealing for the day. Impersonal public exhibitionism before a crowd was one thing; relating to individuals, or even having to give an impromptu interview, was quite another, as she greatly feared appearing dumb or lacking in social skills.

Marilyn’s lack of self-confidence in her acting, which continued even after masterful performances in her later work, was the result of years of important Hollywood people writing off her talents, and possibly the promptings of people in her entourage whose interests lay in Marilyn requiring their services and succor for as long as possible.

Marilyn’s compassion for others, her sense of feeling sorry for people who seemed shy, defenseless, in need of support and love, may well have included her husbands. After divorcing Joe DiMaggio, Marilyn told a friend that she married him “because I felt sorry for him,” because “he seemed so lonely and shy.” Marilyn’s empathy with animals and her generosity are well-known.

Although many friends have testified to Marilyn’s generosity and graciousness to friends, and biographers note that Marilyn never gave voice to ill-feeling against people she felt had slighted her in the press, she was quite capable of being manipulative. On several occasions during her life she resorted to fabrications in order to elicit sympathy (to John Carroll and Lucille Ryman, who took her in, that there had been an intruder in her bedroom; to Fred Karger that she was living in a seedy run-down apartment when in fact she was at the Hollywood Studio Club), and so she would, effectively, find people and families to foster her, at least for a short while, until the deception ran hollow. Not surprisingly, after her falsifications were discovered she had a hard time making people believer her.

And when angry, Marilyn sometimes flew into a rage which Arthur Miller described as “slashing, out to destroy.”

The Marilyn the world adored was a character she turned on and off at will. Many times with friends she announced she was going to “do a Marilyn.” Susan Strasberg describes an occasion when the two of them were walking up to her New York hotel and Marilyn said, “Do you want to see me be her?” and turned the character on. Eli Wallach had a similar experience walking along with Marilyn in New York. 

Marilyn occasionally spoke of her self in the third person, sometimes with bitterness. She did this in one of her last interviews (with journalist Vernon Scott), but she was already doing this in the mid-fifties, commenting on the kind of things Marilyn would and wouldn’t do, how she would look and move.

And yet a host pf people - friends and journalists as well as star-struck fans - found that when they were in Marilyn’s presence, some of her vitality, her wit, and her talent for having a good time rubbed off on them. 

On the intensity and sincerity of her emotions, Gloria Steinem writes, “Even when she tried to pretend an emotion - for instance, to be confident or gay when she did not feel it - some underlying honesty still gave her away.” This honesty extended to declining countless proposals of marriage, which would have made her financially secure during her penniless starlet days, because she would only marry for love. 

Biographer Donald Spoto writes, “The intensity of her desires clashed with her deepest emotional and spiritual needs. She was someone with a vivid inner life whose desire for recognition caused an outer-directed life: In this regard, Marilyn Monroe may indeed be the ultimate movie actress.”

Throughout her life Marilyn was intellectually curious, eager for knowledge and learning. In 1955 this curiosity took an inward turn as she left Hollywood for New York and experimented with acting technique at the Actor’s Lab. She began what would be seven years of intense psychotherapy, met new people, and tried to explore what lay behind the persona of Marilyn she had been supporting all those years.

- The Marilyn Encyclopedia by Adam Victor.

DiMaggio, Joe (1915 - 1999)

Part 4 of 4.

And yet after months of tension and the high drama of a very public divorce, Joe and Marilyn continued to spend time together. Joe not only visited her every single day in early November, during the five days she was in the hospital for an operation to remedy her chronic endometriosis, he practically camped out in the hospital building. The bottle of Chanel No. 5 he delivered to Marilyn as a gift set off rumors that they would be getting back together, until Marilyn told the press, “There’s no chance of that, but we’ll always be friends.” Confidant Rupert Allan back this up, giving the reasons too: “Marilyn told me that Joe had been a great friend to her after the divorce , but that while they were married he had beaten and abused her and believed her unfaithful.”       

Joe is reported to have spent a night with Marilyn at her New York hotel room over Christmas 1954, making him one of the very few people who knew that she had quite Hollywood. In the following months he continued to stay close to Marilyn wherever she was. He turned up at Marilyn and Milton Greene’s hotel in Boston, and then he whisked her off for five days at his brother’s home in Wellesley, Massachusetts. Marilyn regularly sought his advice as she put in practice what Joe had been telling her to do all along, namely renegotiate her contract with Fox. In June 1955, for the first time ever, Joe escorted Marilyn to the premiere of one of her movies, The Seven Year Itch - though the party he threw afterward at Toots Shor’s was an unmitigated failure, as Marilyn stormed out in a rage. However, with Marilyn’s increasing interest in next-husband-to-be Arthur Miller, press hopes of a fairy tale reconciliation waned. The divorce was finalized on October 31, 1955. Around this time Marilyn confessed to Amy Greene, “I never should have married him. I couldn’t be the Italian housewife he wanted me to be. I married him because I felt sorry for him, he seemed so lonely and shy.” And yet Marilyn also said, “I never love any guy more.”           

After their divorce Joe continued with his television commentary and then landed a job as a representative for a military supply company, V.H. Monette. He never remarried, though he apparently came close in 1957, to Marian McKnight, a woman who was later elected Miss America.         

Although it seems that they did not meet up for some years after this, Joe and Marilyn remained in touch and were in each other’s thought. Joe reputedly took Marilyn’s advice and went to see a psychotherapist which, he is said to have told her, “saved his life.”                

Then, when Marilyn most needed him, Joe was there. In 1961 a highly distraught Marilyn called Joe from the psychiatric ward of the Payne Whitney Hospital in New York, where she had gone after her psychoanalyst Marianne Kris recommended she needed a rest. Joe flew up immediately from Florida and demanded that Marilyn be released from the secure ward. Marilyn was driven back to her apartment by friend Ralph Roberts, where DiMaggio was waiting. Joe organized for Marilyn to recuperate in a far more conducive hospital environment, the Columbia University-Presbyterian Hospital Medical Center, where Marilyn remained from February 10 to March 5, 1961. Joe was with her every day. Soon after Marilyn left the hospital, he took her to the Yankees training camp, and then on to the Florida resort town of Redington Beach. Not only could Marilyn relax, she knew that she had somebody on her side, somebody she could count on.   

Joe was there after her divorce from Arthur Miller, helping Marilyn out and keeping her company. After Marilyn moved back to Los Angeles they spent Christmas and New Year’s 1961 together at her North Doheny Drive apartment. Almost in a repeat performance of Christmas 1953, Joe arrived bearing champagne and caviar, with a Christmas tree for good measure. When he wasn’t traveling abroad for work, Joe made a point of visiting Marilyn in Los Angeles. In early 1962 he helped her move into her new home at Fifth Helena Drive.                

They met at least once in June and twice in July 1962, either for an intimate supper at Marilyn’s new home, or to go shopping or cycling together. According to Donald Spoto, in late July they met secretly at the Cal-Neva Lodge in Lake Tahoe, where they hatched plans for a secret wedding. As evidence, Spoto cites Joe’s employer at the time, Valmore Morette, and Susan Strasberg, who told him, “She was getting out of relationships that were not good for her and back into one that was. She knew she needed some sort of emotional and spiritual anchor.” At this time Marilyn was also in the process of commissioning designer Jean-Louis to make her a gown, which Spoto says would have been for this wedding.                 

The day after Marilyn died, a note was found folded up in her address book, that she had starting writing to Joe. It read: “Dear Joe. If I can only succeed in making you happy, I will have succeeded in the biggest and most difficult thing there is - that is, to make one person completely happy. Your happiness means my happiness, and…” Whether or not a wedding was in their plans, Joe came to Marilyn’s assistance one final time. After her death he stepped in to organize Marilyn’s funeral, issuing invites, arranging the ceremony, and enlisting Marilyn’s half-sister Berneice Miracle to help. He spent the night before the funeral holding a private vigil over Marilyn’s body at the Westwood Village Mortuary.                

Following the funeral, Joe DiMaggio placed a twenty-year order with the local Parisian Florists for a long-stemmed red rose to be delivered to Marilyn’s grace twice a week (three time in some accounts). In doing this he fulfilled a promise he had made to Marilyn on their wedding day, when pledge that he would be as loyal to her as William Powell had been to Jean Harlow. After this order expired, Joe made a donation to a children’s charity in Marilyn’s memory, convinced that she would have been happier he remembered her in this way.   

DiMaggio always maintained a respectful silence about his time with Marilyn. He is the only major figure in Marilyn’s adult life not to have written a “Marilyn book,” though from time to time rumors circulated that he did write a book but placed a publication embargo on it for fifty years after his death.                  

Joe lived out his retirement with the same elegance and grace had brought to the world of baseball. Apart from advertising appearances as a spokesman for Mr. Coffee coffeemakers, he kept out of the public eye. DiMaggio died at his Florida home on March 8, 1999, five months after an operation for lung cancer. He was buried at the Holy Cross Cemetary.

- The Marilyn Encyclopedia by Adam Victor.

mynervescouldstandadrink-blog  asked:

Sorry it took me so long to reply Rafael! You can call me dre (my nickname) by the way ;)

The book does indeed bring something new for it focuses more on her career than on any other aspect of her life. If you haven't seen one of her movies, you will feel like you have after reading this book. Every stage performance and TV/movie role is accounted for. The author did his research and gives in depth descriptions of her theatre and movie productions, even going as far as giving his own movie reviews.

The book also gives a good look into her family life (the Kelly's not the Grimaldi's).The book doesn't start off by going into a detailed history of her parents and where their wealth comes from (most biographies I have read about her usually describe that part a little too thoroughly). The author quotes family members and honestly explains her relationship with her family (the Kelly's) better than any other biography I've read. The book also doesn't focus on her love life. Each affair (or alleged affair) is talked about but really the book is not at all gossipy.

Grace first met Mr. Spoto for a book he was writing about Alfred Hitchcock. After that she gave him permission to write a biography about her, if he promised to wait to publish it after she was long gone (25 years gone to be exact). He kept his word and so most of the quotes from Grace come from his personal interviews with her.

I think it is worth reading if you want to know more about her acting career and how Hollywood worked back in the 50's.
~ dre

Thanks so much, dre! I’ll remember your meticulous review. Have a good one, Rafael